Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Gasterosteiformes > Gasterosteidae > Gasterosteus > Gasterosteus aculeatus
 

Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)

Wikipedia Abstract

The three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, is a fish native to most inland coastal waters north of 30°N. It has long been a subject of scientific study for many reasons. It shows great morphological variation throughout its range, ideal for questions about evolution and population genetics. Most populations are anadromous (they live in seawater but breed in freshwater or brackish water) and very tolerant of changes in salinity, a subject of interest to physiologists.
View Wikipedia Record: Gasterosteus aculeatus

Infraspecies

Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus (Three-spined stickleback)
Gasterosteus aculeatus santaeannae (Santa Ana stickleback)
Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni (Unarmored threespine stickleback)

Attributes

Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Adult Length [1]  4.3 inches (11 cm)
Brood Dispersal [1]  In a nest
Brood Egg Substrate [1]  Ariadnophils
Brood Guarder [1]  Yes
Diet [2]  Planktivore, Carnivore (Invertebrates)
Litter Size [1]  250
Maximum Longevity [1]  8 years
Migration [3]  Diadromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, DELTA LOUROU KAI ARACHTHOU (PETRA, MYTIKAS, EVRYTERI PERIOCHI) 71136 Greece  
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Atanasovsko ezero 17814 Bulgaria  
Auyuittuq National Park II 4808115 Nunavut, Canada
Bae Cemlyn/ Cemlyn Bay 107 Wales, United Kingdom  
Bassa Valnerina: Monte Fionchi - Cascata delle Marmore 14933 Italy  
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Benacre to Easton Bavents Lagoons 907 England, United Kingdom
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Black Wood of Rannoch 2720 Scotland, United Kingdom
Bliesaue zwischen Blieskastel und Bliesdalheim 492 Germany  
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Boschi del Ticino 50788 Italy  
Bosco della Mesola, Bosco Panfilia, Bosco di Santa Giustina, Valle Falce, La Goara 3862 Italy  
Burgasko ezero 7641 Bulgaria  
Campazzi di Onigo 526 Italy  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - ALYKI KITROUS 73260 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI - AXIOUPOLI 83216 Greece  
Endrick Water 591 Scotland, United Kingdom
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Foce dell'Isonzo - Isola della Cona 6593 Italy  
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
KATO ROUS KAI EKVOLES SPERCHEIOU POTAMOU 27106 Greece  
Kejimkujik Seaside Adjunct National Park II 4970 Nova Scotia, Canada
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kivach Zapovednik IV 26885 Karelia, Russia
KOILADA KAI EKVOLES SPERCHEIOU - MALIAKOS KOLPOS 117491 Greece  
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Laghi di Lesina e Varano 37550 Italy  
Lago di Montepulciano 1194 Italy  
Laguna di Marano e Grado 40434 Italy  
Le Vallette 32 Italy  
Loch Maree Complex 38882 Scotland, United Kingdom
Loch nam Madadh 5734 Scotland, United Kingdom
Mandra - Poda 15162 Bulgaria  
Monach Islands 9011 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mousa 1311 Scotland, United Kingdom
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Nipomo Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3725 California, United States
Oberlausitzer Heide - und Teichlandschaft Nature Reserve IV 32467 Germany  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Paludi presso il Golfo di Manfredonia 35675 Italy  
Parco Regionale Oglio Sud 9941 Italy  
Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve Nature Reserve IV 1352 Portugal  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pineta di Classe 2674 Italy  
POTAMOS KOMPSATOS (NEA KOITI) 1047 Greece  
Prai di Castello di Godego 3857 Italy  
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Doñana Biosphere Reserve II 123801 Spain
Rheinsberger Rhin und Hellberge 2123 Germany  
Rhoen Biosphere Reserve   Germany
River Dee 6046 Scotland, United Kingdom
River Derwent 1016 England, United Kingdom
River Spey 14158 Scotland, United Kingdom
River Tay 23469 Scotland, United Kingdom
River Tweed 9380 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
River Wye/ Afon Gwy 5523 England/Wales, United Kingdom  
Ronas Hill – North Roe 12110 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Ruegen   Germany        
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Schaalsee   Germany        
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Selva Pisana 23863 Italy  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
South Uist Machair 8482 Scotland, United Kingdom
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Stadthavel 639 Germany  
Stagni della Piana Fiorentina 3329 Italy  
STENA ALIAKMONA 8954 Greece  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
Vallée de la Haine en amont de Mons (La Louvière; Le Roeulx; Mons) 1134 Belgium  
Valle Cavanata e Banco Mula di Muggia 2125 Italy  
Valle del Mezzano, Valle Pega 46611 Italy  
Valle dell'Adige 35 Italy  
Valli di Comacchio 41464 Italy  
Vessertal-Thuringian Forest Biosphere Reserve 42250 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Zaliv Chengene skele 472 Bulgaria  

