Animalia > Arthropoda > Insecta > Hymenoptera > Apoidea > Apidae > Apis > Apis mellifera
 

Apis mellifera (honey bee)

Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. The genus Apis is Latin for "bee", and mellifera comes from Latin melli- "honey" and ferre "to bear"—hence the scientific name means "honey-bearing bee". The name was coined in 1758 by Carolus Linnaeus who, upon realizing the bees do not bear honey, but nectar, tried later to correct it to Apis mellifica ("honey-making bee") in a subsequent publication.
View Wikipedia Record: Apis mellifera

Attributes

Diet [1]  Herbivore
Hibernates [1]  Yes
Maximum Longevity [2]  8 years

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Fenland 1529 England, United Kingdom
Fenn`s, Whixall, Bettisfield, Wem and Cadney Mosses 2346 England/Wales, United Kingdom  
Hackpen Hill 89 England, United Kingdom  
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Lower Derwent Valley 2263 England, United Kingdom
Margate and Long Sands 160406 England, United Kingdom
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Solent Maritime 27985 England, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom

Ecosystems

Emblem of

Arkansas
Georgia (US)
Kansas
Louisiana
Maine
Mississippi
Missouri
Nebraska
New Mexico
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Dakota
Utah
Vermont
West Virginia
Wisconsin

Prey / Diet

Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Common Ragweed)[3]
Anemone nemorosa (European thimbleweed)[4]
Asclepias syriaca (broadleaf milkweed)[3]
Bidens frondosa (Devil's Beggarticks)[3]
Bistorta officinalis (meadow bistort)[4]
Calluna vulgaris (heather)[4]
Cardamine pratensis (Cuckoo Flower)[4]
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)[3]
Cichorium intybus (chicory)[3]
Cirsium arvense (Creeping Thistle)[4]
Cirsium palustre (Marsh Thistle)[4]
Cirsium vulgare (Spear Thistle)[3]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[3]
Corylus avellana (common filbert)[4]
Crataegus laevigata (Midland Hawthorn)[4]
Crataegus monogyna (Common Hawthorn)[4]
Cytisus scoparius (Broomtops)[4]
Daucus carota (bird's nest)[3]
Desmodium canadense (Beggar's Lice)[3]
Eupatorium maculatum (Spotted Joe-pye Weed)[3]
Fragaria virginiana (Virginia Strawberry)[3]
Heracleum granatense (eltrot)[4]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[3]
Impatiens capensis (jewelweed)[3]
Keysseria helenae (Coltsfoot)[4]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[3]
Lotus pedunculatus (big trefoil)[4]
Mabea fistulifera[5]
Oxalis montana (mountain woodsorrel)[4]
Peltandra virginica (green arrow arum)[3]
Pontederia cordata (Pickerel Weed)[3]
Robinia pseudoacacia (Post locust)[3]
Rosa virginiana (Virginia Rose)[3]
Rubus idaeus (Raspberry)[4]
Salix aurita (eared willow)[4]
Saururus cernuus (lizard's tail)[3]
Symphyotrichum dumosum (Small White Aster)[3]
Symplocarpus foetidus (Skunk Cabbage)[3]
Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy)[4]
Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)[3]
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)[3]
Utricularia macrorhiza (greater bladderwort)[3]
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)[3]
Verbascum thapsus (great mullein)[3]
Viola pedata (birdfoot violet)[3]
Acer rubrum (red maple)[3]
Salix nigra (black willow)[3]
Ulmus americana (American elm)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)7
Aglais urticae (Small Tortoiseshell)6
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)5
Andrena cineraria (Grey Mining Bee)5
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)5
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)5
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)8
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)23
Bombus lapidarius (Stone Humble-bee)9
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)12
Bombus pascuorum (Common Carder-bee)11
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)12
Bombus terrestris (Large Earth Humble-bee)9
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)7
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)5
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)5
Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch)9
Castor canadensis (american beaver)6
Cnephasia asseclana (Flax Tortrix Moth)8
Cnephasia incertana (Light Grey Tortrix Moth)6
Cnephasia stephensiana (Grey Tortrix Moth)6
Coenonympha pamphilus (Small Heath Butterfly)6
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)9
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)11
Empis livida5
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)7
Eristalis arbustorum7
Euclidia glyphica (Burnet Companion Moth)5
Eupithecia vulgata (Common Pug Moth)5
Helophilus pendulus (Striped Hover Fly)7
Helophilus trivittatus (Sun Fly)5
Lacanobia contigua (Beautiful Brocade)5
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)5
Lycaena phlaeas (Small Copper Butterfly)6
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)7
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)14
Meliscaeva cinctella6
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)6
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)5
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)6
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)18
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)7
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)12
Phragmatobia fuliginosa (ruby tiger moth)6
Pieris napi (Green-veined White Butterfly)7
Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)6
Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue Butterfly)5
Pyrgus malvae (Grizzled Skipper)5
Rhingia campestris5
Sarcophaga carnaria (Camouflaged Flesh Fly)5
Scathophaga stercoraria (Common Yellow Dung Fly)5
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)5
Sericomyia silentis5
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)6
Stenurella melanura5
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)15
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)6
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)5

