Animalia > Arthropoda > Insecta > Hymenoptera > Apoidea > Apidae > Apis > Apis mellifera
 

Apis mellifera (honey bee)

Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. The genus name Apis is Latin for "bee", and mellifera means "honey-bearing".
View Wikipedia Record: Apis mellifera

Attributes

Diet [1]  Herbivore
Hibernates [1]  Yes
Maximum Longevity [2]  8 years

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Al Wathba Wetland Reserve 1236 Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates      
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Fenland 1529 England, United Kingdom
Fenn`s, Whixall, Bettisfield, Wem and Cadney Mosses 2346 England/Wales, United Kingdom  
Hackpen Hill 89 England, United Kingdom  
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Lower Derwent Valley 2263 England, United Kingdom
Margate and Long Sands 160406 England, United Kingdom
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Solent Maritime 27985 England, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom

Ecosystems

Emblem of

Arkansas
Georgia (US)
Kansas
Louisiana
Maine
Mississippi
Missouri
Nebraska
New Mexico
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Dakota
Utah
Vermont
West Virginia
Wisconsin

Prey / Diet

Achillea millefolium (yarrow)[3]
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Common Ragweed)[4]
Anemone nemorosa (European thimbleweed)[5]
Asclepias fascicularis (narrowleaf milkweed)[3]
Asclepias syriaca (broadleaf milkweed)[4]
Baccharis pilularis (Coyote Brush)[3]
Bidens frondosa (Devil's Beggarticks)[4]
Bistorta officinalis (meadow bistort)[5]
Calluna vulgaris (heather)[5]
Cardamine pratensis (Cuckoo Flower)[5]
Carduus pycnocephalus (Italian Thistle)[3]
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)[4]
Centaurea melitensis (Tecolote)[3]
Chrysolepis chrysophylla (giant chinquapin)[3]
Cichorium intybus (chicory)[4]
Cirsium arvense (Creeping Thistle)[5]
Cirsium palustre (Marsh Thistle)[5]
Cirsium vulgare (Spear Thistle)[4]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[4]
Corylus avellana (common filbert)[5]
Cosmos bipinnatus (garden cosmos)[3]
Crataegus laevigata (Midland Hawthorn)[5]
Crataegus monogyna (Common Hawthorn)[5]
Croton setigerus (dove weed)[3]
Cynara cardunculus (artichoke thistle)[3]
Cytisus scoparius (Broomtops)[5]
Daucus carota (bird's nest)[4]
Desmodium canadense (Beggar's Lice)[4]
Echium candicans (pride of Madeira)[3]
Eriogonum fasciculatum (flattop buckwheat)[3]
Erodium cicutarium (redstem)[3]
Eupatorium maculatum (Spotted Joe-pye Weed)[4]
Fragaria virginiana (Virginia Strawberry)[4]
Heliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)[3]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. granatense[5]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[4]
Impatiens capensis (jewelweed)[4]
Lavandula stoechas (French lavender)[3]
Leptecophylla juniperina[3]
Linaria vulgaris (Butter-and-Eggs)[3]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[4]
Lotus pedunculatus (big trefoil)[5]
Mabea fistulifera[6]
Marrubium vulgare (horehound)[3]
Oxalis montana (mountain woodsorrel)[5]
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup)[3]
Peltandra virginica (green arrow arum)[4]
Pontederia cordata (Pickerel Weed)[4]
Robinia pseudoacacia (Post locust)[4]
Rosa virginiana (Virginia Rose)[4]
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)[3]
Rubus idaeus (Raspberry)[5]
Salix aurita (eared willow)[5]
Salvia mellifera (black sage)[3]
Saururus cernuus (lizard's tail)[4]
Symphyotrichum dumosum (Small White Aster)[4]
Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (New England aster)[3]
Symplocarpus foetidus (Skunk Cabbage)[4]
Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy)[5]
Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)[4]
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)[4]
Tropaeolum majus (nasturtium)[3]
Utricularia macrorhiza (greater bladderwort)[4]
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)[4]
Verbascum thapsus (great mullein)[4]
Viola pedata (birdfoot violet)[4]
Acer rubrum (red maple)[4]
Salix nigra (black willow)[4]
Ulmus americana (American elm)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Abraxas grossulariata (Magpie Moth)4
Acronicta menyanthidis (Light Knot Grass)4
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)7
Aglais urticae (Small Tortoiseshell)5
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)5
Andrena cineraria (Grey Mining Bee)5
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)5
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)5
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)8
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)4
Bison bonasus (European bison)4
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)23
Bombus hortorum (Small Garden Humble-bee)4
Bombus lapidarius (Stone Humble-bee)9
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)11
Bombus pascuorum (Common Carder-bee)10
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)11
Bombus terrestris (Large Earth Humble-bee)8
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Carnation Tortrix)4
Callistege mi (Mother Shipton Moth)4
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)7
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)5
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)5
Cassida rubiginosa (Thistle Tortoise Beetle)4
Castor canadensis (american beaver)6
Cnephasia asseclana (Flax Tortrix Moth)7
Cnephasia incertana (Light Grey Tortrix Moth)5
Cnephasia stephensiana (Grey Tortrix Moth)5
Coenonympha pamphilus (Small Heath Butterfly)6
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)9
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)11
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)4
Dilophus febrilis (Fever Fly)4
Ectropis crepuscularia (small engrailed)4
Ematurga atomaria (Common Heath Moth)4
Empis livida5
Ensina sonchi4
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)7
Eristalis arbustorum6
Euclidia glyphica (Burnet Companion Moth)5
Eupeodes latifasciatus4
Eupeodes luniger4
Eupithecia vulgata (Common Pug Moth)5
Gonepteryx rhamni (Brimstone Butterfly)4
Graphomya maculata4
Gymnoscelis rufifasciata (Double-striped Pug)4
Helophilus pendulus (Striped Hover Fly)7
Helophilus trivittatus (Sun Fly)5
Hemithea aestivaria (Common Emerald)4
Hydriomena furcata (July Highflyer)4
Lacanobia contigua (Beautiful Brocade)5
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)5
Lasiocampa trifolii (Grass Eggar)4
Lycaena phlaeas (Small Copper Butterfly)6
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)7
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)4
Lymnaea stagnalis (swamp lymnaea)4
Maniola jurtina (Meadow Brown Butterfly)4
Marmota monax (woodchuck)4
Melanchra pisi (Broom Moth)4
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)14
Meliscaeva cinctella6
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)4
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)6
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)5
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)6
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)18
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)7
Orgyia antiqua (Rusty Tussock Moth)4
Papilio machaon (Old World swallowtail)4
Parasyrphus annulatus4
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)12
Phragmatobia fuliginosa (ruby tiger moth)6
Pieris napi (Green-veined White Butterfly)7
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)6
Plagodis pulveraria (Barred Umber Moth)4
Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue Butterfly)5
Pyrgus malvae (Grizzled Skipper)5
Rhingia campestris5
Sarcophaga carnaria (Camouflaged Flesh Fly)5
Saturnia pavonia (Emperor moth)4
Scaeva pyrastri4
Scathophaga stercoraria (Common Yellow Dung Fly)4
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)5
Sericomyia silentis5
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)6
Sitochroa verticalis4
Sphecius speciosus (cicada killer)4
Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch)9
Stenurella melanura5
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)15
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)6
Thrips vulgatissimus4
Thymelicus sylvestris (Small Skipper)4
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)4
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)5
Yponomeuta padella (Common Hawthorn Ermel Moth)4
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)4
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)4

