Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Clupeiformes > Clupeidae > Sardinops > Sardinops sagax
 

Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard; California pilchard; Japanese pilchard; Southern African pilchard; Californian pilchard; Californian sardine; Chilean pilchard; Herring; Japanese sardine; Peruvian sardine; Picton herring; South American pilchard; Bloater; Blue pilchard; Blue-bait; California sardine; Chilean sardine; Mulies; Pacific american sardine; Pacific sardine; Pilchard; Sardina; Sardine; Smig; Spotlined sardine; Westralian pilchard)

Synonyms: Alausa californica; Alosa musica; Arengus sagax; Clupanodon caeruleus; Clupea advena; Clupea caerulea; Clupea lata; Clupea melanosticta; Clupea neopilchardus; Clupea ocellata; Clupea sagax; Meletta caerulea; Sardina caerulea; Sardina neopilchardus; Sardinops caerulea; Sardinops caeruleus; Sardinops melanosticta; Sardinops melanostictus; Sardinops neopilchardus; Sardinops ocellata; Sardinops ocellatus; Sardinops sagax caeruleus; Sardinops sagax melanosticta; Sardinops sagax musica; Sardinops sagax neopilchardus; Sardinops sagax sagax; Sardinopus melanostictus
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Wikipedia Abstract

The South American pilchard (Sardinops sagax) is a sardine of the Family Clupeidae, the only member of the genus Sardinops. It is found in the Indo-Pacific oceans. Its length is up to 40 cm. It has other names, some of which more appropriately refer to subspecies, including blue pilchard, Australian pilchard (S. neopilchardus), blue-bait, Californian pilchard (S. caeruleus), Chilean sardine (S. sagax), Japanese pilchard (S. melanostictus), Pacific sardine, and Southern African pilchard (S.
View Wikipedia Record: Sardinops sagax

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  267 grams
Female Maturity [2]  2 years 3 months
Male Maturity [1]  2 years 3 months
Maximum Longevity [2]  25 years
Migration [3]  Oceanodromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary   California, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Tsitsikamma National Park II 34343 Southern Cape, South Africa  

Prey / Diet

Acartia longiremis[4]
Calanoides carinatus[5]
Centropages abdominalis[4]
Corycaeus anglicus[4]
Euphausia pacifica (Pacific krill)[4]
Limacina helicina (helicid pteropod)[4]
Metridia lucens[5]
Microsetella rosea[5]
Paracalanus crassirostris[5]
Paracalanus parvus[4]
Parathemisto japonica[5]
Thysanoessa spinifera[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)1
Balaenoptera musculus (Blue Whale)2
Bathyraja interrupta (Sandpaper skate)2
Bathyraja trachura (Roughtail skate)1
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)1
Caesioperca lepidoptera (Red perch)1
Chromis cyanea (Blue chromis)1
Chromis dispilus (Demoiselle)1
Citharichthys sordidus (Sanddab)1
Cololabis saira (Skipper)1
Decapterus koheru (Scad)1
Diaphus theta (California headlightfish)3
Eschrichtius robustus (Gray Whale)1
Eubalaena japonica (North Pacific Right Whale)1
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)1
Lampanyctus jordani (Brokenline lanternfish)1
Larimichthys polyactis (Yellowfish)1
Lyopsetta exilis (Slender sole)1
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)2
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)2
Nansenia candida (Bluethroat argentine)1
Notoscopelus japonicus (Japanese lanternfish)1
Oblada melanura (Saddled seabream)1
Pagothenia borchgrevinki (Bald notothen)1
Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Cassin's Auklet)2
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)2
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)1
Scorpis aequipinnis (Maomao)1
Sebastes alutus (Snapper)2
Sebastes caurinus (Copper rockfish)1
Sebastes crameri (Rockfish)1
Sebastes diploproa (Splitnose rockfish)2
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)2
Sebastes maliger (Rockfish)1
Sebastes pinniger (Rockfish)2
Sebastes serranoides (Rockfish)2
Sigmops gracilis (Slender fangjaw)1
Stenobrachius leucopsarus (Smallfin lanternfish)2
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)2
Tarletonbeania crenularis (Blue lanternfish)3
Trematomus bernacchii (Emerald notothen)1
Trichiurus lepturus (Atlantic Cutlassfish)1
Vinciguerria nimbaria (World-wide bristle-mouth fish)1

