Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Fabales > Fabaceae > Trifolium > Trifolium pratense

Trifolium pratense (Red Clover; Trebol Comun; Trebol De Los Prados; Trebol Morado; Trebol Rojo; Trefle Des Pres; Trevo Violeto)

Synonyms: Trifolium borysthenicum; Trifolium bracteatum; Trifolium lenkoranicum; Trifolium pratense var. lenkoranicum; Trifolium ukrainicum
Language: Armenian; Azerbaijani; Belorussian; Estonian; Finnish; Georgian; German; Italian; Kyrghyz; Latvian; Lithuanian; Mongolian; Polish; Romanian; Russian; Swedish; Tadzhik; Ukrainian

Wikipedia Abstract

Trifolium pratense (red clover) is a herbaceous species of flowering plant in the bean family Fabaceae, native to Europe, Western Asia and northwest Africa, but planted and naturalised in many other regions.
View Wikipedia Record: Trifolium pratense



Height [3]  24 inches (0.6 m)
Width [3]  24 inches (0.6 m)
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Hardiness Zone Minimum [2]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Light Preference [4]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [4]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [4]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [4]  Moist
Water Use [2]  Moderate
Bee Flower Color [1]  Blue
Flower Color [2]  Red
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Flower Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Late Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Medium
Flower Type [3]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Single Crown
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Hazards [3]  Diseased clover, even if no symptoms of disease are visible, can contain toxic alkaloids;
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Bees, Lepidoptera
Propagation [2]  Seed
Regrowth Rate [2]  Moderate
Root Depth [2]  12 inches (30 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  272159 / lb (600009 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Structure [5]  Herb
Usage [3]  A yellow dye is obtained from the flowers; The plant makes a good green manure, it is useful for over-wintering, especially in a mixture with Lolium perenne; Deep rooting, it produces a good bulk; It is a host to 'clover rot' however, so should not be used too frequently; It can be undersown with cereals though it may be too vigorous; It is also grown with grass mixtures for land reclamation, it has good nitrogen fixing properties;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Trifolium pratense

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Blue Ridge Parkway National Parkway V 73611 North Carolina, Virginia, United States
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Zapovednik Ia 112282 Khabarovsk, Russia
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Craven Limestone Complex 13166 England, United Kingdom
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kedrovaya Pad Zapovednik Ia 44224 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lago Puelo National Park II 47607 Chubut, Argentina
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Los Alerces National Park II 463045 Chubut, Argentina  
Los Glaciares National Park II 1329020 Santa Cruz, Argentina
Lundy 7573 England, United Kingdom  
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Migneint–Arenig–Dduallt 49343 Wales, United Kingdom
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
River Tweed 9380 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Solent Maritime 27985 England, United Kingdom
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Strathglass Complex 58277 Scotland, United Kingdom
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ussuriysky Zapovednik Ia 99910 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  


