Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Pleuronectidae > Pleuronectes > Pleuronectes platessa
 

Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice; Fluke; Hen fish; Plaice; Plaice-fluke)

Synonyms: Platessa latus; Platessa platessa; Platessa vulgaris; Pleuronectes borealis; Pleuronectes latus; Pleuronectes platessa baltica; Pleuronectes platessus
Language: Catalan; Croatian; Danish; Dutch; Estonian; Faroese; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Icelandic; Italian; Latvian; Lithuanian; Mandarin Chinese; Manx; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Russian; Serbian; Slovenian; Spanish; Swedish; Turkish

Wikipedia Abstract

The European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) is a commercially important flatfish.
View Wikipedia Record: Pleuronectes platessa

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  8.49 lbs (3.85 kg)
Female Maturity [3]  2 years 10 months
Male Maturity [1]  3 years
Brood Dispersal [2]  In the open
Brood Guarder [2]  No
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates)
Maximum Longevity [3]  50 years
Migration [2]  Intraoceanic

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Northern British Isles Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Norwegian Sea Drainages Norway, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Ascrib, Isay and Dunvegan 6388 Scotland, United Kingdom
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Chesil and the Fleet 4032 England, United Kingdom
Drigg Coast 3453 England, United Kingdom
Fal and Helford 15785 England, United Kingdom    
Firth of Lorn 51830 Scotland, United Kingdom
Flamborough Head 15597 England, United Kingdom  
Great Orme`s Head/ Pen y Gogarth 748 Wales, United Kingdom  
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Loch Creran 3030 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Loch Laxford 3018 Scotland, United Kingdom
Loch nam Madadh 5734 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lundy 7573 England, United Kingdom  
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Margate and Long Sands 160406 England, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Mousa 1311 Scotland, United Kingdom
North Bull Island Nature Reserve IV 3544 Ireland  
North Rona 1553 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Papa Stour 5132 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Plymouth Sound and Estuaries 15820 England, United Kingdom
Ruegen   Germany      
Sanday 27112 Scotland, United Kingdom    
SBZ 1 / ZPS 1 27164 Belgium  
SBZ 2 / ZPS 2 35751 Belgium  
SBZ 3 / ZPS 3 14038 Belgium    
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
St Kilda 62932 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Start Point to Plymouth Sound & Eddystone 84204 England, United Kingdom  
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  

