Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Cyprinodontiformes > Poeciliidae > Gambusia > Gambusia holbrooki

Gambusia holbrooki (Bore-drain fish; Eastern gambusia; Eastern mosquito fish; Eastern mosquitofish; Gambies; Gambusia; Mosquitofish; Plague minnow; Starling's perch; Top minnow)

Synonyms: Gambusia affinis holbrocki; Gambusia affinis holbrooki; Gambusia holbrocki; Gambusia holbrookii; Gambusia patruelis holbrooki; Heterandria holbrooki; Schizophallus holbrooki; Zygonectes atrilatus
Language: Albanian; Danish; Finnish; Italian; Kirghiz; Mandarin Chinese; Persian; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Swedish

Wikipedia Abstract

The eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) is a species of freshwater fish, closely related to the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. It is a member of the family Poeciliidae of order Cyprinodontiformes. The eastern mosquitofish is native to the eastern and southern United States from Florida to Delaware and inland to Alabama and Tennessee, while the western mosquitofish has a larger distribution throughout the United States.
View Wikipedia Record: Gambusia holbrooki

Invasive Species

Eastern mosquito fish, Gambusia holbrooki is a small, aggressive live-bearing fish that originates from the southern United States. It has been introduced worldwide as a mosquito-control agent. G. holbrooki have been implicated in damage to native fish, amphibian and invertebrate populations.
View ISSG Record: Gambusia holbrooki


Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates)
Adult Length [1]  3.1 inches (8 cm)
Migration [2]  Potamodromous


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Appalachian Piedmont United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Eastern Coastal Australia Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Coastal Rivers    
Italian Peninsula & Islands France, Italy, Malta, Monaco Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Murray - Darling Australia Australasia Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northeast US & Southeast Canada Atlantic Drainages Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Amudarya Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 152861 Lebap, Turkmenistan  
Atanasovsko ezero 17814 Bulgaria  
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Burgasko ezero 7641 Bulgaria  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve Nature Reserve IV 1352 Portugal  


Prey / Diet

Aedes albopictus (forest day mosquito)[3]
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)[3]
Aquarius remigis (Common water strider)[3]
Boiga dendrophila (Gold-ringed Cat Snake, Mangrove Snake)[4]
Calopteryx maculata (Ebony jewelwing)[3]
Ceriodaphnia reticulata[4]
Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)[3]
Daphnia ambigua (Water flea)[3]
Hyalella azteca (Scud)[3]
Hypogastrura nivicola (snow flea)[3]
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Aquatic worm)[3]
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)[3]
Lymnaea stagnalis (swamp lymnaea)[3]
Macrobdella decora (Freshwater leech)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)2
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)2
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)5
Ameiurus melas (Black bullhead)1
Ameiurus natalis (Yellow bullhead)5
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)4
Anguilla rostrata (American eel)3
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)1
Archoplites interruptus (Sacramento perch)1
Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup)1
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)2
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)3
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)1
Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)4
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)1
Etheostoma olmstedi (Tessellated darter)3
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)1
Hypentelium nigricans (Northern hog sucker)6
Ictalurus punctatus (Channel catfish)6
Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)1
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)4
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)5
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)6
Notemigonus crysoleucas (Golden shiner minnow)5
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)1
Perca flavescens (Yellow perch)1
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)1
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Strawberry bass)4
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)1
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)3
Semotilus atromaculatus (Horned dace)7
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)1
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)1


Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)[3]
Anax junius (green darner)[3]
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)[3]
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)[3]
Ictalurus punctatus (Channel catfish)[3]
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)[3]
Megaceryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher)[3]
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)[4]
Natrix maura (Viperine Water Snake)[5]
Nerodia sipedon (Northern Water Snake)[3]
Notemigonus crysoleucas (Golden shiner minnow)[3]
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Strawberry bass)[3]
Procambarus clarkii (red swamp crawfish)[6]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[3]
Semotilus atromaculatus (Horned dace)[3]
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)[3]


Carex stricta (upright sedge)[3]
Cephalanthus tetrandra (Buttonbush)[3]
Hibiscus moscheutos (crimsoneyed rosemallow)[3]
Hydrilla verticillata (waterthyme)[3]
Lemna minor (common duckweed)[3]
Peltandra virginica (green arrow arum)[3]
Phragmites australis (common reed)[3]
Pontederia cordata (Pickerel Weed)[3]
Potamogeton lucens (long-leaf pondweed)[3]
Salix nigra (black willow)[3]
Saururus cernuus (lizard's tail)[3]
Typha latifolia (Reedmace)[3]
Utricularia macrorhiza (greater bladderwort)[3]


Parasitized by 
Clinostomum australiense <Unverified Name>[7]
Eustrongylides ignotus <Unverified Name>[7]
Goussia piekarskii <Unverified Name>[8]
Schyzocotyle acheilognathi[7]
Stegodexamene callista[7]
Trichodina heterodentata[8]
Trichodina mutabalis <Unverified Name>[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Bermuda Aquarium Museum and Zoo
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr

Range Map

Afghanistan; Africa-Inland Waters; America, North - Inland waters; Amudar'ya; Armenia; Asia - Inland waters; Athi-Galana-Sabaki River Drainage System; Australia; Australian; Bulgaria; Caspian Sea; Ethiopia; Ethiopian; Euphrates; Europe - Inland waters; Former USSR - Inland waters; France; Hungary; India; Iran (Islamic Rep. of); Iraq; Italy; Kenya; Kuban River; Lake Victoria; Lebanon; Madagascar; Mauritius; Murray-Darling; Nearctic; North America: Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from New Jersey south to Alabama in USA (Ref. 5723). Introduced to many countries for mosquito control, but had rare to non-existing effects on mosquitoes, and negative to perhaps neutral impact on native fishes (Ref. 12217). Established throughout southern Europe; introduced worldwide in tropical and subtropical countries (Ref. 59043).; North America: Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from New Jersey south to Alabama in USA. Introduced to many countries for mosquito control, but had rare to non-existing effects on mosquitoes, and negative to perhaps neutral impact on native fishes (Ref; North America: Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from New Jersey south to Alabama in USA. Introduced to many countries for mosquito control, but had rare to non-existing effects on mosquitoes, and negative to perhaps neutral impact on native fishes (Ref. 12217). At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.; Oceania - Inland waters; Oriental; Palearctic; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Rodriguez; Russian Federation; Réunion; Saudi Arabia; Singapore; Spain; Syrian Arab Republic; Tana River; Turkey; Turkmenistan; USA (contiguous states); United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Volga; Yemen;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
3Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Variation in the diet of the viperine snake Natrix maura in relation to prey availability, Xavier Santos, Jacob González-Solís and Gustavo A. Llorente, ECOGRAPHY 23: 185–192. Copenhagen 2000
6"Diet of the Red Swamp Crayfish Procambarus clarkii in Natural Ecosystems of the Doñana National Park Temporary Fresh-Water Marsh (Spain)", P. J. Gutiérrez-Yurrita, G. Sancho, M. Á. Bravo, Á. Baltanás and C. Montes, Journal of Crustacean Biology Vol. 18, No. 1 (Feb., 1998), pp. 120-127
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
8Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access