Predators

Afroscleropogon dilutus <Unverified Name>[7]
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)[5]
Albibarbefferia albibarbis <Unverified Name>[7]
Albibarbefferia grandis <Unverified Name>[7]
Alcimus setifemoratus[7]
Anax junius (green darner)[4]
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)[4]
Andrenosoma albibarbe[7]
Andrenosoma rubida[7]
Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit)[5]
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)[5]
Apothechyla perkinsi <Unverified Name>[7]
Apus apus (Common Swift)[5]
Aquarius remigis (Common water strider)[4]
Araneus diadematus (Cross garden spider)[3]
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)[4]
Argiope aurantia (black-and-yellow argiope)[4]
Asilella karafutonis[7]
Asilella londti <Unverified Name>[7]
Asilus crabroniformis[7]
Asilus sericeus[7]
Asiola atkinsi[7]
Astochia caspica[7]
Bana apicida[7]
Blepharepium annulatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Blepharepium cajennensis[7]
Camponotus modoc (Carpenter ant)[3]
Cerdistus fuscipennis[7]
Cerotainiops abdominalis[7]
Choerades flavipes <Unverified Name>[7]
Choerades ignea <Unverified Name>[7]
Chrysopogon albopunctatus[7]
Chrysopogon conopsoides[7]
Chrysopogon harpaleus[7]
Chrysopogon muelleri[7]
Chrysopogon splendidissimus[7]
Colepia abludo[7]
Colepia ignicolor[7]
Colepia ingloria[7]
Colepia malleola[7]
Colepia rufiventris[7]
Contopus virens (Eastern Wood-Pewee)[3]
Cophinopoda chinensis[7]
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)[5]
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)[4]
Dakinomyia secuta[7]
Dasophrys androclea[7]
Dasophrys natalensis[7]
Daspletis hermanni <Unverified Name>[7]
Daspletis setithoracicus <Unverified Name>[7]
Dasylechia atrox[7]
Dasypogon crassus[7]
Dasypogon diadema[7]
Dasypogon irinelae[7]
Deromyia bilineatus[7]
Diogmites angustipennis[7]
Diogmites basalis[7]
Diogmites crudelis[7]
Diogmites discolor[7]
Diogmites esuriens[7]
Diogmites misellus[7]
Diogmites missouriensis[7]
Diogmites neoternatus[7]
Diogmites properans[7]
Diogmites salutans[7]
Dolomedes triton (Six-spottedfishingspider)[4]
Dolopus rubrithorax[7]
Dolopus simulans[7]
Dysmachus bimucronatus[7]
Dysmachus kasachstanicus[7]
Echthistus cognatus[7]
Efferia completa[7]
Efferia pernicis[7]
Eicherax ricnotes[7]
Eremisca decipiens <Unverified Name>[7]
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)[5]
Eutolmus bevistylus[7]
Eutolmus rufibarbis (Golden-tabbed Robber Fly)[7]
Eutolmus sedakoffii[7]
Hypenetes grisescens[7]
Hyperechia bifasciata[7]
Hyperechia imitator[7]
Lampria bicolor[7]
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)[8]
Laphria canis[7]
Laphria cinerea[7]
Laphria flava (Bumblebee Robber Fly)[7]
Laphria flavicollis (Robber fly)[7]
Laphria gibbosa <Unverified Name>[7]
Laphria grossa[7]
Laphria saffrana[7]
Laphria sericea[7]
Laphria thoracica[7]
Laphria virginica[7]
Laphystia litoralis[7]
Laphystia ochreifrons[7]
Laxenecera albicincta[7]
Leipoa ocellata (Malleefowl)[3]
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)[4]
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)[4]
Locustella naevia (Common Grasshopper Warbler)[5]
Machimus annulipes[7]
Machimus fimbriatus[7]
Machimus novaescotiae[7]
Machimus pilipes[7]
Machimus rusticus[7]
Machimus setibarbus <Unverified Name>[7]
Mallophora armata[7]
Mallophora bigotii[7]
Mallophora bomboides (Florida bee killer)[7]
Mallophora calida[7]
Mallophora dureti[7]
Mallophora emiliae[7]
Mallophora fautrix[7]
Mallophora macquartii[7]
Mallophora media[7]
Mallophora orcina (southern bee killer)[7]
Mallophora pica[7]
Mallophora robusta[7]
Mallophora ruficauda[7]
Mallophora sylveirii[7]
Mantis religiosa (Praying mantis)[3]
Mauropteron pelago[7]
Mecaphesa schlingeri[3]
Megaphorus clausicellus[7]
Megaphorus frustra[7]
Megaphorus guildiana[7]
Megaphorus laphroides[7]
Megaphorus willistoni[7]
Merops hirundineus (Swallow-tailed Bee-eater)[3]
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)[4]
Microstylum capense[7]
Microstylum parcum[7]