Ecosystems

Prey / Diet

Abietinaria abietina (Sea fir)[4]
Abra alba (white furrow shell)[4]
Abra nitida[4]
Abra prismatica[4]
Acartia clausi[4]
Aequipecten opercularis (Scallop)[4]
Akera bullata[4]
Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Klammer Moostierchen)[4]
Ampelisca brevicornis[4]
Ampharete grubei[4]
Amphicteis gunneri[4]
Amphiura filiformis (brittlestar)[4]
Antedon bifida[4]
Aphrodita aculeata (Sea mouse)[4]
Aporrhais pespelecani (pelican's foot)[4]
Arctica islandica (Cyprine)[4]
Arenicola marina (arénicole)[5]
Asbjornsenia pygmaea[4]
Asterias amurensis (Flatbottom seastar)[4]
Asterias rubens (Starfish)[4]
Atylus falcatus[4]
Atylus swammerdami[4]
Bathyporeia pelagica[4]
Bathyporeia pilosa[6]
Blennius ocellaris (Butterfly blenny)[4]
Bodotria scorpioides[4]
Branchiostoma lanceolatum[4]
Buccinum undatum (common whelk)[4]
Callianassa subterranea (mud shrimp)[4]
Callionymus lyra (european dragonet)[4]
Calliopius laeviusculus (Planktonic amphipod)[4]
Cancer pagurus (Rock crab)[4]
Canuella perplexa[4]
Capitella capitata (Threadworm)[6]
Caprella monocera[4]
Carcinus maenas (green crab)[4]
Centropages typicus[4]
Cerastoderma edule (Common cockle)[5]
Cerianthus lloydii[4]
Chamelea gallina (Striped venus)[4]
Chlamys islandica (Iceland scallop)[4]
Chone infundibuliformis[4]
Cirratulus cirratus (bristleworm)[6]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[4]
Conilera cylindracea[4]
Corbula gibba (basket shell)[4]
Corophium volutator (mud shrimp)[4]
Corystes cassivelaunus (masked crab)[4]
Crangon allmanni[4]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[6]
Cucumaria frondosa (Orange-footed sea cucumber)[4]
Cyathura carinata (lijnpissebed)[4]
Cylichna cylindracea[4]
Diastylis rathkei[4]
Donax trifasciatus (Faroe sunset shell)[4]
Donax vittatus (banded wedge-shell)[4]
Dosinia exoleta (Mature dosinia)[4]
Echiichthys vipera (Lesser weever)[4]
Echinocardium cordatum (Heart urchin)[4]
Echinocyamus pusillus (green sea urchin)[4]
Echiurus echiurus (Echiurud worm)[4]
Edwardsia claparedi[4]
Ensis ensis (Pod razor)[4]
Ensis siliqua (Sword razor)[4]
Eteone longa (étéone)[6]
Euchone papillosa[4]
Eulalia viridis (groene bladkieuwworm)[4]
Eunereis longissima (zager)[4]
Eupleura caudata (thick-lip drill)[4]
Eurydice pulchra (gewone pissebed)[4]
Eurytemora affinis[4]
Eurytemora hirundoides[4]
Eurytemora velox[4]
Euspira catena (Chained moon-shell)[4]
Euspira nitida (common necklace shell)[4]
Fabricia stellaris[6]
Fabulina fabula[4]
Fenestraria rhopalophylla (babies toes)[4]
Galathea squamifera (Lobster)[4]
Gammarellus homari[4]
Gammarus locusta[4]
Gastrosaccus spinifer[4]
Glycera lapidum[4]
Glycera tridactyla[4]
Gnathia maxillaris[4]
Golfingia vulgaris[4]
Goneplax rhomboides (angular crab)[4]
Goniada maculata[4]
Gymnammodytes semisquamatus (smoothed sandeel)[4]
Halicryptus spinulosus[4]
Harmothoe impar[4]
Haustorius arenarius[4]
Hediste diversicolor (veelkleurige zeeduizendpoot)[4]
Hermania scabra[4]
Hiatella arctica (Arctic hiatella)[4]
Hippomedon denticulatus[4]
Hormathia digitata[4]
Idotea balthica (gewone zeepissebed)[4]
Idotea chelipes (brakwaterpissebed)[4]
Idotea emarginata[4]
Kurtiella bidentata[4]
Lacuna pallidula (pale lacuna)[4]
Laevicardium crassum (Norway cockle)[4]
Lagis koreni (Köcherwurm)[4]
Lanice conchilega (schelpkokerworm)[4]
Leptocythere pellucida[4]
Leptognathioides polita[4]
Lepton squamosum[4]
Leptosynapta inhaerens[4]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[4]
Limaria loscombi[4]
Limecola balthica (Baltic macoma)[5]
Lineus bilineatus[4]
Liocarcinus depurator (harbour crab)[4]
Liocarcinus holsatus (flying crab)[4]
Liocarcinus pusillus (dwarf swimming crab)[4]
Littorina littorea (Common periwinkle)[4]
Lutraria lutraria (otter shell)[4]
Macoma calcarea (chalky macoma)[4]
Macropodia rostrata (common spider crab)[4]
Mactra stultorum (rayed trough shell)[4]
Magelona papillicornis[4]
Maldane sarsi (bambooworm)[4]
Manayunkia aestuarina (Manjunkja)[4]
Marphysa bellii[4]
Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Norwegian krill)[4]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[4]
Melinna palmata[4]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[4]
Mesopodopsis slabberi[4]
Microdeutopus gryllotalpa[4]
Modiolus modiolus (Kurile horsemussel)[4]
Moerella donacina[4]
Molva molva (Ling)[4]
Musculus discors (discordant mussel)[4]
Musculus niger (black mussel)[4]
Mya arenaria (Clam)[4]
Mya truncata (truncate softshell)[4]
Mysis mixta[4]
Mytilus edulis (Blue mussel)[4]
Natatolana borealis[4]
Neomysis integer[4]
Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster)[4]
Nereis pelagica (gewone zeeduizendpoot)[4]
Notomastus latericeus[4]
Nucula nitidosa[4]
Nucula nucleus (common nut clam)[4]
Nuculana minuta (minute nutclam)[4]
Obelia longissima[4]
Oikopleura dioica[4]
Ophelia bicornis[4]
Ophelia limacina (ophélie)[4]
Ophelina acuminata[4]
Ophiocten affinis[4]
Ophiopholis aculeata (daisy brittle star)[4]
Ophiopsila annulosa[4]
Ophiothrix fragilis (common brittlestar)[4]
Ophiura albida (brittlestar)[4]
Ophiura ophiura (serpent star)[4]
Owenia fusiformis (Roofing worm)[4]
Pagurus bernhardus (Bernhard's hermit crab)[4]
Pandalina brevirostris[4]
Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp)[4]
Pandalus montagui (Aesop shrimp)[4]
Paracalanus parvus[4]
Pariambus typicus[4]
Paronychocamptus curticaudatus[4]
Parvicardium hauniense[4]
Parvicardium pinnulatum[4]
Pelonaia corrugata[4]
Peloscolex benedeni[4]
Peringia ulvae (Laver spire shell)[4]
Perioculodes longimanus[4]
Phaxas pellucidus (razor shell)[4]
Pherusa plumosa (Bart-Borstenwurm)[4]
Philine aperta (sand slug)[4]
Pholas dactylus (Common piddock)[4]
Photis longicaudata[4]
Phoxocephalus holbolli[4]
Phyllodoce mucosa[6]
Pinnotheres pisum (pea crab)[4]
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)[4]
Polititapes rhomboides (Banded carpet shell)[4]
Polydora ciliata (bristleworm)[4]
Polydora hoplura[4]
Polyphysia crassa[4]
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)[4]
Pontophilus norvegicus (Norwegian shrimp)[4]
Pontoporeia femorata[4]
Porcellana longicornis (long-clawed porcelain crab)[4]
Praunus flexuosus (chameleon shrimp)[4]
Priapulus caudatus (Priapulus)[4]
Processa canaliculata (processa shrimp)[4]
Pseudocalanus minutus[4]
Pseudocuma longicorne[4]
Pygospio elegans[6]
Pyrgiscus rufus[4]
Sabella pavonina (slijkkokerworm)[4]
Sabellaria spinulosa (Ross worm)[4]
Scalibregma inflatum (T-headed worm)[4]
Schistomysis ornata[4]
Schistomysis spiritus[4]
Scolelepis foliosa[4]
Scoloplos armiger (wapenworm)[6]
Scrobicularia plana (Peppery furrow)[4]
Semibalanus balanoides (Barnacle)[4]
Sigalion mathildae[4]
Solen capensis (pencil bait)[4]
Spatangus purpureus (violet heart-urchin)[4]
Spiochaetopterus typicus[4]
Spirobranchus triqueter (Dreikantröhrenwurm)[4]
Spisula solida (Solid surf clam)[4]
Spisula subtruncata (cut trough shell)[4]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[4]
Sthenelais boa (Burrowing boa scaleworm)[4]
Sthenelais limicola[4]
Tellimya ferruginosa[4]
Temora longicornis[4]
Terebellides pacifica[4]
Thelepus cincinnatus[4]
Thyasira gouldi (Northern hatchet-shell)[4]
Thysanoessa inermis[4]
Thysanoessa longicaudata[4]
Thysanoessa raschii (Arctic krill)[4]
Timoclea ovata (oval venus)[4]
Travisia forbesii[4]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[4]
Trisopterus minutus (poor cod)[4]
Turritella communis[4]
Upogebia deltaura[4]
Urothoe elegans[4]
Venerupis corrugata (Carpetshell)[4]
Yoldiella solidula[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)1
Bothus podas (Wide-eyed flounder)1
Calidris alpina (Dunlin)2
Calidris canutus (Red Knot)2
Calidris minutilla (Least Sandpiper)1
Carcinus maenas (green crab)1
Charadrius semipalmatus (Semipalmated Plover)1
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)4
Ctenolabrus rupestris (Rock cook)1
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)1
Gadus morhua (rock cod)1
Haematopus ostralegus (Eurasian Oystercatcher)4
Hediste diversicolor (veelkleurige zeeduizendpoot)1
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)3
Larus canus (Mew Gull)2
Lepidorhombus boscii (Whiff)1
Limosa lapponica (Bar-tailed Godwit)4
Limosa limosa (Black-tailed Godwit)2
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)1
Mullus barbatus (red mullet)1
Mullus surmuletus (Red mullet)2
Myoxocephalus scorpius (Short-spined sea scorpion)2
Neogobius melanostomus (Round goby)1
Numenius arquata (Eurasian Curlew)4
Octopus vulgaris (common octopus)1
Pagellus acarne (Spanish seabream)1
Platalea leucorodia (Eurasian Spoonbill)1
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)3
Pluvialis squatarola (Grey Plover)1
Pomadasys incisus (Bastard grunt)1
Pomatoschistus microps (Common goby)5
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)4
Raja brachyura (Blond ray)1
Raja montagui (Homelyn ray)1
Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Mediterranean longnose)1
Rutilus rutilus (Roach)1
Scorpaena porcus (Black scorpion fish)1
Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)2
Tadorna tadorna (Common Shelduck)2
Trisopterus capelanus (Poor cod)1

