Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Perciformes > Percidae > Sander > Sander lucioperca

Sander lucioperca (Pike-perch; European pike-perch; Perch-pike; Pikeperch; Zander)

Synonyms: Centropomus sandat; Lucioperca linnei; Lucioperca lucioperca; Lucioperca sandra; Perca lucioperca; Stizostedion lucioperca; Stizostedion luciperca; Stizostedium lucioperca
Language: Albanian; Bulgarian; Czech; Danish; Dutch; Estonian; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Hungarian; Italian; Kirghiz; Latvian; Lithuanian; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Persian; Polish; Portuguese; Prussian, Old; Romanian; Russian; Serbian; Slovak; Slovenian; Spanish; Swedish; Turkish

Wikipedia Abstract

Zander (Sander lucioperca, syn. Stizostedion lucioperca) is a species of fish from freshwater and brackish habitats in western Eurasia. It is closely related to perch. Zander are often called pike-perch as they resemble the pike with their elongated body and head, and the perch with their spiny dorsal fin. Zander are not, as is commonly believed, a pike and perch hybrid. In Europe, a second species (Sander volgensis) is limited to rivers in southern Russia and the basin of the Danube. These two species are suspected to hybridize occasionally where they are sympatric, as they produce fertile hybrids in captivity; no natural hybrids are known yet however, and while they are apparently hard to detect, it is suspected that the species are separated by strong prezygotic isolation. It strongly r
View Wikipedia Record: Sander lucioperca


Adult Weight [2]  24.25 lbs (11.00 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  3 years 8 months
Male Maturity [2]  3 years 8 months
Diet [4]  Carnivore
Adult Length [1]  39 inches (100 cm)
Brood Egg Substrate [3]  Phyto-lithophils
Brood Guarder [3]  Yes
Maximum Longevity [1]  16 years
Migration [4]  Potamodromous


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Italian Peninsula & Islands France, Italy, Malta, Monaco Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Middle Missouri United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Amudarya Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 152861 Lebap, Turkmenistan  
Burgasko ezero 7641 Bulgaria  
Codru (Kodry) Zapovednik Scientific Reserve Ia   Moldova  
Fenland 1529 England, United Kingdom
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Karadagskiy Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik 13876 Ukraine  
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kivach Zapovednik IV 26885 Karelia, Russia
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Moälven 7897 Sweden  
Ouse Washes 769 England, United Kingdom
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Polana Biosphere Reserve 50311 Slovakia  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Srebarna 3579 Bulgaria  

Prey / Diet

Abramis brama (Bream)[5]
Alburnus alburnus (Bleak)[5]
Anguilla anguilla (River eel)[5]
Blicca bjoerkna (White bream)[5]
Boiga dendrophila (Gold-ringed Cat Snake, Mangrove Snake)[5]
Capoetobrama kuschakewitschi (Sharpray barb)[5]
Carassius carassius (Crucian carp)[5]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[5]
Coregonus albula (European whitefish)[6]
Coregonus lavaretus (Houting)[5]
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)[5]
Gymnocephalus cernua (Ruffe)[6]
Leucaspius delineatus (Moderlieschen)[5]
Neogobius fluviatilis (Sand goby)[5]
Neomysis integer[5]
Osmerus eperlanus (European smelt)[6]
Pelecus cultratus (Sabre carp)[5]
Perca fluviatilis (River perch)[6]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[5]
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)[5]
Rhodeus amarus (Bitterling)[5]
Rutilus rutilus (Roach)[6]
Sander lucioperca (Pike-perch)[5]
Tinca tinca (Tench)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Larus cachinnans (Yellow-legged Gull)1
Mergellus albellus (Smew)3
Microcarbo pygmeus (Pygmy Cormorant)2
Podiceps cristatus (Great Crested Grebe)1


Anguilla anguilla (River eel)[5]
Channa argus (Spotted snakehead)[5]
Esox lucius (Jack)[5]
Huso huso (Beluga)[5]
Pelecus cultratus (Sabre carp)[5]
Perca fluviatilis (River perch)[5]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[7]
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)[5]
Sander lucioperca (Pike-perch)[5]


Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus anguillae[8]
Acanthocephalus clavula[8]
Acanthocephalus lucii[8]
Acanthostomum imbutiformis <Unverified Name>[8]
Ancyrocephalus cruciatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Ancyrocephalus paradoxus[8]
Ancyrocephalus percae[8]
Anguillicola crassus <Unverified Name>[8]
Anisakis schupakovi <Unverified Name>[8]
Anisakis simplex[8]
Apatemon annuligerum[8]
Apophallus donicus[8]
Apophallus muehlingi[8]
Ascaris velocissima <Unverified Name>[8]
Ascocotyle calceostoma <Unverified Name>[8]
Ascocotyle coleostoma[8]
Aspidogaster limacoides[8]
Azygia lucii[8]
Brachyphallus crenatus[8]
Bucephalus markewitschi[8]
Bucephalus polymorphus[8]
Bunocotyle cingulata[8]
Bunodera luciopercae[8]
Camallanus lacustris[8]
Camallanus truncatus[8]
Caryophyllaeides fennica <Unverified Name>[8]
Clinostomum complanatum[8]
Contracaecum squalii <Unverified Name>[8]
Corynosoma semerme[8]
Corynosoma strumosum[8]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Cotylurus platycephalus <Unverified Name>[8]
Cyathocephalus truncatus[8]
Dactylogyrus anchoratus[8]
Desmidocercella numidica <Unverified Name>[8]
Dibothriocephalus latus[8]
Diclybothrium armatum[8]
Diplostomum baeri[8]
Diplostomum chromatophorum[8]
Diplostomum commutatum[8]
Diplostomum helveticum[8]
Diplostomum macrostomum <Unverified Name>[8]
Diplostomum mergi <Unverified Name>[8]
Diplostomum paracaudum <Unverified Name>[8]
Diplostomum spathaceum[8]
Diplostomum volvens[8]
Diplozoon paradoxum[8]
Echinorhynchus cinctulus[5]
Echinorhynchus gadi[8]
Echinorhynchus salmonis[8]
Eubothrium crassum[8]
Eustrongylides excisus <Unverified Name>[8]
Gnathostoma hispidum <Unverified Name>[8]
Gyrodactylus cernuae[8]
Gyrodactylus longiradix[8]
Gyrodactylus lucii[8]
Gyrodactylus luciopercae[8]
Hemiurus luehei[8]
Hepaticola petruschewskii[8]
Ichthyocotylurus erraticus[8]
Ichthyocotylurus metacercaria <Unverified Name>[8]
Ichthyocotylurus pileatus[8]
Ichthyocotylurus platycephalus[8]
Ichthyocotylurus variegatus[8]
Lecithaster tauricus[8]
Ligula intestinalis[8]
Lucionema balatonense <Unverified Name>[8]
Metagonimus yokogawai[8]
Metorchis xanthostomus[8]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[8]
Nicolla skrjabini[8]
Paracoenogonimus ovatus[8]
Paracuaria tridentata <Unverified Name>[8]
Paratenuisentis ambiguus[8]
Philometra obturans <Unverified Name>[8]
Phyllodistomum angulatum <Unverified Name>[8]
Phyllodistomum pseudofolium <Unverified Name>[8]
Polymorphus phippsi[8]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[8]
Porrocaecum reticulatum <Unverified Name>[8]
Proteocephalus cernuae <Unverified Name>[8]
Proteocephalus percae[8]
Pseudoechinorhynchus borealis <Unverified Name>[8]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[8]
Pygidiopsis genata[5]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[8]
Rhipidocotyle campanula[5]
Sanguinicola volgensis[8]
Schulmanella petruschewskii <Unverified Name>[8]
Schyzocotyle acheilognathi[8]
Tetracotyle percae-fluviatilis <Unverified Name>[8]
Tetracotyle variegatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Triaenophorus crassus[8]
Triaenophorus nodulosus[8]
Tylodelphys clavata[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Universeum Science Center


Afghanistan; Africa-Inland Waters; Algeria; America, North - Inland waters; Amudar'ya; Amur; Armenia; Asia - Inland waters; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northeast; Austria; Azerbaijan; Azores Islands; Baltic Sea; Belgium; Bosten Lake; Bulgaria; Caspian Sea; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Danube; Denmark; Desna; Don; Eastern and central Europe, Sweden and Finland, Western Asia; introduced into several European countries. This species has depleted stocks of native fish in some areas where it has been introduced for angling (Ref. 9988). Several countries report advers; Eastern and central Europe, Sweden and Finland, Western Asia; introduced into several European countries. This species has depleted stocks of native fish in some areas where it has been introduced for angling (Ref. 9988). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.; Erqishi River; Estonia; Europe - Inland waters; Europe: Caspian, Baltic, Black and Aral Sea basins; Elbe (North Sea basin) and Maritza (Aegean basin) drainages. North to about 65° N in Finland. Introduced widely (Ref. 59043). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739); Finland; France; Georgia; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Greece; Hungary; Iran (Islamic Rep. of); Issyk-Kul Lake; Italy; Kazakhstan; Kuban River; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova, Republic of; Morocco; Nearctic; Netherlands; Norway; Onega River; Palearctic; Poland; Portugal; Rhine; Rhône; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia and Montenegro; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Tigris; Tunisia; Turkey; USA (contiguous states); Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Volga; Yili River;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Grenouillet, G. & Schmidt-Kloiber., A.; 2006; Fish Indicator Database. Euro-limpacs project, Workpackage 7 - Indicators of ecosystem health, Task 4,, version 5.0 (accessed on July 3, 2012).
4Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6Dietary importance of various prey fishes for pikeperch Sander lucioperca (L.) in large shallow lake Võrtsjärv (Estonia), Peeter Kangur, Andu Kangur, and Külli Kangur, Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Biol. Ecol., 2007, 56, 2, 154-167
7THE DIET OF HARBOUR PORPOISE (PHOCOENA PHOCOENA) IN THE NORTHEAST ATLANTIC, M. B. SANTOS & G. J. PIERCE, Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 2003, 41, 355–390
8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access