Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Fabales > Fabaceae > Vachellia > Vachellia farnesiana

Vachellia farnesiana (Ellington curse; Klu; Small's acacia; Sweet acacia; Klu bush; kandaroma; Aweet acadia; Opoponax; Fragrant Acacia; texas huisache; Sponge Tree; Mimosa; Prickly Moses; Dead Finish; Mimosa bush; Acacia jaune; Needle bush; Wild Briar; Thorny Feather-wattle; Thorny Acacia; Sweet Cassia; Sponge Wattle; Sheep's Briar; Prickly Mimosa Bush; Opopanax; North-west Curara; Mimosa Wattle; Farnese Wattle; Cassie Flower; Aroma Amarilla; Acacia Odorant)

Synonyms: Acacia farnesiana
Language: French; German; Hawaiian; Hindi; Portuguese; Spainsh; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

Vachellia farnesiana, also known as Acacia farnesiana, and previously Mimosa farnesiana, commonly known as sweet acacia, huisache or needle bush, is so named because of the numerous thorns distributed along its branches. The native range of V. farnesiana is uncertain. While the point of origin is Mexico and Central America, the species has a pantropical distribution incorporating northern Australia and southern Asia. It remains unclear whether the extra-American distribution is primarily natural or anthropogenic. It is deciduous over part of its range, but evergreen in most locales. The species grows to a height of up to 8 m (26 ft) and has a lifespan of about 25–50 years.
View Wikipedia Record: Vachellia farnesiana


Invasive Species

Probably a native of tropical America, Acacia farnesiana was introduced to many tropical countries for its bark, gum, seed and wood. It is often planted as an ornamental or to check erosion, and is also used in the perfume industry because of its scented flowers. This thorny, deciduous shrub grows to 4m in height forming impenetrable thickets or sometimes a more open cover and prefers dry habitats between sea level and 1000 m. In Australia it occurs along watercourses on rangeland and farmland limiting access to water. It has also become an invasive species in Fiji, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.
View ISSG Record: Vachellia farnesiana


Height [2]  30 feet (9 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Hermaphrodite
Hazards [2]  The seeds, containing an unnamed alkaloid, are used to kill rabid dogs in Brazil;
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Scent [2]  An essential oil is obtained from the violet-scented flowers.
Structure [2]  Shrub
Usage [2]  An essential oil called Cassie is distilled from the flowers; Cassie absolute is employed in preparation of violet bouquets and is extensively used in European perfumery; Cassie pomades are manufactured in Uttar Pradesh and the Punjab. A deliciously scented essential oil, it has a fragrance of violets; A mature plant 10 years old can yield 9 kg of flowers each year; In a suitable climate, the trees begin to flower from their third year. The perfume is extracted from the flowers in form of concrete or pomade. Macerated flowers are placed in melted purified natural fat and allowed to stand for several hours. They are then replaced by fresh flowers and the process repeated until the fat is saturated with perfume. The fat is then melted, strained and cooled. This constitutes the pomade. Odour is that of violets but more intense. Absolute is prepared by mixing pomade with alcohol (2 - 3 kg to about 4 litres) and allowed to stand for 3 - 4 weeks at about -5°C. The alcohol is then separated and distilled over. The extract obtained is an olive-green liquid with strong odour of cassie flowers; Mature trees can yield about 1 kilo of flowers per year; The bark and the fruit are a source of tannin and used in making dyes and inks; The seedpods contain about 23% tannin; The bark, in combination with iron ores and salts, is used as a black dyestuff; A gummy substance obtained from the young pods is used to mend pottery; A mucilage can be manufactured from the gummy sap; A gum exuding from trunk is considered to be superior to gum arabic in arts; The woody branches are used in India as tooth brushes; In suitable climates the plant is grown as a hedge; The trees have also been used for erosion control in sandy soils; Wood - heavy, hard, durable in the soil, close-grained. Used for fencing posts, agricultural implements, pegs, woodenware etc;
View Plants For A Future Record : Vachellia farnesiana