Microstylum taeniatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Misumena vatia (flower spider)[4]
Molobratia japonicus <Unverified Name>[7]
Molobratia teutonus[7]
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)[4]
Neoaratus hercules[7]
Neoitamus bulbus[7]
Neoitamus socius[5]
Neoitamus walkeri[7]
Neolophonotus abuntius[7]
Neolophonotus albofasciatus[7]
Neolophonotus bimaculatus[7]
Neolophonotus crinitus[7]
Neolophonotus hessei[7]
Neolophonotus louisi[7]
Neolophonotus melanolophus[7]
Neolophonotus rapax[7]
Neolophonotus robustus[7]
Neolophonotus schoemani[7]
Neolophonotus suillus[7]
Neolophonotus variabilis[7]
Neoscleropogon digentius[7]
Neoscleropogon durvillei[7]
Neoscleropogon flavipennis[7]
Neoscleropogon macquarti[7]
Neoscleropogon nicoteles[7]
Nerax aestuans <Unverified Name>[7]
Nerax femoratus <Unverified Name>[7]
Nucifraga caryocatactes (Spotted Nutcracker)[5]
Ommatius mackayi[7]
Ospriocerus latipennis <Unverified Name>[7]
Pegesimallus pedunculatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (Cliff Swallow)[3]
Peucetia viridans (Green lynx spider)[3]
Philanthus triangulum (European beewolf)[3]
Philodicus fraterculus <Unverified Name>[7]
Philodicus swynnertoni[7]
Philodicus tenuipes[7]
Phoenicurus ochruros (Black Redstart)[5]
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)[5]
Plesiomma fuliginosum[7]
Pogonioefferia auripila <Unverified Name>[7]
Pogonioefferia frewingi <Unverified Name>[7]
Pogonioefferia helenae <Unverified Name>[7]
Pogonioefferia pallidula <Unverified Name>[7]
Pogonioefferia pogonias <Unverified Name>[7]
Pogonioefferia rapax <Unverified Name>[7]
Pogonioefferia texana <Unverified Name>[7]
Pogonioefferia triton <Unverified Name>[7]
Pogonioefferia varipes <Unverified Name>[7]
Proctacanthus arno[7]
Proctacanthus brevipennis[7]
Proctacanthus coquillettii[7]
Proctacanthus duryi[7]
Proctacanthus fulviventris[7]
Proctacanthus gracilis[7]
Proctacanthus heros[7]
Proctacanthus hinei[7]
Proctacanthus longus[7]
Proctacanthus milbertii[7]
Proctacanthus nearno[7]
Proctacanthus nigriventris[7]
Proctacanthus occidentalis[7]
Proctacanthus philadelphicus[7]
Proctacanthus rufus[7]
Progne subis (Purple Martin)[3]
Prolepsis tristis[7]
Promachus albicinctus[7]
Promachus albifacies[7]
Promachus apivorus[7]
Promachus bastardii[7]
Promachus canus[7]
Promachus dimidiatus[7]
Promachus doddi[7]
Promachus fasciatus[7]
Promachus fitchii (Nebraska beekiller)[7]
Promachus hinei[7]
Promachus magnus[7]
Promachus negligens[7]
Promachus princeps[7]
Promachus quadratus[7]
Promachus rufipes[7]
Promachus texanus[7]
Promachus vagator <Unverified Name>[7]
Promachus vertebratus[7]
Promachus wollastoni[7]
Promachus yesonicus[7]
Questopogon lineatus[7]
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)[4]
Reburrus bancrofti[7]
Saropogon dispar[7]
Saxicola rubicola (European Stonechat)[5]
Scleropogon bradleyi[7]
Scleropogon subulatus[7]
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)[3]
Stenopogon albociliatus[7]
Stenopogon avus[7]
Stenopogon breviusculoides[7]
Stenopogon felis[7]
Stenopogon gratus[7]
Stenopogon inquinatus[7]
Stenopogon jubatus[7]
Stenopogon laevigatus[7]
Stenopogon macilentus[7]
Stenopogon martini[7]
Stenopogon obispae[7]
Stenopogon obscuriventris[7]
Stenopogon rufibarbis[7]
Stenopogon sabaudus[7]
Stenopogon xanthotrichus[7]
Stiphrolamyra bipunctata[7]
Stizochymus salinator[7]
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)[5]
Sylvia communis (Common Whitethroat)[5]
Sylvia curruca (Lesser Whitethroat)[5]
Synema globosum[3]
Tenodera aridifolia (Chinese mantid)[4]
Thomisus onustus[3]
Tolmerus notatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Tolmerus paropus <Unverified Name>[7]
Tolmerus sadyates <Unverified Name>[7]
Trichodes apiarius <Unverified Name>[5]
Triorla interrupta[7]
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)[3]
Tyrannus verticalis (Western Kingbird)[3]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[3]
Vespa crabro (European hornet)[5]
Vespula maculifrons (eastern yellowjacket)[4]
Zosteria fulvipubescens[7]
Zosteria montana[7]
Zosteria rubens[7]