Ecosystems

Prey / Diet

Acanthocyclops gigas[4]
Acentria ephemerella[5]
Asplanchna priodonta[4]
Bosmina coregoni[4]
Bosmina longirostris[4]
Cyclops scutifer[4]
Daphnia galeata (waterflea)[4]
Eudiaptomus graciloides[4]
Heterocope appendiculata[4]
Holopedium gibberum[4]
Polyphemus pediculus[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)1
Carassius carassius (Crucian carp)2
Coregonus clupeaformis (Common whitefish)1
Coregonus hoyi (Bloater)1
Cottus cognatus (Anadyr sculpin)1
Hypomesus transpacificus (Delta smelt)1
Myoxocephalus quadricornis (Alaska fourhorn sculpin)1
Mysis relicta (opossum shrimp)1
Oncorhynchus mykiss (redband trout)1
Osmerus eperlanus (European smelt)1
Osmerus mordax (Rainbow smelt)1
Perca flavescens (Yellow perch)1
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)2
Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)9
Sander vitreus (Walleye)1

Predators

Aythya fuligula (Tufted Duck)[4]
Bucephala clangula (Common Goldeneye)[4]
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)[4]
Gavia arctica (Black-throated Loon)[4]
Gavia stellata (Red-throated Loon)[4]
Haliaeetus pelagicus (Steller's Sea-Eagle)[6]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[4]
Melanitta nigra (Black Scoter)[4]
Mergus serrator (Red-breasted Merganser)[4]
Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii (Cutthroat trout)[7]
Perca fluviatilis (River perch)[8]
Platalea leucorodia (Eurasian Spoonbill)[9]
Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)[10]
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)[11]
Ptychocheilus oregonensis (Seatrout)[12]
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)[13]
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)[4]
Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)[4]
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus anguillae[14]
Acanthocephalus clavula[14]
Acanthocephalus lucii[14]
Acanthostomum balthicum[14]
Acanthostomum imbutiformis <Unverified Name>[14]
Anguillicola crassus <Unverified Name>[14]
Anisakis simplex[14]
Apatemon gracilis[14]
Apophallus brevis[14]
Ascaris aculeati <Unverified Name>[14]
Ascaris gasterostei <Unverified Name>[14]
Ascarophis arctica <Unverified Name>[14]
Ascarophis morhua <Unverified Name>[14]
Bacciger grandispinatus[14]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[14]
Brachyphallus crenatus[14]
Bunodera eucaliae <Unverified Name>[14]
Bunodera luciopercae[14]
Bunodera mediovitellata <Unverified Name>[14]
Bunoderina eucaliae[14]
Camallanus lacustris[14]
Cardiocephalus longicollis[14]
Caryophyllaeus laticeps <Unverified Name>[14]
Contracaecum osculatum[14]
Corynosoma strumosum[14]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[14]
Cotylurus pileatus[14]
Crepidostomum cooperi[14]
Crepidostomum farionis[14]
Crepidostomum metoecus[14]
Cryptocotyle concava[14]
Cryptocotyle lingua[14]
Cyathocephalus truncatus <Unverified Name>[14]
Cystidicola farionis <Unverified Name>[14]
Derogenes varicus[14]
Desmidocercella numidica <Unverified Name>[14]
Desportesius brevicaudatus <Unverified Name>[14]
Diphyllobothrium dendriticum[14]
Diphyllobothrium ditremum[14]
Diphyllobothrium vogeli <Unverified Name>[14]
Diplostomum chromatophorum[14]
Diplostomum gasterostei[14]
Diplostomum paraspathaceum[14]
Diplostomum pungitii <Unverified Name>[14]
Diplostomum scudderi[14]
Diplostomum spathaceum[14]
Echinorhynchus bothniensis <Unverified Name>[14]
Echinorhynchus lateralis[14]
Echinorhynchus salmonis[14]
Echinorhynchus truttae[14]
Eubothrium crassum[14]
Eubothrium salvelini[14]
Gyrodactylus alexanderi[14]
Gyrodactylus arcuatus[14]
Gyrodactylus avalonia[14]
Gyrodactylus branchicus[14]
Gyrodactylus bychowskii <Unverified Name>[14]
Gyrodactylus bychowskyi[14]
Gyrodactylus canadensis[14]
Gyrodactylus elegans[14]
Gyrodactylus gasterostei <Unverified Name>[14]
Gyrodactylus pungitii[14]
Gyrodactylus rarus[14]
Hemiurus communis[14]
Hemiurus luehei[14]
Hepaticola petruschewskii[14]
Ichthyocotylurus pileatus[14]
Lecithaster confusus[14]
Lecithaster gibbosus[14]
Ligula intestinalis[14]
Magnibursatus caudofilamentosa[14]
Mesorchis metacercaria <Unverified Name>[14]
Metorchis bilis <Unverified Name>[14]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[14]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[14]
Paracuaria tridentata <Unverified Name>[14]
Parahemiurus merus[14]
Paratenuisentis ambiguus[14]
Philonema agubernaculum <Unverified Name>[14]
Phyllodistomum folium[14]
Phyllodistomum simile <Unverified Name>[14]
Podocotyle angulata[14]
Podocotyle atomon[14]
Podocotyle reflexa[14]
Podocotyle sinusacca[14]
Polymorphus phippsi[14]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[14]
Posthodiplostomum minimum[14]
Proteocephalus cernuae <Unverified Name>[14]
Proteocephalus filicollis[14]
Proteocephalus longicollis[14]
Proteocephalus macrocephalus[14]
Proteocephalus percae[14]
Proteocephalus pugetensis <Unverified Name>[14]
Pseudoechinorhynchus borealis <Unverified Name>[14]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[14]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[14]
Raphidascaris gracillima <Unverified Name>[14]
Schistocephalus pungitii <Unverified Name>[14]
Schistocephalus solidus[14]
Sterliadochona tenuissima <Unverified Name>[14]
Triaenophorus nodulosus[14]
Tylodelphys clavata[14]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Artis Zoo
London Aquarium
Oresundsakvariet (Oresund Aquarium)
Rotterdam Zoo
Universeum Science Centeraculeatus
Zoological Society of London