Emblem of



Acyrthosiphon pisum (Pea aphid)[6]
Adscita statices <Unverified Name>[7]
Aglais urticae (Small Tortoiseshell)[7]
Agromyza nana[6]
Agrotis clavis (Heart and Club)[6]
Ancylis badiana[7]
Aphis coronillae[6]
Aphis craccivora (Cowpea aphid)[6]
Apion dichroum <Unverified Name>[6]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[8]
Aporia crataegi (Black-veined White Butterfly)[7]
Aulacaspis trifolium[9]
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)[7]
Boloria selene (Silver-bordered fritillary)[7]
Bombus campestris (Field Cuckoo-bee)[7]
Bombus hortorum (Small Garden Humble-bee)[7]
Bombus lapidarius (Stone Humble-bee)[7]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[7]
Bombus pascuorum (Common Carder-bee)[7]
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)[7]
Brachycaudus helichrysi (Leafcurl plum aphid)[6]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[8]
Bruchidius varius <Unverified Name>[6]
Bruchophagus gibbus[6]
Bruchophagus platypterus[6]
Callistege mi (Mother Shipton Moth)[7]
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)[7]
Campylomyza ormerodi[6]
Ceraleptus lividus[6]
Chiasmia clathrata <Unverified Name>[7]
Chionomys nivalis (European snow vole)[10]
Clinodiplosis cilicrus[6]
Coenonympha pamphilus (Small Heath Butterfly)[7]
Coleophora deauratella[6]
Colias alexandra (Queen Alexandra's Sulphur)[11]
Colias croceus (Clouded Yellow Butterfly)[7]
Colias eurytheme (alfalfa caterpillar)[11]
Colias hyale (Pale Clouded Yellow)[6]
Colias lesbia[11]
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)[11]
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)[7]
Costelytra zealandica[12]
Cyaniris semiargus[6]
Cydia compositella <Unverified Name>[6]
Dasineura gentneri[6]
Dasineura leguminicola (clover seed midge)[6]
Dasineura trifolii (clover leaf midge)[6]
Drosicha turkestanica[9]
Echinargus isola (Reakirt’s Blue)[11]
Eilema complana (Scarce Footman)[6]
Ematurga atomaria (Common Heath Moth)[7]
Eriophyes plicator-trifolii <Unverified Name>[6]
Erysiphe trifolii[7]
Euclidia glyphica (Burnet Companion Moth)[7]
Eutrichosiphum sensoriatum[6]
Euxoa nigricans (Garden Dart)[6]
Everes argiades (Short-tailed Blue)[6]
Everes comyntas (Eastern Tailed Blue)[13]
Giardomyia britannica[6]
Glaucopsyche alexis (Green-Underside Blue)[11]
Gonepteryx rhamni (Brimstone Butterfly)[7]
Graphania insignis[12]
Hadrobremia longiventris[6]
Hadrobremia trifolii <Unverified Name>[6]
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm)[12]
Heliothis viriplaca[6]
Hemaris thysbe (common clear-wing)[8]
Hypera fuscocinerea <Unverified Name>[6]
Hypera meles[6]
Hypera nigrirostris (lesser cloverleaf weevil)[6]
Hypera postica (Alfalfa weevil)[6]
Hypera punctata (clover leaf weevil)[6]
Ischnopterapion virens <Unverified Name>[7]
Lasiocampa trifolii (Grass Eggar)[6]
Leptidea sinapis (Wood White)[6]
Lycia zonaria <Unverified Name>[6]
Marmota monax (woodchuck)[8]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[8]
Melitta leporina[7]
Merophyas leucanthiana <Unverified Name>[12]
Miccotrogus picirostris[6]
Microtus agrestis (field vole)[7]
Microtus arvalis (common vole)[7]
Microtus ochrogaster (prairie vole)[14]
Mycodiplosis inimica[6]
Nola aerugula <Unverified Name>[6]
Nomophila noctuella (Rush Veneer Moth)[7]
Nysius huttoni[12]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[8]
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)[8]
Orsodacne lineola <Unverified Name>[6]
Orthosia gothica (Hebrew Character)[6]
Otiorhynchus ligustici[6]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[8]
Papilio polyxenes (Eastern black swallowtail)[8]
Parectopa ononidis[6]
Peridroma saucia (variegated cutworm)[6]
Philaenus spumarius (meadow froghopper)[6]
Pieris napi (Green-veined White Butterfly)[7]
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)[8]
Piezodorus lituratus (Gorse Shield Bug)[7]
Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue Butterfly)[7]
Polyommatus semiargus <Unverified Name>[7]
Pseudococcus dolichomelos (false trochanter mealybug)[9]
Pseudococcus hypergaeus[9]
Pseudococcus sorghiellus (trochanter mealybug)[9]
Pseudombrophila ramosa[11]
Pyrgus malvae (Grizzled Skipper)[7]
Sarcopodium circinatum[11]
Scotopteryx bipunctaria[6]
Scotopteryx chenopodiata (Shaded Broad-bar Moth)[7]
Sidnia kinbergi[12]
Sitona hispidulus (clover-root weevil)[6]
Sitona lineatus (Striped Pea Weevil)[7]
Sitona macularius[7]
Sitona obsoletus[7]
Sitona puncticollis[6]
Sitona sulcifrons[6]
Sphecius speciosus (cicada killer)[8]
Stemphylium sarciniforme[7]
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)[8]
Temnostoma vespiforme[7]
Therioaphis luteola[6]
Therioaphis trifolii (Spotted alfalfa aphid)[6]
Thorybes pylades (Northern cloudywing skipper)[11]
Thrips obscuratus <Unverified Name>[12]
Thrips vulgatissimus[6]
Thymelicus sylvestris (Small Skipper)[7]
Tricholaba trifolii[6]
Tychius lineatulus[6]
Tychius polylineatus[6]
Tychius stephensi[6]
Urocitellus richardsonii (Richardson's ground squirrel)[15]
Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady)[7]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[8]
Wiseana cervinata[12]
Zygaena filipendulae (Six-spot Burnet)[6]
Zygaena lonicerae (Narrow-Bordered Five-Spot Burnet)[6]
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[8]
Colias philodice[8]
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)[8]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[8]
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)[8]
Philaenus spumarius[8]