Predators

Afroscleropogon dilutus <Unverified Name>[6]
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)[4]
Albibarbefferia albibarbis <Unverified Name>[6]
Albibarbefferia grandis <Unverified Name>[6]
Alcimus setifemoratus[6]
Anax junius (green darner)[3]
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)[3]
Andrenosoma albibarbe[6]
Andrenosoma rubida[6]
Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit)[4]
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)[4]
Apothechyla perkinsi <Unverified Name>[6]
Apus apus (Common Swift)[4]
Aquarius remigis (Common water strider)[3]
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)[3]
Argiope aurantia (black-and-yellow argiope)[3]
Asilella karafutonis[6]
Asilella londti <Unverified Name>[6]
Asilus crabroniformis[6]
Asilus sericeus[6]
Asiola atkinsi[6]
Astochia caspica[6]
Bana apicida[6]
Blepharepium annulatum <Unverified Name>[6]
Blepharepium cajennensis[6]
Cerdistus fuscipennis[6]
Cerotainiops abdominalis[6]
Choerades flavipes <Unverified Name>[6]
Choerades ignea <Unverified Name>[6]
Chrysopogon albopunctatus[6]
Chrysopogon conopsoides[6]
Chrysopogon harpaleus[6]
Chrysopogon muelleri[6]
Chrysopogon splendidissimus[6]
Colepia abludo[6]
Colepia ignicolor[6]
Colepia ingloria[6]
Colepia malleola[6]
Colepia rufiventris[6]
Cophinopoda chinensis[6]
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)[4]
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)[3]
Dakinomyia secuta[6]
Dasophrys androclea[6]
Dasophrys natalensis[6]
Daspletis hermanni <Unverified Name>[6]
Daspletis setithoracicus <Unverified Name>[6]
Dasylechia atrox[6]
Dasypogon crassus[6]
Dasypogon diadema[6]
Dasypogon irinelae[6]
Deromyia bilineatus[6]
Diogmites angustipennis[6]
Diogmites basalis[6]
Diogmites crudelis[6]
Diogmites discolor[6]
Diogmites esuriens[6]
Diogmites misellus[6]
Diogmites missouriensis[6]
Diogmites neoternatus[6]
Diogmites properans[6]
Diogmites salutans[6]
Dolomedes triton (Six-spottedfishingspider)[3]
Dolopus rubrithorax[6]
Dolopus simulans[6]
Dysmachus bimucronatus[6]
Dysmachus kasachstanicus[6]
Echthistus cognatus[6]
Efferia completa[6]
Efferia pernicis[6]
Eicherax ricnotes[6]
Eremisca decipiens <Unverified Name>[6]
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)[4]
Eutolmus bevistylus[6]
Eutolmus rufibarbis (Golden-tabbed Robber Fly)[6]
Eutolmus sedakoffii[6]
Hypenetes grisescens[6]
Hyperechia bifasciata[6]
Hyperechia imitator[6]
Lampria bicolor[6]
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)[7]
Laphria canis[6]
Laphria cinerea[6]
Laphria flava (Bumblebee Robber Fly)[6]
Laphria flavicollis (Robber fly)[6]
Laphria gibbosa <Unverified Name>[6]
Laphria grossa[6]
Laphria saffrana[6]
Laphria sericea[6]
Laphria thoracica[6]
Laphria virginica[6]
Laphystia litoralis[6]
Laphystia ochreifrons[6]
Laxenecera albicincta[6]
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)[3]
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)[3]
Locustella naevia (Common Grasshopper Warbler)[4]
Machimus annulipes[6]
Machimus fimbriatus[6]
Machimus novaescotiae[6]
Machimus pilipes[6]
Machimus rusticus[6]
Machimus setibarbus <Unverified Name>[6]
Mallophora armata[6]
Mallophora bigotii[6]
Mallophora bomboides[6]
Mallophora calida[6]
Mallophora dureti[6]
Mallophora emiliae[6]
Mallophora fautrix[6]
Mallophora macquartii[6]
Mallophora media[6]
Mallophora orcina[6]
Mallophora pica[6]
Mallophora robusta[6]
Mallophora ruficauda[6]
Mallophora sylveirii[6]
Mauropteron pelago[6]
Megaphorus clausicellus[6]
Megaphorus frustra[6]
Megaphorus guildiana[6]
Megaphorus laphroides[6]
Megaphorus willistoni[6]
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)[3]
Microstylum capense[6]
Microstylum parcum[6]