Predators

Chelidonichthys lucerna (Sapphirine gurnard)[4]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[4]
Conger conger (Conger)[4]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[4]
Cyclopterus lumpus (Lumpsucker)[4]
Dipturus batis (Blue skate)[4]
Echiichthys vipera (Lesser weever)[4]
Eutrigla gurnardus (Grey gurnard)[4]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[4]
Galeorhinus galeus (Vitamin shark)[4]
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)[4]
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)[4]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[4]
Lophius piscatorius (Monkfish)[4]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[4]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[4]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[4]
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)[4]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[4]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[4]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[4]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[4]
Pleurobrachia pileus (Sea gooseberry)[4]
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)[4]
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)[4]
Raja clavata (Roker)[4]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[4]
Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)[4]
Scophthalmus rhombus (Flounder)[4]
Scyliorhinus canicula (Small-spotted catshark)[4]
Somniosus microcephalus (gray shark)[4]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[4]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[4]
Squatina squatina (Shagreen)[4]
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)[4]
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)[4]

Providers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Cryptocotyle jejuna[4]
Cryptocotyle lingua[4]
Deropristis inflata[4]
Gymnophallus choledochus[4]
Gymnophallus somateriae[4]
Himasthla continua[4]
Himasthla elongata[4]
Lacunovermis macomae[4]
Levinseniella brachysoma[4]
Maritrema subdolum[4]
Monorchis parvus[4]
Mytilicola intestinalis[4]
Parvatrema minutum[4]
Psilostomum brevicolle[4]
Renicola roscovita[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[7]
Aporocotyle simplex[7]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[7]
Capillaria wickinsi <Unverified Name>[7]
Contracaecum osculatum[7]
Cryptocotyle concava[7]
Cryptocotyle jejuna[4]
Cryptocotyle lingua[7]
Cucullanus heterochrous <Unverified Name>[7]
Derogenes varicus[7]
Dichelyne minutus <Unverified Name>[7]
Diplocotyle olrikii[7]
Echinorhynchus gadi[7]
Fellodistomum fellis[7]
Grillotia erinaceus[7]
Gyrodactylus arcuatus[4]
Gyrodactylus errabundus[4]
Gyrodactylus flesi[4]
Gyrodactylus unicopula[4]
Gyrodactylus unipons[4]
Heligmus longicirrus <Unverified Name>[7]
Heterakis foveolata <Unverified Name>[7]
Lacunovermis macomae[7]
Ligula intestinalis[7]
Neophasis anarrhichae[7]
Podocotyle atomon[7]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[7]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[7]
Zoogonoides viviparus[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Artis Zoo
London Aquarium
Rotterdam Zoo
Universeum Science Center

Distribution

Arctic Ocean; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Eastern Central; Atlantic, Northeast; Atlantic, Northwest; Baltic Sea; Belgium; Canary Current; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; China; Denmark; East Siberian Sea; Estonia; Faeroe Islands; Faroe Plateau; Finland; France; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Gibraltar; Greenland; Iberian Coastal; Iceland; Iceland Shelf/Sea; Ireland; Isle of Man; Italy; Laptev Sea; Latvia; Lithuania; Mediterranean Sea; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Morocco; Netherlands; North Sea; Northeast Atlantic: Greenland and Norway south to Morocco; Spain and France in the western Mediterranean. Also known from the White Sea (Ref. 4705) and Estonia (Ref. 33247).; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Poland; Portugal; Russian Federation; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Turkey; United Kingdom; West Greenland Shelf;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Grenouillet, G. & Schmidt-Kloiber., A.; 2006; Fish Indicator Database. Euro-limpacs project, Workpackage 7 - Indicators of ecosystem health, Task 4, www.freshwaterecology.info, version 5.0 (accessed on July 3, 2012). 3Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 5Energy flow of a boreal intertidal ecosystem, the Sylt-Rømø Bight, Dan Baird, Harald Asmus, Ragnhild Asmus, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 279: 45–61, 2004 6Trophodynamics in a Shallow Lagoon off Northwestern Europe (Culbin Sands, Moray Firth): Spatial and Temporal Variability of Epibenthic Communities, Their Diets, and Consumption Efficiency, Vanda Mariyam Mendonça, David George Raffaelli, Peter R. Boyle, and Chas Emes, Zoological Studies 48(2): 196-214 (2009) 7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access