Pollinated by 
Adscita statices <Unverified Name>[7]
Aglais urticae (Small Tortoiseshell)[7]
Alcidamea simplex <Unverified Name>[16]
Anthidium psoraleae[16]
Anthophora ursina[16]
Apallates coxendix[11]
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)[11]
Aporia crataegi (Black-veined White Butterfly)[7]
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)[16]
Argynnis cybele <Unverified Name>[16]
Asclera ruficollis[11]
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)[7]
Boloria selene (Silver-bordered fritillary)[7]
Bombias auricomus <Unverified Name>[16]
Bombias scutellaris <Unverified Name>[16]
Bombias separatus <Unverified Name>[16]
Bombus americanorum[16]
Bombus campestris (Field Cuckoo-bee)[7]
Bombus consimilis <Unverified Name>[16]
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)[8]
Bombus hortorum (Small Garden Humble-bee)[7]
Bombus impatiens[16]
Bombus lapidarius (Stone Humble-bee)[7]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[7]
Bombus muscorum (Moss Carder-bee)[11]
Bombus pascuorum (Common Carder-bee)[7]
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)[7]
Bombus ridingsii <Unverified Name>[16]
Bombus variabilis (Variable Cuckoo Bumblebee)[16]
Brassicogethes aeneus[11]
Callidryas eubule <Unverified Name>[16]
Calliopsis andreniformis[16]
Chrysotachina alcedo[11]
Clusia lateralis[11]
Coelioxys germana[11]
Coenonympha pamphilus (Small Heath Butterfly)[7]
Colletes brevicornis[11]
Epistrophe emarginata[11]
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)[11]
Eristalis tenax (drone fly)[11]
Eurymus philodice <Unverified Name>[16]
Everes comyntas (Eastern Tailed Blue)[16]
Exoprosopa fasciata[16]
Halictus lerouxii[16]
Hemaris thysbe (common clear-wing)[8]
Heraclides cresphontes <Unverified Name>[16]
Hyptia reticulata[11]
Ichneumon longulus[11]
Iphiclides ajax <Unverified Name>[16]
Laertias philenor <Unverified Name>[16]
Limochores taumas <Unverified Name>[16]
Megachile brevis[16]
Melangyna novaezelandiae[11]
Melanostoma scalare[11]
Melissodes bimaculata[16]
Melitta leporina[7]
Osmia cordata[16]
Oxybelus emarginatus[11]
Papilio asterias <Unverified Name>[16]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[8]
Papilio polyxenes (Eastern black swallowtail)[8]
Peleteria robusta[11]
Phormia regina (Black blowfly)[11]
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)[16]
Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue Butterfly)[11]
Pontia protodice (Checkered White)[16]
Psithyrus laboriosus <Unverified Name>[16]
Scymnus consobrinus[11]
Siphona geniculata[11]
Spallanzania hesperidarum[11]
Syntomopus americanus[11]
Syritta pipiens (thick-legged hoverfly)[11]
Temnostoma vespiforme[7]
Tetralonia dilecta <Unverified Name>[16]
Thorybes pylades (Northern cloudywing skipper)[16]
Triepeolus helianthi[11]
Triepeolus remigatus[11]
Vanessa atalanta (red admiral)[16]
Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady)[7]
Vanessa huntera <Unverified Name>[16]
Xanthidia nicippe <Unverified Name>[16]