Microstylum taeniatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Misumena vatia (flower spider)[3]
Molobratia japonicus <Unverified Name>[6]
Molobratia teutonus[6]
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)[3]
Neoaratus hercules[6]
Neoitamus bulbus[6]
Neoitamus socius[4]
Neoitamus walkeri[6]
Neolophonotus abuntius[6]
Neolophonotus albofasciatus[6]
Neolophonotus bimaculatus[6]
Neolophonotus crinitus[6]
Neolophonotus hessei[6]
Neolophonotus louisi[6]
Neolophonotus melanolophus[6]
Neolophonotus rapax[6]
Neolophonotus robustus[6]
Neolophonotus schoemani[6]
Neolophonotus suillus[6]
Neolophonotus variabilis[6]
Neoscleropogon digentius[6]
Neoscleropogon durvillei[6]
Neoscleropogon flavipennis[6]
Neoscleropogon macquarti[6]
Neoscleropogon nicoteles[6]
Nerax aestuans <Unverified Name>[6]
Nerax femoratus <Unverified Name>[6]
Nucifraga caryocatactes (Spotted Nutcracker)[4]
Ommatius mackayi[6]
Ospriocerus latipennis <Unverified Name>[6]
Pegesimallus pedunculatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Philodicus fraterculus <Unverified Name>[6]
Philodicus swynnertoni[6]
Philodicus tenuipes[6]
Phoenicurus ochruros (Black Redstart)[4]
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)[4]
Plesiomma fuliginosum[6]
Pogonioefferia auripila <Unverified Name>[6]
Pogonioefferia frewingi <Unverified Name>[6]
Pogonioefferia helenae <Unverified Name>[6]
Pogonioefferia pallidula <Unverified Name>[6]
Pogonioefferia pogonias <Unverified Name>[6]
Pogonioefferia rapax <Unverified Name>[6]
Pogonioefferia texana <Unverified Name>[6]
Pogonioefferia triton <Unverified Name>[6]
Pogonioefferia varipes <Unverified Name>[6]
Proctacanthus arno[6]
Proctacanthus brevipennis[6]
Proctacanthus coquillettii[6]
Proctacanthus duryi[6]
Proctacanthus fulviventris[6]
Proctacanthus gracilis[6]
Proctacanthus heros[6]
Proctacanthus hinei[6]
Proctacanthus longus[6]
Proctacanthus milbertii[6]
Proctacanthus nearno[6]
Proctacanthus nigriventris[6]
Proctacanthus occidentalis[6]
Proctacanthus philadelphicus[6]
Proctacanthus rufus[6]
Prolepsis tristis[6]
Promachus albicinctus[6]
Promachus albifacies[6]
Promachus apivorus[6]
Promachus bastardii[6]
Promachus canus[6]
Promachus dimidiatus[6]
Promachus doddi[6]
Promachus fasciatus[6]
Promachus fitchii (Nebraska beekiller)[6]
Promachus hinei[6]
Promachus magnus[6]
Promachus negligens[6]
Promachus princeps[6]
Promachus quadratus[6]
Promachus rufipes[6]
Promachus texanus[6]
Promachus vagator <Unverified Name>[6]
Promachus vertebratus[6]
Promachus wollastoni[6]
Promachus yesonicus[6]
Questopogon lineatus[6]
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)[3]
Reburrus bancrofti[6]
Saropogon dispar[6]
Saxicola rubicola (European Stonechat)[4]
Scleropogon bradleyi[6]
Scleropogon subulatus[6]
Stenopogon albociliatus[6]
Stenopogon avus[6]
Stenopogon breviusculoides[6]
Stenopogon felis[6]
Stenopogon gratus[6]
Stenopogon inquinatus[6]
Stenopogon jubatus[6]
Stenopogon laevigatus[6]
Stenopogon macilentus[6]
Stenopogon martini[6]
Stenopogon obispae[6]
Stenopogon obscuriventris[6]
Stenopogon rufibarbis[6]
Stenopogon sabaudus[6]
Stenopogon xanthotrichus[6]
Stiphrolamyra bipunctata[6]
Stizochymus salinator[6]
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)[4]
Sylvia communis (Common Whitethroat)[4]
Sylvia curruca (Lesser Whitethroat)[4]
Tenodera aridifolia (Chinese mantid)[3]
Tolmerus notatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Tolmerus paropus <Unverified Name>[6]
Tolmerus sadyates <Unverified Name>[6]
Trichodes apiarius <Unverified Name>[4]
Triorla interrupta[6]
Vespa crabro (European hornet)[4]
Vespula maculifrons (eastern yellowjacket)[3]
Zosteria fulvipubescens[6]
Zosteria montana[6]
Zosteria rubens[6]