Providers

Parasite of 
Achroia grisella (Lesser wax moth)[3]
Braula coeca (Bee louse)[3]
Galleria mellonella (Greater wax moth)[3]
Varroa destructor (varroa mite)[3]
Pollinated by 
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[3]
Asphodelus aestivus[3]
Shelter 
Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine)[4]
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)[4]
Quercus velutina (Black Oak)[4]
Acer rubrum (red maple)[4]
Salix nigra (black willow)[4]
Ulmus americana (American elm)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Braula coeca (Bee louse)[9]
Crithidia mellificae <Unverified Name>[9]
Pollinator of 
Abutilon theophrasti (buttonweed)[10]
Acanthus spinosus (spine acanthus)[3]
Acer negundo (box elder)[10]
Acer rubrum (red maple)[4]
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)[10]
Actinomeris helianthoides (gravelweed)[10]
Agalinis auriculata (earleaf false foxglove)[10]
Agalinis tenuifolia (slender-leaf false foxglove)[10]
Agastache nepetoides (yellow giant hyssop)[10]
Agastache scrophulariaefolia <Unverified Name>[10]
Agauria salicifolia[11]
Alkanna tinctoria[3]
Allium neapolitanum (white garlic)[3]
Alstonia macrophylla (deviltree)[3]
Alternanthera ficoidea (sanguinaria)[3]
Amaranthus spinosus (pigweed species)[10]
Ambrosia trifida (Texan great ragweed)[10]
Amelanchier canadensis (Canadian serviceberry)[10]
Amomyrtus luma[3]
Amomyrtus meli[3]
Anchusa undulata[3]
Andryala pinnatifida[3]
Anemone coronaria (lilies-of-the-field)[3]
Anemone nemorosa (European thimbleweed)[5]
Anethum graveolens (dill)[10]
Antennaria plantaginifolia (woman's tobacco)[10]
Antirhea borbonica[3]
Aphloia theiformis (Mountain Peach)[11]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[3]
Apocynum cannabinum (prairie dogbane)[10]
Arctium minus (Common Burdock)[10]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (kinnikinnick)[12]
Argyranthemum tenerifae[13]
Arnica montana (leopard's bane)[3]
Arnoglossum reniforme (great Indian plantain)[10]
Ascerates floridana <Unverified Name>[10]
Asclepias hallii (Hall's milkweed)[12]
Asclepias incarnata (rose milkweed)[10]
Asclepias speciosa (showy milkweed)[12]
Asclepias sullivantii (prairie milkweed)[10]
Asclepias syriaca (broadleaf milkweed)[4]
Asclepias verticillata (eastern whorled milkweed)[10]
Asparagus officinalis (garden asparagus)[10]
Asphodelus aestivus[3]
Aspidonepsis diploglossa[14]
Aster novaeangliae <Unverified Name>[10]
Astilbe thunbergii[3]
Astragalus canadensis (Canadian milk-vetch)[10]
Astragalus monspessulanus (Franzosischer Tragant)[3]
Astragalus sinicus (Chinese milk-vetch)[3]
Avicennia germinans (black mangrove)[3]
Azorina vidalii[3]
Badula insularis[3]
Banisteriopsis muricata[15]
Barrosoa betonicifolia[3]
Berberis darwinii (Darwin's berberis)[3]
Berberis microphylla[3]
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)[3]
Bertiera zaluzania[11]
Bidens aristosa (bearded beggarticks)[10]
Bidens bipinnata (Spanish needles)[10]
Bidens frondosa (Devil's Beggarticks)[4]
Bidens laevis (bur-marigold)[10]
Biscutella didyma[3]
Bistorta elliptica[3]
Bistorta officinalis (meadow bistort)[5]
Blephilia ciliata (downy blephilia)[10]
Blephilia hirsuta (hairy pagoda-plant)[10]
Boechera dentata (Short's rockcress)[10]
Boltonia asteroides (white doll's daisy)[10]
Bonnetia sessilis[3]
Brucea javanica[16]
Bursera simaruba (gumbo limbo)[3]
Byrsonima gardnerana[15]
Byrsonima gardneriana[3]
Caldcluvia paniculata (Tiaca)[3]
Calendula arvensis (field marigold)[3]
Calluna vulgaris (heather)[5]
Calyptrion arboreum (marsh blue violet)[10]
Camassia scilloides (Atlantic camas)[10]
Campanula americana (American bellflower)[10]
Campanula rotundifolia (Harebell)[3]
Campuloclinium megacephalum[3]
Capraria biflora (goatweed)[3]
Capsella bursa-pastoris (Shepherd's Purse)[10]
Cardamine angustata (slender toothwort)[17]
Cardamine concatenata (Cutleaf Toothwort)[10]
Cardamine pratensis (Cuckoo Flower)[5]
Cassiope tetragona (white arctic mountain heather)[18]
Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut)[16]
Cayratia japonica (bushkiller)[3]
Cedronella canariensis (herb of Gilead)[3]
Centaurea jacea (Brown Knapweed)[3]
Cephalanthus tetrandra (Buttonbush)[10]
Cerastium holosteoides (Big chickweed)[10]
Cerastium nutans (nodding chickweed)[10]
Cercis canadensis (Judas Tree)[10]
Chamaecrista chamaecristoides (beach sensitive pea)[10]
Chamaenerium angustifolium[12]
Chamomilla chamomilla (German chamomile)[3]
Chondrilla juncea (rush skeletonweed)[3]
Cicuta maculata (poison parsnip)[10]
Cinnamomum verum (true cinnamon)[3]
Cirsium altissimum (tall thistle)[10]
Cirsium arvense (Creeping Thistle)[5]
Cirsium oleraceum (Cabbage thistle)[3]
Cirsium palustre (Marsh Thistle)[5]
Cirsium vulgare (Spear Thistle)[4]
Cistus albidus[3]
Cistus monspeliensis (Montpelier cistus)[3]
Cistus parviflorus (hairy rockrose)[3]
Cistus salviifolius (salvia cistus)[3]
Claytonia virginica (narrow-leaved spring beauty)[10]
Clematis virginiana (devil's-darning-needles)[10]
Coffea macrocarpa[11]
Collinsia verna (blue-eyed Mary)[10]
Comandra umbellata (bastard toadflax)[10]