Range Map

Link to Map
America, North - Inland waters; California Current; Nearctic; Pacific, Eastern Central; USA (contiguous states);

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by , , in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Grenouillet, G. & Schmidt-Kloiber., A.; 2006; Fish Indicator Database. Euro-limpacs project, Workpackage 7 - Indicators of ecosystem health, Task 4, www.freshwaterecology.info, version 5.0 (accessed on July 3, 2012). 4Food web topology and parasites in the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake, Per-Arne Amundsen, Kevin D. Lafferty, Rune Knudsen, Raul Primicerio, Anders Klemetsen and Armand M. Kuris, Journal of Animal Ecology 2009, 78, 563–572 5The aquatic moth Acentria ephemerella as a key species in submerged aquatic vegetation - direct and trait-mediated interactions with predators and food plants, Oliver Miler, PhD thesis at the Limnological Institute / University of Konstanz, research group Limnology of Lakes, 2008 6Diet of the Steller’s Sea Eagle in the Northern Sea of Okhotsk, Irina UTEKHINA, Eugene POTAPOV & Michael J. MCGRADY, First Symposium on Steller’s and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia pp. 71-82, 2000 7Coastal Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) Diet In South Puget Sound, Washington 1999 – 2002, Joseph M. Jauquet, Masters Thesis, Evergreen State College, 2002 8Lappalainen, A., M. Rask, H. Koponen & S. Vesala, 2001. Relative abundance, diet and growth of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) at Tvärminne, northern Baltic Sea, in 1975 and 1997: responses to eutrophication? Boreal Env. Res. 6: 107–118 9ROLE OF THE THREE-SPINED STICKLEBACK GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS L. IN THE FOOD ECOLOGY OF THE SPOONBILL PLATALEA LEUCORODIA, JAN H. KEMPER, Behaviour 132 (15-16) (1995), p. 1285-1299 10Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 11PRELIMINARY REPORT FROM A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE DIET OF FOUR GADOID FISHES IN A FJORD OF WESTERN NORWAY, A.G. Vea Salvanes, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, C.M. 1986/G: 71, Demersal Fish Committee 12FOOD OF THE SQUAWFISH Ptychocheilus oregonensis (Richardson) OF THE LOWER COLUMBIA RIVER, RICHARD B. THOMPSON, FISHERY BULLETIN 158 (1959) 13Hansson, S., Karlsson, L., Ikonen, E., Christensen, O., Mitans, A., Uzars, D., Petersson, E. and Ragnarsson, B. (2001), "Stomach analyses of Baltic salmon from 1959–1962 and 1994–1997: possible relations between diet and yolk-sac-fry mortality (M74)". Journal of Fish Biology, 58: 1730–1745 14Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Range map provided by NatureServe. 2010. Digital Distribution Maps of the Freshwater Fishes in the Conterminous United States. Version 3.0. Arlington, VA. U.S.A.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011