Providers

Shelter 
Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine)[3]
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)[3]
Quercus velutina (Black Oak)[3]
Acer rubrum (red maple)[3]
Salix nigra (black willow)[3]
Ulmus americana (American elm)[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Braula coeca (Bee louse)[8]
Crithidia mellificae <Unverified Name>[8]
Pollinator of 
Abutilon theophrasti (buttonweed)[9]
Acer negundo (box elder)[9]
Acer rubrum (red maple)[3]
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)[9]
Agalinis auriculata (earleaf false foxglove)[9]
Agalinis tenuifolia (slender-leaf false foxglove)[9]
Agastache nepetoides (yellow giant hyssop)[9]
Agastache scrophulariaefolia <Unverified Name>[9]
Agauria salicifolia[10]
Amaranthus spinosus (pigweed species)[9]
Ambrosia trifida (Texan great ragweed)[9]
Amelanchier canadensis (Canadian serviceberry)[9]
Anemone nemorosa (European thimbleweed)[4]
Anethum graveolens (dill)[9]
Antennaria plantaginifolia (woman's tobacco)[9]
Aphloia theiformis (Mountain Peach)[10]
Apocynum cannabinum (prairie dogbane)[9]
Arctium minus (Common Burdock)[9]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (kinnikinnick)[11]
Argyranthemum tenerifae[12]
Arnoglossum reniforme (great Indian plantain)[9]
Ascerates floridana <Unverified Name>[9]
Asclepias hallii (Hall's milkweed)[11]
Asclepias incarnata (rose milkweed)[9]
Asclepias speciosa (showy milkweed)[11]
Asclepias sullivantii (prairie milkweed)[9]
Asclepias syriaca (broadleaf milkweed)[3]
Asclepias verticillata (eastern whorled milkweed)[9]
Asparagus officinalis (garden asparagus)[9]
Aspidonepsis diploglossa[13]
Aster novaeangliae <Unverified Name>[9]
Astragalus canadensis (Canadian milk-vetch)[9]
Banisteriopsis muricata[14]
Bertiera zaluzania[10]
Bidens aristosa (bearded beggarticks)[9]
Bidens bipinnata (Spanish needles)[9]
Bidens frondosa (Devil's Beggarticks)[3]
Bidens laevis (bur-marigold)[9]
Bistorta officinalis (meadow bistort)[4]
Blephilia ciliata (downy blephilia)[9]
Blephilia hirsuta (hairy pagoda-plant)[9]
Boechera dentata (Short's rockcress)[9]
Boltonia asteroides (white doll's daisy)[9]
Brucea javanica[15]
Byrsonima gardnerana[14]
Calluna vulgaris (heather)[4]
Camassia scilloides (Atlantic camas)[9]
Campanula americana (American bellflower)[9]
Capsella bursa-pastoris (Shepherd's Purse)[9]
Cardamine angustata (slender toothwort)[16]
Cardamine concatenata (Cutleaf Toothwort)[9]
Cardamine pratensis (Cuckoo Flower)[4]
Cassiope tetragona (white arctic mountain heather)[17]
Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut)[15]
Cephalanthus tetrandra (Buttonbush)[9]
Cerastium holosteoides (Big chickweed)[9]
Cerastium nutans (nodding chickweed)[9]
Cercis canadensis (Judas Tree)[9]
Chamaecrista chamaecristoides (beach sensitive pea)[9]
Chamaenerium angustifolium[11]
Cicuta maculata (poison parsnip)[9]
Cirsium altissimum (tall thistle)[9]
Cirsium arvense (Creeping Thistle)[4]
Cirsium palustre (Marsh Thistle)[4]
Cirsium vulgare (Spear Thistle)[3]
Claytonia virginica (narrow-leaved spring beauty)[9]
Clematis virginiana (devil's-darning-needles)[9]
Coffea macrocarpa[10]
Collinsia verna (blue-eyed Mary)[9]
Comandra umbellata (bastard toadflax)[9]
Conoclinium coelestinum (blue mistflower)[9]
Coreopsis palmata (stiff coreopsis)[9]
Coreopsis tripteris (tall tickseed)[9]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[3]