Predators

Alca torda (Razorbill)[5]
Alcichthys elongatus[6]
Alepisaurus ferox (Wolffish)[5]
Alopias superciliosus (Whiptail)[7]
Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)[8]
Arctocephalus forsteri (Australasian Fur Seal)[5]
Arctocephalus pusillus (Brown Fur Seal)[5]
Argyrosomus japonicus (jaapanese croaker)[5]
Arripis trutta (Salmon trout)[9]
Arripis truttacea (Western Australian salmon)[5]
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)[5]
Atractoscion aequidens (Trag)[10]
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)[5]
Balaenoptera borealis (Sei Whale)[11]
Balaenoptera edeni (Bryde's whale)[12]
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)[7]
Berardius bairdii (Baird's Beaked Whale)[7]
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)[5]
Brachyramphus perdix (Long-billed Murrelet)[5]
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)[7]
Carcharhinus brachyurus (Shark)[5]
Carcharhinus obscurus (Whaler shark)[5]
Carcharodon carcharias (Maneater shark)[5]
Cephaloscyllium umbratile (Swell shark)[13]
Cepphus carbo (Spectacled Guillemot)[5]
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)[5]
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)[5]
Chlidonias albostriatus (Black-fronted Tern)[5]
Chlidonias leucopterus (White-winged Tern)[5]
Chlidonias niger (Black Tern)[5]
Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae (Silver Gull)[5]
Chroicocephalus saundersi (Saunders's Gull)[5]
Chroicocephalus scopulinus (Red-billed Gull)[5]
Creagrus furcatus (Swallow-tailed Gull)[5]
Diomedea exulans (Wandering Albatross)[5]
Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squid)[14]
Etmopterus compagnoi (Brown lantern shark)[5]
Eudyptula minor (Little Penguin)[15]
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)[7]
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)[5]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[11]
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)[5]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[6]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[6]
Galeorhinus galeus (Vitamin shark)[7]
Galeus nipponensis (Broadfin sawtail catshark)[5]
Gelochelidon nilotica (Gull-billed Tern)[5]
Gymnocanthus intermedius (Sculpin)[6]
Hexagrammos otakii (Greenling)[6]
Hexanchus griseus (Bluntnose six-gill shark)[5]
Hydrocoloeus minutus (Little Gull)[5]
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)[5]
Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus (Great Black-headed Gull)[5]
Ichthyaetus relictus (Relict Gull)[5]
Isurus oxyrinchus (Short-finned mako)[7]
Kajikia audax (Stripey)[16]
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)[17]
Lagenorhynchus obscurus (Dusky Dolphin)[18]
Lamna ditropis (Salmon shark)[19]
Larus cachinnans (Yellow-legged Gull)[5]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[5]
Larus crassirostris (Black-tailed Gull)[20]
Larus fuscus (Lesser Black-backed Gull)[5]
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)[5]
Larus heermanni (Heermann's Gull)[5]
Larus livens (Yellow-footed Gull)[5]
Larus pacificus (Pacific Gull)[5]
Larus schistisagus (Slaty-backed Gull)[20]
Lepidopus caudatus (Southern frostfish)[5]
Loligo vulgaris (European Squid)[5]
Makaira mazara (black spearfish)[5]
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)[7]
Merluccius productus (Whiting)[7]
Microcarbo coronatus (Crowned Cormorant)[5]
Mirounga angustirostris (Northern Elephant Seal)[7]
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)[5]
Morus capensis (Cape Gannet)[21]
Morus serrator (Australasian Gannet)[22]
Myotis vivesi (fish-eating bat)[23]
Occidentarius platypogon (Cominate sea catfish)[24]
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)[7]
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)[7]
Onychoprion anaethetus (Bridled Tern)[5]
Otaria flavescens (South American Sealion)[25]
Papasula abbotti (Abbott's Booby)[5]
Paralichthys californicus (Halibut)[7]
Pelecanus conspicillatus (Australian Pelican)[5]
Pelecanus crispus (Dalmatian Pelican)[5]
Pelecanus thagus (Peruvian Pelican)[5]
Phaethon rubricauda (Red-tailed Tropicbird)[5]
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)[5]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[5]
Phalacrocorax capensis (Cape cormorant)[20]
Phalacrocorax capillatus (Japanese Cormorant)[5]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[5]
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt's Cormorant)[5]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[5]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[26]
Phocoenoides dalli (Dall's Porpoise)[5]
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)[7]
Physiculus japonicus (Japanese codling)[6]
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)[5]
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)[27]
Puffinus assimilis (Little Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus auricularis (Townsend's Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus carneipes (Flesh-footed Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus griseus (Sooty Shearwater)[28]
Puffinus huttoni (Hutton's Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus lherminieri (Audubon's Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus opisthomelas (Black-vented Shearwater)[29]
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)[5]
Raja clavata (Roker)[5]
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)[5]
Rostroraja alba (White skate)[5]
Sarda australis (Little bonito)[5]
Scomber japonicus (Striped mackerel)[5]
Scomberomorus munroi (Spotty)[5]
Scomberomorus niphonius (Spotted Spanish mackerel)[30]
Scomberomorus queenslandicus (broadbarred king mackerel)[5]
Spheniscus demersus (Jackass Penguin)[31]
Spheniscus humboldti (Humboldt Penguin)[31]
Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)[5]
Spheniscus mendiculus (Galapagos Penguin)[31]
Sphyraena pinguis (Brown barracuda)[5]
Squalus mitsukurii (Spiny dogfish)[5]
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[5]
Stercorarius skua (Great Skua)[5]
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)[5]
Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)[5]
Sternula albifrons (Little Tern)[5]
Sternula antillarum (Least Tern)[5]
Sternula balaenarum (Damara Tern)[5]
Sternula lorata (Peruvian Tern)[5]
Sternula nereis (Fairy Tern)[5]
Sternula saundersi (Saunders's Tern)[5]
Sternula superciliaris (Yellow-billed Tern)[5]
Sula dactylatra (Masked Booby)[5]
Sula granti (Nazca Booby)[5]
Sula leucogaster (Brown Booby)[32]
Sula nebouxii (Blue-footed Booby)[32]
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)[5]
Synthliboramphus craveri (Craveri's Murrelet)[5]
Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xantus's Murrelet)[5]
Synthliboramphus wumizusume (Japanese Murrelet)[5]
Thalassarche carteri (Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross)[5]
Thalasseus bengalensis (Lesser Crested Tern)[5]
Thalasseus bergii (Swift Tern)[5]
Thalasseus bernsteini (Chinese Crested Tern)[5]
Thalasseus elegans (Elegant Tern)[7]
Thalasseus sandvicensis (Sandwich Tern)[5]
Thunnus alalunga (longfinned albacore)[7]
Thunnus albacares (Yellowfin-tuna)[27]
Thunnus maccoyii (Tunny)[27]
Thunnus orientalis (Pacific bluefin tuna)[7]
Thyrsites atun (snake mackerel)[5]
Thysanoteuthis rhombus (diamond squid)[33]
Trachurus symmetricus (Scad)[7]
Triakis scyllium (Banded houndshark)[5]
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)[18]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[5]
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)[5]
Zalophus californianus (California Sealion)[7]
Zeus capensis (Cape dory)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[34]
Diplogonoporus balaenopterae[34]
Mazocraes alosae[34]
Neomazocraes sardinopsi[34]
Parahemiurus merus[34]
Parahemiurus noblei[34]
Rhadinorhynchus pristis[34]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[34]
Stephanostomum imparispine[34]