Conoclinium coelestinum (blue mistflower)[10]
Convolvulus althaeoides (mallow bindweed)[3]
Convolvulus arvensis (perennial morningglory)[3]
Cordia gerascanthus (yauco)[3]
Coreopsis palmata (stiff coreopsis)[10]
Coreopsis tripteris (tall tickseed)[10]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[4]
Cornus oblonga (gray dogwood)[10]
Corylus avellana (common filbert)[5]
Crataegus coccinea (Scarlet Hawthorn)[10]
Crataegus crus-galli (cockspur hawthorn)[10]
Crataegus laevigata (Midland Hawthorn)[5]
Crataegus mollis (Downy Hawthorn)[10]
Crataegus monogyna (Common Hawthorn)[5]
Craterispermum microdon[3]
Crepidiastrum lanceolatum[3]
Croton fothergillifolius[11]
Cucurbita pepo (field pumpkin)[10]
Cyanus woronowii[10]
Cytisus scoparius (Broomtops)[5]
Cytisus supranubius[13]
Dahlia coccinea (red dahlia)[3]
Dalea candida (slender white prairieclover)[3]
Dalea purpurea (Purple prairieclover)[3]
Daphnopsis americana (burn nose)[3]
Dasistoma macrophylla (mullien seyemeria)[10]
Datura stramonium (moonflower)[10]
Deckenia nobilis (Millionaire's Salad)[3]
Dendropanax arboreus (angelica tree)[3]
Desmoscelis villosa[3]
Dicentra cucullaria (dutchman's breeches)[10]
Diospyros revaughanii[11]
Diospyros virginiana (Persimmon)[10]
Diplopterys pubipetala[15]
Dracaena reflexa (Song of India)[3]
Drimia maritima (red squill)[3]
Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber)[3]
Echinacea angustifolia (Narrow-leaved purple coneflower)[10]
Echinacea purpurea (Eastern purple coneflower)[10]
Echinocystis lobata (wild balsamapple)[10]
Echium wildpretii (tower of jewels)[13]
Embothrium coccineum (Chilean firetree)[3]
Enemion biternatum (eastern false rue anemone)[10]
Epilobium angustifolium subsp. angustifolium (Rosebay Willowherb)[3]
Epipactis palustris (marsh orchid)[3]
Erechthites hieracifolia <Unverified Name>[10]
Eremanthus erythropappus[3]
Erica tetralix (crossleaf heath)[3]
Erigenia bulbosa (harbinger of spring)[10]
Erigeron philadelphicus (Marsh fleabane)[10]
Erigeron strigosus var. strigosus (spreading daisy)[10]
Erodium cicutarium (redstem)[3]
Erodium malacoides (Mediterranean stork's bill)[3]
Eruca vesicaria (rocketsalad)[3]
Eryngium yuccifolium (button eryngo)[10]
Erysimum scoparium[13]
Erythronium albidum (white fawnlily)[10]
Erythronium umbilicatum (dimpled troutlily)[17]
Erythroxylum macrocarpum[11]
Eucryphia cordifolia (Ulmo)[3]
Eugenia kanakana[3]
Eupatorium compressum[3]
Eupatorium perfoliatum (Common Boneset)[10]
Eupatorium serotinum (late boneset)[10]
Faujasia flexuosa[3]
Flagellaria indica[3]
Frasera fastigiata (clustered green gentian)[10]
Frasera speciosa (green gentian)[12]
Fraxinus americanus <Unverified Name>[10]
Fritillaria graeca[3]
Galactites tomentosa (Purple Milk Thistle)[3]
Galianthe angustifolia[3]
Galianthe brasiliensis[3]
Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry)[19]
Geniostoma rupestre var. borbonicum[11]
Geranium erianthum (woolly geranium)[10]
Geranium richardsonii (Richardson's geranium)[12]
Geranium rotundifolium (roundleaf geranium)[3]
Gevuina avellana (Chilean hazel)[3]
Glechoma hederacea (groundivy)[10]
Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocusts)[10]
Gnaphalium polycephalum[10]
Gonzalagunia hirsuta (mata de Mariposa)[3]
Grangeria borbonica[11]
Grazielia gaudichaudeana[3]
Grindelia chiloensis[3]
Halimium halimifolium[3]
Hancea integrifolia[11]
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)[10]
Heliamphora heterodoxa[3]
Helianthus annuus (Sunflower)[10]
Helianthus divaricatus (woodland sunflower)[10]
Helianthus grosseserratus (sawtooth sunflower)[10]
Helichrysum proteoides[11]
Helichrysum stoechas[3]
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (Sharp-lobed hepatica)[10]
Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa (Roundlobe hepatica)[3]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. granatense[5]
Heracleum sphondylium var. nipponicum (cow parsnip)[10]
Hirschfeldia incana (Summer Cress)[3]
Holodiscus dumosus (bush oceanspray)[12]
Houstonia purpurea var. calycosa[10]
Hydrangea macrophylla (French hydrangea)[16]
Hydrangea paniculata (panicled hydrangea)[3]
Hydrangea serratifolia[3]
Hydrophyllum appendiculatum (great waterleaf)[10]
Hymenocarpos circinnatus (Spanish Medick)[3]
Hypochaeris radicata (Common Catsear)[3]
Hyptis conferta[20]
Hyptis radicans[3]
Ilex mucronata (catberry)[19]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[4]
Impatiens capensis (jewelweed)[4]
Ipomoea pandurata (bigroot morninglory)[10]
Ipomoea violacea (Beach moonflower)[3]
Isodon inflexus[3]
Isodon trichocarpus[16]
Ixora parviflora[3]
Jamesia americana (cliff Jamesia)[12]
Justicia americana (common water-willow)[10]
Justicia procumbens (Water Willow)[3]
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep laurel)[19]
Kalmia polifolia (bog kalmia)[3]
Krigia biflora (twoflower dwarfdandelion)[10]
Labourdonnaisia calophylloides[11]
Lactuca floridana (woodland lettuce)[10]
Lamium amplexicaule (henbit)[3]
Lathyrus cicera (red pea)[3]
Lavandula stoechas (French lavender)[3]
Leonurus cardiaca (common motherwort)[10]
Leopoldia comosa (tassel grape hyacinth)[3]