Cornus oblonga (gray dogwood)[9]
Corylus avellana (common filbert)[4]
Corynostylis arborea (marsh blue violet)[9]
Crataegus coccinea (Scarlet Hawthorn)[9]
Crataegus crus-galli (cockspur hawthorn)[9]
Crataegus laevigata (Midland Hawthorn)[4]
Crataegus mollis (Downy Hawthorn)[9]
Crataegus monogyna (Common Hawthorn)[4]
Croton fothergillifolius[10]
Cucurbita pepo (field pumpkin)[9]
Cyanus woronowii[9]
Cytisus scoparius (Broomtops)[4]
Cytisus supranubius[12]
Dasistoma macrophylla (mullien seyemeria)[9]
Datura stramonium (moonflower)[9]
Dicentra cucullaria (dutchman's breeches)[9]
Diospyros revaughanii[10]
Diospyros virginiana (Persimmon)[9]
Diplopterys pubipetala[14]
Echinacea angustifolia (Narrow-leaved purple coneflower)[9]
Echinacea purpurea (Eastern purple coneflower)[9]
Echinocystis lobata (wild balsamapple)[9]
Echium wildpretii (tower of jewels)[12]
Enemion biternatum (eastern false rue anemone)[9]
Erechthites hieracifolia <Unverified Name>[9]
Erigenia bulbosa (harbinger of spring)[9]
Erigeron philadelphicus (Marsh fleabane)[9]
Erigeron strigosus var. strigosus (spreading daisy)[9]
Eryngium yuccifolium (button eryngo)[9]
Erysimum scoparium[12]
Erythronium albidum (white fawnlily)[9]
Erythronium umbilicatum (dimpled troutlily)[16]
Erythroxylum macrocarpum[10]
Eupatorium perfoliatum (Common Boneset)[9]
Eupatorium serotinum (late boneset)[9]
Frasera fastigiata (clustered green gentian)[9]
Frasera speciosa (green gentian)[11]
Fraxinus americanus <Unverified Name>[9]
Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry)[18]
Geniostoma rupestre var. borbonicum[10]
Geranium erianthum (woolly geranium)[9]
Geranium richardsonii (Richardson's geranium)[11]
Glechoma hederacea (groundivy)[9]
Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocusts)[9]
Gnaphalium polycephalum[9]
Grangeria borbonica[10]
Hancea integrifolia[10]
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)[9]
Helianthus annuus (Sunflower)[9]
Helianthus divaricatus (woodland sunflower)[9]
Helianthus grosseserratus (sawtooth sunflower)[9]
Helichrysum proteoides[10]
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta (Sharp-lobed hepatica)[9]
Heracleum granatense (eltrot)[4]
Heracleum lanatum (cow parsnip)[9]
Holodiscus dumosus (bush oceanspray)[11]
Houstonia purpurea var. calycosa[9]
Hydrangea macrophylla (French hydrangea)[15]
Hydrophyllum appendiculatum (great waterleaf)[9]
Hyptis conferta[19]
Ilex mucronata (catberry)[18]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[3]
Impatiens capensis (jewelweed)[3]
Ipomoea pandurata (bigroot morninglory)[9]
Jamesia americana (cliff Jamesia)[11]
Justicia americana (common water-willow)[9]
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep laurel)[18]
Keysseria helenae (Coltsfoot)[4]
Krigia biflora (twoflower dwarfdandelion)[9]
Labourdonnaisia calophylloides[10]
Lactuca floridana (woodland lettuce)[9]
Leonurus cardiaca (common motherwort)[9]
Leptadenia reticulata (butterflyweed)[9]
Liatris pycnostachya (Prairie blazing star)[9]
Linaria biebersteinii (ramsted)[9]
Lithospermum canescens (hoary gromwell)[9]
Lobelia spicata (palespike lobelia)[9]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[3]
Lotus pedunculatus (big trefoil)[4]
Ludwigia nervosa[19]
Lycopus americanus (American bugleweed)[9]
Lythrum acutangulum (wing-angle loosestrife)[9]