Distribution

Agulhas Current; Alaska (USA); Angola; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Southeast; Australia; Benguela Current; California Current; Canada; Chile; China; East Central Australian Shelf; East China Sea; Ecuador; Galapagos Islands; Great Australian Bight; Gulf of Alaska; Gulf of California; Hong Kong; Humboldt Current; Indian Ocean; Indian Ocean, Eastern; Indian Ocean, Western; Indo-Pacific: southern Africa to the eastern Pacific (Ref. 27267). Three lineages were confirmed through cluster and parsimony analyses of haplotypic divergences: southern Africa (<i>ocellatus</i>) and Australia (<i>neopilchardus</i>); Chile (<i>sagax<; Indo-Pacific: southern Africa to the eastern Pacific (Ref. 27267). Three lineages were confirmed through cluster and parsimony analyses of haplotypic divergences: southern Africa (<i>ocellatus</i>) and Australia (<i>neopilchardus</i>); Chile (<i>sagax</i>) and California (<i>caeruleus</i>); and, Japan (<i>melanostictus</i>) (Ref. 36641).; Japan; Kamchatka; Korea, Dem. People's Rep; Korea, Republic of; Kuroshio Current; Madagascar; Mauritius; Mexico; Mozambique; Namibia; New Zealand; New Zealand Shelf; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Eastern Central; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; Pacific, Southeast; Pacific, Southwest; Pacific, Western Central; Peng-hu Island; Peru; Peru-Galapagos Waters; Russian Federation; Sea of Japan; Sea of Okhotsk; South Africa; South China Sea; Southwest Australian Shelf; Southwest Chilean Waters; Taiwan; USA (contiguous states); West Central Australian Shelf; Yellow Sea; Yemen;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
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