Lepidium draba (Whitetop)[3]
Leptadenia reticulata (butterflyweed)[10]
Lespedeza bicolor (shrubby lespedeza)[3]
Leucaena leucocephala (Wild mimosa)[3]
Liatris pycnostachya (Prairie blazing star)[10]
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)[3]
Ligustrum obtusifolium (border privet)[3]
Linaria biebersteinii (ramsted)[10]
Linaria vulgaris (Butter-and-Eggs)[3]
Lithospermum canescens (hoary gromwell)[10]
Lobelia spicata (palespike lobelia)[10]
Lomelosia stellata (Starflower pincushions)[3]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[4]
Lotus corniculatus (birdfoot deervetch)[3]
Lotus pedunculatus (big trefoil)[5]
Ludwigia nervosa[20]
Luma apiculata[3]
Lycopus americanus (American bugleweed)[10]
Lythrum acutangulum (wing-angle loosestrife)[10]
Lythrum salicaria (salicaire)[3]
Macairea pachyphylla[3]
Maianthemum racemosum (feathery false lily of the valley)[10]
Malcolmia chia[3]
Malva neglecta (roundleaf mallow)[10]
Malva sylvestris (High mallow)[3]
Marrubium vulgare (horehound)[10]
Medicago lupulina (nonesuch)[3]
Medusagyne oppositifolia (Jellyfish Tree)[3]
Melilotus albus (Sweet Clover)[10]
Memecylon elaeagni[3]
Memecylon ovatifolium[3]
Mentzelia multiflora (manyflowered mentzelia)[12]
Mertensia virginica (Virginia bluebells)[10]
Mikania micrantha (Bitter Vine)[3]
Mimosa camporum[20]
Molinaea alternifolia[11]
Monarda bradburiana (eastern beebalm)[10]
Monarda fistulosa (mintleaf beebalm)[10]
Morinda citrifolia[3]
Morinda royoc[3]
Myrceugenia ovata[3]
Myrceugenia parvifolia[3]
Myrceugenia planipes[3]
Nelumbo lutea (American lotus)[10]
Nepenthes pervillei[3]
Nepeta cataria (field balm)[10]
Nephrosperma van-houtteanum[3]
Oenothera biennis (king's-cureall)[10]
Oenothera gaura (biennial beeblossom)[10]
Olea lancea[11]
Opuntia stricta (Spiny pest pear)[3]
Osmorrhiza longistylis <Unverified Name>[10]
Ovidia andina[3]
Oxalis bakeriana (creeping woodsorrel)[10]
Oxalis montana (mountain woodsorrel)[5]
Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup)[3]
Oxalis violacea (purple woodsorrel)[10]
Oxypolis rigidior (stiff cowbane)[10]
Pachycereus schottii (senita cactus)[21]
Pagameopsis garryoides[3]
Papaver rhoeas (corn poppy)[3]
Paraserianthes falcataria[3]
Passiflora suberosa (maypop)[3]
Pastinaca sativa (wild parship)[10]
Pemphis acidula[3]
Penstemon laevigatus (eastern smooth beardtongue)[10]
Penstemon secundiflorus (sidebells penstemon)[3]
Penstemon unilateralis (oneside penstemon)[12]
Persicaria bicornis (Pennsylvania knotweed)[10]
Persicaria foliosa var. paludicola (swamp smartweed)[10]
Persicaria punctata (dotted smartweed)[10]
Petalostemon purpureus (Purple prairie clover)[12]
Petalostemum candidum <Unverified Name>[10]
Petalostemum purpureum <Unverified Name>[10]
Petrorhagia dubia (hairypink)[3]
Phoenicophorium borsigianum (Thief Palm)[3]
Physocarpus opulifolius (common ninebark)[12]
Pimelea ligustrina[3]
Pimpinella cumbrae[13]
Piscidia piscipula (Florida fishpoison tree)[3]
Plantago lagopus[3]
Plocama pendula (Balo)[3]
Podophyllum peltatum (may apple)[10]
Poecilandra retusa[3]
Polemonium reptans (Greek valerian)[10]
Polyscias maraisiana[3]
Polytaenia nuttallii (Nuttall's prairie parsley)[10]
Pontederia cordata (Pickerel Weed)[4]
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)[10]
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)[10]
Prasium majus[3]
Praxelis pauciflora[10]
Prunus americana (Wild Plum)[10]
Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)[10]
Psiadia terebinthina[11]
Psidium cattleianum (Cattley guava)[3]
Psoralea onobrychis (French-grass)[10]
Ptelea trifoliata (hoptree)[10]
Pterocephalus lasiospermus[13]
Pterocephalus plumosus[3]
Pycnanthemum flexuosum (Appalachian mountainmint)[10]
Pycnanthemum verticillatum var. pilosum (whorled mountainmint)[10]
Pycnanthemum virginianum (Virginia mountain-mint)[10]
Pyrostria fasciculata[11]
Quadrella odoratissima[3]
Radicula obtusa <Unverified Name>[10]
Ranunculus abortivus (kidney-leaf buttercup)[10]
Ranunculus fascicularis (prairie buttercup)[10]
Reichardia picroides (common brighteyes)[3]
Reynoutria japonica (Japanese knotweed)[3]
Rhamnus lanceolata (lanceleaf buckthorn)[10]
Rhaphithamnus spinosus[3]
Rhaponticum carthamoides (Maral root)[10]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[10]
Ribes cynosbati (pasture currant)[10]
Robinia pseudoacacia (Post locust)[10]
Rosa acicularis (prickly rose)[12]
Rosa rubiginosa (Sweet briar)[3]
Rosa setigera (Michigan Rose)[10]
Roscheria melanochaetes[3]
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)[3]
Roussea simplex[11]
Rubus alceifolius[3]
Rubus canadensis (Highbush Blackberry)[10]
Rubus deliciosus (Boulder Raspberry)[12]
Rubus idaeus (Raspberry)[5]
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)[10]
Rubus ulmifolius (elmleaf blackberry)[3]
Rudbeckia hirta (Black-eyed Susan)[10]
Rudbeckia laciniata (Cutleaf Coneflower)[10]
Rudbeckia subtomentosa (sweet coneflower)[10]
Rudbeckia triloba (Thin-leaved Coneflower)[10]
Sagittaria latifolia (Duck Potato)[10]
Salix amygdaloides (peachleaf willow)[10]
Salix arctica (arctic willow)[18]
Salix aurita (eared willow)[5]
Salix caprea (goat willow)[5]