Maianthemum racemosum (feathery false lily of the valley)[9]
Malva neglecta (roundleaf mallow)[9]
Marrubium vulgare (horehound)[9]
Melilotus albus (Sweet Clover)[9]
Mentzelia multiflora (manyflowered mentzelia)[11]
Mertensia virginica (Virginia bluebells)[9]
Mimosa camporum[19]
Molinaea alternifolia[10]
Monarda bradburiana (eastern beebalm)[9]
Monarda fistulosa (mintleaf beebalm)[9]
Nelumbo lutea (American lotus)[9]
Nepeta cataria (field balm)[9]
Oenothera biennis (king's-cureall)[9]
Oenothera gaura (biennial beeblossom)[9]
Olea lancea[10]
Osmorrhiza longistylis <Unverified Name>[9]
Oxalis bakeriana (creeping woodsorrel)[9]
Oxalis montana (mountain woodsorrel)[4]
Oxalis violacea (purple woodsorrel)[9]
Oxypolis rigidior (stiff cowbane)[9]
Pachycereus schottii (senita cactus)[20]
Pastinaca sativa (wild parship)[9]
Penstemon laevigatus (eastern smooth beardtongue)[9]
Penstemon unilateralis (oneside penstemon)[11]
Persicaria bicornis (Pennsylvania knotweed)[9]
Persicaria foliosa var. paludicola (swamp smartweed)[9]
Persicaria punctata (dotted smartweed)[9]
Petalostemon purpureus (Purple prairie clover)[11]
Petalostemum candidum <Unverified Name>[9]
Petalostemum purpureum <Unverified Name>[9]
Physocarpus opulifolius (common ninebark)[11]
Pimpinella cumbrae[12]
Podophyllum peltatum (may apple)[9]
Polemonium reptans (Greek valerian)[9]
Polytaenia nuttallii (Nuttall's prairie parsley)[9]
Pontederia cordata (Pickerel Weed)[3]
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)[9]
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)[9]
Praxelis pauciflora[9]
Prunus americana (Wild Plum)[9]
Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)[9]
Psiadia terebinthina[10]
Psoralea onobrychis (French-grass)[9]
Ptelea trifoliata (hoptree)[9]
Pterocephalus lasiospermus[12]
Pycnanthemum flexuosum (Appalachian mountainmint)[9]
Pycnanthemum pilosum (whorled mountainmint)[9]
Pycnanthemum virginianum (Virginia mountain-mint)[9]
Pyrostria fasciculata[10]
Rabdosia trichocarpa[15]
Radicula obtusa <Unverified Name>[9]
Ranunculus abortivus (kidney-leaf buttercup)[9]
Ranunculus fascicularis (prairie buttercup)[9]
Rhamnus lanceolata (lanceleaf buckthorn)[9]
Rhaponticum carthamoides (Maral root)[9]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[9]
Ribes cynosbati (pasture currant)[9]
Robinia pseudoacacia (Post locust)[9]
Rosa acicularis (prickly rose)[11]
Rosa setigera (Michigan Rose)[9]
Roussea simplex[10]
Rubus canadensis (Highbush Blackberry)[9]
Rubus deliciosus (Boulder Raspberry)[11]
Rubus idaeus (Raspberry)[4]
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)[9]
Rudbeckia hirta (Black-eyed Susan)[9]
Rudbeckia laciniata (Cutleaf Coneflower)[9]
Rudbeckia subtomentosa (sweet coneflower)[9]
Rudbeckia triloba (Thin-leaved Coneflower)[9]
Sagittaria latifolia (Duck Potato)[9]
Salix amygdaloides (peachleaf willow)[9]
Salix arctica (arctic willow)[17]
Salix aurita (eared willow)[4]
Salix caprea (goat willow)[4]
Salix cinerea (large gray willow)[4]
Salix cordata (heartleaf willow)[9]
Salix fragilis (crack willow)[18]
Salix humilis (prairie willow)[9]
Salix interior (sandbar willow)[9]
Salix nigra (black willow)[3]
Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (American black elderberry)[9]
Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot)[9]
Saururus cernuus (lizard's tail)[3]
Saxifraga oppositifolia (purple mountain saxifrage)[17]