Parasitized by 
Ditylenchus dipsaci (Bud and stem nematode)[17]
Erysiphe trifolii[7]
Ischnopterapion virens <Unverified Name>[7]
Peronospora trifoliorum[11]
Pseudopeziza trifolii[11]
Stemphylium sarciniforme[7]
Uromyces fallens[11]
Shelter for 
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)[8]
Argiope aurantia (black-and-yellow argiope)[8]
Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug)[8]
Battus philenor (pipevine swallowtail)[8]
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)[8]
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)[8]
Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick)[8]
Dynastes tityus (Eastern hercules beetle)[8]
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)[8]
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)[8]
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)[8]
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)[8]
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)[8]
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)[8]
Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)[8]
Pterostichus melanarius (Common black ground beetle)[8]
Rabidosa rabida (Rabid wolf spider)[8]
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)[8]
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)[8]
Tenodera aridifolia (Chinese mantid)[8]
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)[8]
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)[8]
Triatoma sanguisuga (Eastern blood-sucking cone)[8]
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[8]
Colias philodice[8]
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)[8]
Melanoplus differentialis (Differential Grasshopper)[8]
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)[8]
Philaenus spumarius[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


Afghanistan (native); Alaska-Aleutian Is (introduced); Albania (native); Algeria (native); Antipodean Is (introduced); Argentina (introduced); Armenia (native); Australia (introduced); Austria-F.E. (native); Azerbaijan (native); Azores (native); Bahamas (introduced); Bassegi Zapovednik; Belarus (native); Belgium-F.E. (native); Bermuda (uncertain); Bhutan (native); Bulgaria (native); Canada (introduced); Chatham Is (introduced); Chile (introduced); China (introduced); Colombia (introduced); Corsica (native); Cuba (uncertain); Czechoslovakia (native); Denmark (native); Estonia (native); Ethiopia (introduced); Finland (native); Foroyar (introduced); France-F.E. (native); Germany (native); Great Britain (native); Greece (native); Gruzia (native); Guatemala (introduced); Hawaii (uncertain); Hungary (native); Iceland (introduced); India (native); Indonesia-ISO (introduced); Iran (native); Iraq (native); Ireland-F.E. (native); Israel (native); Italy-F.E. (native); Jamaica (uncertain); Japan (introduced); Jawa (native); Kazakhstan (native); Kenya (introduced); Kermadec Is (introduced); Kirgizstan (native); Latvia (native); Lebanon-Syria (introduced); Lithuania (native); Malta (uncertain); Moldova (native); Mongolia (native); Morocco (native); Nepal (introduced); Netherlands (native); New Zealand(North) (introduced); New Zealand(South) (introduced); Norway (native); Pakistan (native); Peru (introduced); Philippines (introduced); Poland (native); Portugal (native); Puerto Rico (uncertain); Romania (native); Russia in Asia (native); Russia in Europe (native); Sardegna (native); Sicilia (native); South Africa (introduced); Spain-F.E. (native); Sri Lanka (introduced); Sweden (native); Switzerland (native); Tadzhikistan (native); Taiwan (uncertain); Tasmania (introduced); Tunisia (native); Turkey in Asia (native); Turkey in Europe (native); Turkmenistan (native); Ukraine (native); United States (introduced); Uruguay (introduced); Uzbekistan (native); Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake; Yugoslavia (native);



Attributes / relations provided by
1Arnold SEJ, Faruq S, Savolainen V, McOwan PW, Chittka L, 2010 FReD: The Floral Reflectance Database — A Web Portal for Analyses of Flower Colour. PLoS ONE 5(12): e14287.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
5Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
6Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
7Ecology of Commanster
8Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
10SNOW VOLE - Chionomys nivalis (Martins 1842), Janeau G., Aulagnier S., IBEX J.M.E. 4:1997
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
12New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
13Butterflies of Canada, Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility
14Microtus ochrogaster, Dick T. Stalling, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 355, pp. 1-9 (1990)
15Spermophilus richardsonii, Gail R. Michener and James W. Koeppl, Mammalian Species No. 243, pp. 1-8, (1985)
16Robertson, C. Flowers and insects lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty three flowers. 1929. The Science Press Printing Company Lancaster, PA.
17Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access