Salix cinerea (large gray willow)[5]
Salix cordata (heartleaf willow)[10]
Salix fragilis (crack willow)[19]
Salix humilis (prairie willow)[10]
Salix interior (sandbar willow)[10]
Salix nigra (black willow)[4]
Salix repens (creeping willow)[3]
Salvia verbenaca (verbena sage)[3]
Sambucus canadensis (American black elderberry)[10]
Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot)[10]
Sarcopoterium spinosum[3]
Saururus cernuus (lizard's tail)[4]
Saxifraga oppositifolia (purple mountain saxifrage)[18]
Scaevola sericea (beach naupaka)[3]
Scandix australis[3]
Schultesia brachyptera (short wingcup)[20]
Scorzonera franchetii[10]
Scrophularia marilandica (maryland figwort)[10]
Securigera varia (Axseed)[22]
Sherardia arvensis (Field Madder)[3]
Sicyos angulatus (bur cucumber)[10]
Sideroxylon cinereum[11]
Sideroxylon puberulum[11]
Silphium integrifolium (Deam's rosinweed)[10]
Silphium laciniatum (Compass Flower)[10]
Silphium perfoliatum (cup plant)[10]
Silphium terebinthinaceum (Lucy Braun's rosinweed)[10]
Siphanthera cordifolia[3]
Sisymbrium orientale (Oriental Sisymbrium)[3]
Sisyranthus trichostomus[14]
Sium suave (hemlock water-parsnip)[10]
Smilax anceps[3]
Smilax herbacea (Carrion Flower)[10]
Smilax tamnoides (Bristly Greenbrier)[10]
Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod)[10]
Solidago missouriensis (Missouri goldenrod)[3]
Solidago nemoralis (Gray Goldenrod)[10]
Solidago rigida (stiff goldenrod)[10]
Solidago speciosa (Showy Goldenrod)[10]
Solidago virgaurea (European goldenrod)[3]
Sonchus tenerrimus (slender sowthistle)[3]
Spermacoce multiflora[20]
Sphagneticola trilobata (Bay Biscayne Creeping-oxeye)[3]
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (light-blue snakeweed)[3]
Stanleya pinnata var. pinnata[12]
Staphylea trifolia (american bladdernut)[10]
Stellaria media (chickweed)[10]
Sternbergia lutea (Autumn Daffodil)[3]
Stevia myriadenia[3]
Stillingia lineata[3]
Stylocline citroleum (grass-leaved goldenrod)[10]
Succisa pratensis (devilsbit)[3]
Symphoricarpos orbicularis <Unverified Name>[10]
Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (Side-flowering Aster)[10]
Symphyotrichum pilosum (Frost Aster)[10]
Symphyotrichum turbinellum (smooth violet prairie aster)[10]
Symphyotrichum undulatum (wavyleaf aster)[10]
Syngonanthus caulescens[20]
Taenidia integerrima (yellow pimpernell)[10]
Talipariti tiliaceum (mahoe)[3]
Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy)[5]
Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)[4]
Taraxacum tenejapense[3]
Tepualia stipularis[3]
Teucrium canadense (American germander)[10]
Thalictrum dasycarpum (purple meadowrue)[10]
Thalictrum fendleri (Fendler's meadowrue)[12]
Thalictrum thalictroides (rue anemone)[10]
Thapsia garganica[3]
Thespesia populnea (Portia tree)[3]
Thymelaea hirsuta[3]
Thymelaea tartonraira[3]
Tiarella cordifolia (heartleaf foamflower)[3]
Tilia americana (American basswood)[10]
Tradescantia virginiana (Spiderwort)[10]
Tribulus cistoides (puncture vine)[3]
Trientalis europaea (arctic starflower)[3]
Trifolium arvense (hare's foot clover)[3]
Trifolium hybridum (Alsike Clover)[10]
Trifolium repens (Ladino Clover)[10]
Trifolium stellatum (Star Clover)[3]
Trochetia blackburniana[3]
Turnera ulmifolia (Yellow Alder)[3]
Ugni molinae (Chilean guava)[3]
Ulex genistoides[3]
Ulex minor (Dwarf Furze)[3]
Ulmus americana (American elm)[4]
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)[10]
Utricularia macrorhiza (greater bladderwort)[4]
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)[4]
Vaccinium myrtilloides (velvetleaf huckleberry)[19]
Vaccinium myrtillus (myrtle blueberry)[3]
Vaccinium uliginosum (bog blueberry)[3]
Vaccinium vitis-idaea (lingonberry)[3]
Verbascum thapsus (great mullein)[4]
Verbena hastata (blue verbena)[10]
Verbena stricta (hoary vervain)[10]
Verbena urticaefolia <Unverified Name>[10]
Verbesina alternifolia (wingstem)[10]
Vernonia rugosa (little ironweed)[10]
Veronica persica (bird-eye speedwell)[3]
Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's root)[10]
Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw)[10]
Vincetoxicum purpurascens (purple milkweed)[10]
Viola pedata (birdfoot violet)[10]
Viola striata (striped cream violet)[10]
Vitis vulpina (fox grape)[10]
Warneckea trinervis[11]
Wedelia hookeriana[3]
Weigela hortensis[16]
Xyris savanensis[20]
Xysmalobium gerrardii[14]
Zanthoxylum americanum (Common pricky-ash)[10]
Zea mays (corn)[10]
Zizia aurea (golden zizia)[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Artis Zoo
Audubon Zoo
Bermuda Aquarium Museum and Zoo
Brandywine Zoo
Bristol Zoo Gardens
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Children's Zoo at Celebration Square
Coyote Point Museum
Dallas Zoo
Detroit Zoological Society
Faunia (Parque Biologico De Madrid,SA)
Liberty Science Center
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
Miami Metrozoo
North Carolina Zoological Park
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Rotterdam Zoo
Saint Louis Zoological Park
Sequoia Park Zoo
Tierpark Lange Erlen
Utah's Hogle Zoo
Zoological Society of London

