Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Amiiformes > Amiidae > Amia > Amia calva

Amia calva (Bowfin; Western mudfish; Speckled cat; Scaled ling; Lawyer; Marshfish; John A. Grindle; Grindle; Grinnel; Freshwater dogfish; Cypress trout; Cottonfish; Bonnetmouth; Blackfish; Beaverfish)

Synonyms: Amia canina; Amia cinerea; Amia lentiginosa; Amia lintiginosa; Amia marmorata; Amia occidentalis; Amia ocellicauda; Amia ocellicaudata; Amia ornata; Amia piquotii; Amia reticulata; Amia subcaerulea; Amia subcoerulea; Amia thompsoni; Amia thompsonii; Amia viridis
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Wikipedia Abstract

Bowfin (Amia calva) are basal bony fishes related to gars in the infraclass Holostei. Common names include mudfish, mud pike, dogfish, griddle, grinnel, cypress trout and choupique. They are regarded as taxonomic relicts, being the sole surviving species of the order Amiiformes which dates from the Jurassic to the Eocene, persisting to the present. Although bowfin are highly evolved, they are often referred to as "primitive fishes" because they have retained some morphological characteristics of their early ancestors.
View Wikipedia Record: Amia calva


Adult Weight [3]  11.82 lbs (5.36 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  4 years 3 months
Male Maturity [3]  4 years
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Adult Length [2]  3.6 feet (109 cm)
Brood Dispersal [2]  In a nest
Brood Egg Substrate [2]  Polyphils
Brood Guarder [2]  Yes
Litter Size [2]  64,000
Maximum Longevity [2]  30 years
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Appalachian Piedmont United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Chesapeake Bay United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Laurentian Great Lakes Canada, United States Nearctic Large Lakes    
Northeast US & Southeast Canada Atlantic Drainages Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
St. Lawrence Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Teays - Old Ohio United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Congaree Swamp National Park II 6095 South Carolina, United States
Fathom Five National Marine Park II   Ontario, Canada
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Temperate Lakes LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Wisconsin, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Saint Croix International Historic Site   Maine, United States
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States

Prey / Diet

Ambloplites rupestris (Rock bass)[4]
Ameiurus natalis (Yellow bullhead)[4]
Cambarus bartonii (Appalachian brook crayfish)[4]
Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)[4]
Dorosoma cepedianum (American gizzard shad)[4]
Esox americanus (grass pickerel)[4]
Etheostoma exile (Weed darter)[4]
Lepomis gibbosus (kiver)[4]
Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill)[4]
Lepomis megalotis (Pumpkinseed)[4]
Micropterus dolomieu (Smallmouth bass)[4]
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)[4]
Notonecta glauca (Water boatman)[4]
Palaemonetes paludosus (riverine grass shrimp)[4]
Perca flavescens (Yellow perch)[4]
Umbra limi (Central mudminnow)[4]


Alligator mississippiensis (Alligator, Gator, American alligator, Florida alligator, Mississippi alligator, Louisiana alligator.)[4]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[4]
Mycteria americana (Wood Stork)[4]


Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus dirus[5]
Apophallus venustus[5]
Azygia acuminata[5]
Azygia angusticauda[5]
Azygia longa[5]
Camallanus oxycephalus <Unverified Name>[5]
Diplostomum spathaceum[5]
Haplobothrium globuliforme[5]
Haplonema immutatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Leptorhynchoides thecatus[5]
Leuceruthrus micropteri[5]
Macroderoides spiniferus <Unverified Name>[5]
Macroderoides trilobatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Macroderoides typicus <Unverified Name>[5]
Neoechinorhynchus cylindratus[5]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[5]
Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli[5]
Pomphorhynchus lucyi[5]
Proteocephalus ambloplitis <Unverified Name>[5]
Proteocephalus filicollis[5]
Proteocephalus perplexus <Unverified Name>[5]
Spinitectus carolini <Unverified Name>[5]
Thynnascaris brachyurum <Unverified Name>[5]
Triaenophorus nodulosus[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Audubon Zoo
Caldwell Zoo
Cameron Park Zoo
ECHO Lake Aquarium & Science Center
John G. Shedd Aquarium
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Minnesota Zoological Garden
Nat'l Mississippi River Museum & Aquar
National Aquarium in Baltimore Inc
Newport Aquarium
North Carolina Zoological Park
Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Park

Range Map

America, North - Inland waters; Canada; Colorado; Great Lakes; Lake Waccamaw; Mississippi; Missouri; Nearctic; North America: St. Lawrence River, Lake Champlain drainage of Quebec and Vermont west across southern Ontario to the Mississippi drainage in Minnesota.; Tennessee; USA (contiguous states);



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access