Schultesia brachyptera (short wingcup)[19]
Scorzonera franchetii[9]
Scrophularia marilandica (maryland figwort)[9]
Securigera varia (Axseed)[21]
Sicyos angulatus (bur cucumber)[9]
Sideroxylon cinereum[10]
Sideroxylon puberulum[10]
Silphium integrifolium (Deam's rosinweed)[9]
Silphium laciniatum (Compass Flower)[9]
Silphium perfoliatum (cup plant)[9]
Silphium terebinthinaceum (Lucy Braun's rosinweed)[9]
Sisyranthus trichostomus[13]
Sium suave (hemlock water-parsnip)[9]
Smilax herbacea (Carrion Flower)[9]
Smilax tamnoides (Bristly Greenbrier)[9]
Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod)[9]
Solidago nemoralis (Gray Goldenrod)[9]
Solidago rigida (stiff goldenrod)[9]
Solidago speciosa (Showy Goldenrod)[9]
Spermacoce multiflora[19]
Stanleya pinnata var. pinnata[11]
Staphylea trifolia (american bladdernut)[9]
Stellaria media (chickweed)[9]
Stylocline citroleum (grass-leaved goldenrod)[9]
Symphoricarpos orbicularis <Unverified Name>[9]
Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (Side-flowering Aster)[9]
Symphyotrichum pilosum (Frost Aster)[9]
Symphyotrichum turbinellum (smooth violet prairie aster)[9]
Symphyotrichum undulatum (wavyleaf aster)[9]
Syngonanthus caulescens[19]
Syzygium petrinense[10]
Taenidia integerrima (yellow pimpernell)[9]
Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy)[4]
Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)[3]
Teucrium canadense (American germander)[9]
Thalictrum dasycarpum (purple meadowrue)[9]
Thalictrum fendleri (Fendler's meadowrue)[11]
Thalictrum thalictroides (rue anemone)[9]
Tilia americana (American basswood)[9]
Tradescantia virginiana (Spiderwort)[9]
Trifolium hybridum (Alsike Clover)[9]
Trifolium repens (Ladino Clover)[9]
Ulmus americana (American elm)[3]
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)[9]
Utricularia macrorhiza (greater bladderwort)[3]
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)[3]
Vaccinium myrtilloides (velvetleaf huckleberry)[18]
Verbascum thapsus (great mullein)[3]
Verbena hastata (blue verbena)[9]
Verbena stricta (hoary vervain)[9]
Verbena urticaefolia <Unverified Name>[9]
Verbesina alternifolia (wingstem)[9]
Verbesina helianthoides (gravelweed)[9]
Vernonia cymosa var. cymosa (little ironweed)[9]
Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's root)[9]
Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw)[9]
Vincetoxicum purpurascens (purple milkweed)[9]
Viola pedata (birdfoot violet)[9]
Viola striata (striped cream violet)[9]
Vitis vulpina (fox grape)[9]
Warneckea trinervis[10]
Weigela hortensis[15]
Xyris savanensis[19]
Xysmalobium gerrardii[13]
Zanthoxylum americanum (Common pricky-ash)[9]
Zea mays (corn)[9]
Zizia aurea (golden zizia)[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Artis Zoo
Audubon Zoo
Bermuda Aquarium Museum and Zoo
Brandywine Zoo
Bristol Zoo Gardens
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Children's Zoo at Celebration Square
Coyote Point Museum
Dallas Zoo
Detroit Zoological Society
Faunia (Parque Biologico De Madrid,SA)
Liberty Science Center
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
Miami Metrozoo
North Carolina Zoological Park
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Rotterdam Zoo
Saint Louis Zoological Park
Sequoia Park Zoo
Tierpark Lange Erlen
Utah's Hogle Zoo
Zoological Society of London