Distribution

Africa; Australia; Caribbean; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); Middle America; North America; Oceania; South America; Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 4Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 5Ecology of Commanster 6A Meeting of Opportunists: Birds and Other Visitors to Mabea fistulifera (Euphorbiaceae) Inflorescences, Fábio Olmos and Ricardo L. P. Boulhosa, Ararajuba 8 (2): 93-98 (2000) 7Predator-Prey Database for the family Asilidae (Hexapoda: Diptera) Prepared by Dr. Robert Lavigne, Professor Emeritus, University of Wyoming, USA and Dr. Jason Londt (Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg) 8Diet composition and prey choice by the red-backed shrike Lanius collurio in western Poland, Piotr Tryjanowski, Malgorzata Karolina Karg, Jerzy Karg, Belg. J. Zool., 133 (2) : 157-162 (2003) 9Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19 10Robertson, C. Flowers and insects lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty three flowers. 1929. The Science Press Printing Company Lancaster, PA. 11Kaiser-Bunbury et al. 2009 Community structure of pollination webs of Mauritian heathland habitats. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 11, 241-254. 12Clements, R. E., and F. L. Long. 1923, Experimental pollination. An outline of the ecology of flowers and insects. Washington, D.C., USA, Carnegie Institute of Washington. 13Dupont YL, Hansen DM and Olesen JM (2003) Structure of a plant-flower-visitor network in the high-altitude sub-alpine desert of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Ecography 26:301-310 14Ollerton, J., S. D. Johnson, L. Cranmer, and S. Kellie. 2003. The pollination ecology of an assemblage of grassland asclepiads in South Africa. Annals of Botany 92:807-834 15Pollination networks of oil-flowers: a tiny world within the smallest of all worlds, Bezerra, Elisângela L.S.; Machado, Isabel C.; Mello, Marco A. R., Journal of Animal Ecology, Volume 78, Number 5, September 2009 , pp. 1096-1101(6) 16Kato, M., T. Makutani, T. Inoue, and T. Itino. 1990. Insect-flower relationship in the primary beech forest of Ashu, Kyoto: an overview of the flowering phenology and seasonal pattern of insect visits. Contr. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ. 27:309-375. 17Motten, A. F. 1986. Pollination ecology of the spring wildflower community of a temperate deciduous forest. Ecological Monographs 56:21-42. 18Insect-flower associations in the high Arctic with special reference to nectar., Hocking, B. 1968. Oikos 19:359-388 19Small, E. 1976. Insect pollinators of the Mer Bleue peat bog of Ottawa. Canadian Field Naturalist 90:22-28. 20Ramirez, N., and Y. Brito. 1992. Pollination Biology in a Palm Swamp Community in the Venezuelan Central Plains. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 110:277-302. 21Co-pollinators and specialization in the pollinating seed-consumer mutualism between senita cacti and senita moths, J. Nathaniel Holland, Theodore H. Fleming, Oecologia (2002) 133:534–540 22Arnold SEJ, Faruq S, Savolainen V, McOwan PW, Chittka L, 2010 FReD: The Floral Reflectance Database — A Web Portal for Analyses of Flower Colour. PLoS ONE 5(12): e14287.
Protected Areas provided by Ramsar Sites Information Service GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Carlsbad Caverns National Park Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
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