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Barra Honda National Park II 5689 Costa Rica  
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Guanacaste National Park II 85819 Costa Rica  
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Purnululu National Park II 604999 Western Australia, Australia
Santa Rosa National Park II 95780 Costa Rica
Tuabaquey - Limones Ecological Reserve II 4859 Cuba  


Anomalococcus indicus[4]
Aonidiella aurantii (California red scale)[4]
Apalopteron familiare (Bonin White-eye)[5]
Coccus longulus (long brown scale)[4]
Dismorphia amphione[6]
Dismorphia astyocha[6]
Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (annona mealybug)[4]
Dysmicoccus texensis[4]
Eurema hecabe (Common grass yellow)[6]
Ferrisia virgata (grey mealybug)[4]
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)[4]
Neocoelostoma xerophila[4]
Nipaecoccus guazumae[4]
Notocitellus adocetus (tropical ground squirrel)[7]
Ortalis vetula (Plain Chachalaca)[6]
Planococcus minor (Pacific mealybug)[4]
Polyura athamas (Common nawab butterfly)[6]
Pseudococcus farnesianae[4]
Pseudotargionia glandulosa[4]
Situlaspis yuccae (celtis scale)[4]
Velataspis mimosarum[4]
Zenaida asiatica (White-winged Dove)[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Kew Millennium Seed Bank Partnership
Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Range Map

Afghanistan (introduced); Andaman Is (introduced); Antigua-Barbuda (uncertain); Argentina (introduced); Australia (introduced); Bahamas (introduced); Bangladesh (introduced); Barbados (uncertain); Belize (native); Bhutan (introduced); Bolivia (native); Brazil (native); Cambodia (introduced); Cayman Is (introduced); China (introduced); Colombia (native); Comoro Is (introduced); Costa Rica (native); Cuba (introduced); Dominica (introduced); Dominican Republic (native); Ecuador (native); El Salvador (native); Ethiopia (introduced); Fiji (introduced); France (introduced); France-F.E. (introduced); French Guiana (native); Ghana (introduced); Gilbert Is (introduced); Grenada (uncertain); Guadeloupe (uncertain); Guatemala (native); Guyana (native); Haiti (native); Hawaii (introduced); Honduras (uncertain); India (introduced); Indonesia-ISO (introduced); Iran (introduced); Iraq (introduced); Israel (introduced); Italy-F.E. (introduced); Jamaica (introduced); Japan (introduced); Jawa (native); Kalimantan (native); Laos (introduced); Lebanon (introduced); Libya (introduced); Madagascar (introduced); Malaysia-ISO (introduced); Maldives (introduced); Martinique (uncertain); Mauritius (introduced); Mexico (native); Mexico(North & Central) (native); Mexico(South East) (native); Montserrat (uncertain); Mozambique (introduced); Nauru (introduced); Nepal (introduced); Netherlands Leeward Is (native); Nicaragua (native); Northern Marianas (introduced); Pakistan (introduced); Panama (native); Papua New Guinea (native); Peninsular Malaysia (native); Peru (native); Philippines (introduced); Reunion (introduced); Rodrigues (introduced); Ryukyu Is (introduced); Sabah (native); Saudi Arabia (introduced); Seychelles (introduced); Sicilia-F.E. (introduced); Singapore (introduced); Society Is (introduced); South Africa (introduced); Spain-F.E. (introduced); Sri Lanka (introduced); St Kitts-Nevis (native); St Lucia (native); St Vincent (native); Sumatera (native); Surinam (native); Syria (introduced); Taiwan (introduced); Tanzania (introduced); Thailand (introduced); Togo (introduced); Uganda (introduced); United States (native); Venezuela (native); Vietnam (introduced); Zimbabwe (introduced);



Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
4Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
5del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Spermophilus adocetus, Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 504, pp. 1-4 (1995)
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