Distribution

Africa; Australia; Caribbean; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); Middle America; North America; Oceania; South America; Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by , , in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 4Ecology of Commanster 5A Meeting of Opportunists: Birds and Other Visitors to Mabea fistulifera (Euphorbiaceae) Inflorescences, Fábio Olmos and Ricardo L. P. Boulhosa, Ararajuba 8 (2): 93-98 (2000) 6Predator-Prey Database for the family Asilidae (Hexapoda: Diptera) Prepared by Dr. Robert Lavigne, Professor Emeritus, University of Wyoming, USA and Dr. Jason Londt (Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg) 7Diet composition and prey choice by the red-backed shrike Lanius collurio in western Poland, Piotr Tryjanowski, Malgorzata Karolina Karg, Jerzy Karg, Belg. J. Zool., 133 (2) : 157-162 (2003) 8Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19 9Robertson, C. Flowers and insects lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty three flowers. 1929. The Science Press Printing Company Lancaster, PA. 10Kaiser-Bunbury et al. 2009 Community structure of pollination webs of Mauritian heathland habitats. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 11, 241-254. 11Clements, R. E., and F. L. Long. 1923, Experimental pollination. An outline of the ecology of flowers and insects. Washington, D.C., USA, Carnegie Institute of Washington. 12Dupont YL, Hansen DM and Olesen JM (2003) Structure of a plant-flower-visitor network in the high-altitude sub-alpine desert of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Ecography 26:301-310 13Ollerton, J., S. D. Johnson, L. Cranmer, and S. Kellie. 2003. The pollination ecology of an assemblage of grassland asclepiads in South Africa. Annals of Botany 92:807-834 14Pollination networks of oil-flowers: a tiny world within the smallest of all worlds, Bezerra, Elisângela L.S.; Machado, Isabel C.; Mello, Marco A. R., Journal of Animal Ecology, Volume 78, Number 5, September 2009 , pp. 1096-1101(6) 15Kato, M., T. Makutani, T. Inoue, and T. Itino. 1990. Insect-flower relationship in the primary beech forest of Ashu, Kyoto: an overview of the flowering phenology and seasonal pattern of insect visits. Contr. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ. 27:309-375. 16Motten, A. F. 1986. Pollination ecology of the spring wildflower community of a temperate deciduous forest. Ecological Monographs 56:21-42. 17Insect-flower associations in the high Arctic with special reference to nectar., Hocking, B. 1968. Oikos 19:359-388 18Small, E. 1976. Insect pollinators of the Mer Bleue peat bog of Ottawa. Canadian Field Naturalist 90:22-28. 19Ramirez, N., and Y. Brito. 1992. Pollination Biology in a Palm Swamp Community in the Venezuelan Central Plains. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 110:277-302. 20Co-pollinators and specialization in the pollinating seed-consumer mutualism between senita cacti and senita moths, J. Nathaniel Holland, Theodore H. Fleming, Oecologia (2002) 133:534–540 21Arnold SEJ, Faruq S, Savolainen V, McOwan PW, Chittka L, 2010 FReD: The Floral Reflectance Database — A Web Portal for Analyses of Flower Colour. PLoS ONE 5(12): e14287.
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Carlsbad Caverns National Park Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011