Animalia > Echinodermata > Echinoidea > Diadematoida > Diadematidae > Diadema > Diadema antillarum

Diadema antillarum (long-spined sea urchin; lime urchin; black sea urchin)

Synonyms: Centrechinus antillarum; Cidaris antillarum; Diadema antillarum subsp. antillarum

Wikipedia Abstract

Diadema antillarum, also known as the lime urchin, black sea urchin, Grabaskey's bane or the long-spined sea urchin, is a species of sea urchin in the Family Diadematidae. This sea urchin is characterized by its exceptionally long black spines. It is the most abundant and important herbivore on the coral reefs of the western Atlantic and Caribbean basin. When the population of these sea urchins is at a healthy level, they are the main grazers which prevent algae overgrowth of the reef.
View Wikipedia Record: Diadema antillarum



Diet [1]  Omnivore
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Water Biome [1]  Reef

Prey / Diet

Acropora cervicornis (Staghorn coral)[2]
Acropora palmata (Elkhorn coral)[3]
Acropora prolifera (Fused staghorn coral)[4]
Agaricia agaricites (Lettuce coral)[3]
Agaricia fragilis (Lettuce-leaf coral)[4]
Agaricia grahamae[4]
Agaricia lamarcki (Sheet coral)[4]
Agaricia tenuifolia[4]
Agaricia undata (Scroll coral)[4]
Astrangia solitaria (Southern cup coral)[4]
Balanophyllia floridana (Porous cup coral)[4]
Cladocora arbuscula (tube coral)[4]
Colangia immersa (lesser speckled cup coral)[4]
Colpophyllia natans (Boulder brain coral)[4]
Dendrogyra cylindrus (Pillar coral)[4]
Diploria labyrinthiformis (Grooved brain coral)[4]
Eusmilia fastigiata (smooth flower coral)[4]
Favia fragum (Golfball coral)[4]
Gardineria simplex[4]
Helioseris cucullata (Sunray lettuce coral)[4]
Isophyllia rigida (Rough star coral)[4]
Isophyllia sinuosa (lesser cactus coral)[4]
Madracis asperula[4]
Madracis auretenra (Yellow pencil coral)[3]
Madracis decactis (ten-ray star coral)[4]
Madracis formosa (Eight-ray finger coral)[4]
Madracis pharensis[4]
Manicina areolata (rose coral)[4]
Meandrina meandrites (Rose coral)[4]
Millepora alcicornis (Fire coral)[4]
Millepora complanata (Bladed fire coral)[4]
Millepora squarrosa (Encrusting fire coral)[4]
Montastraea cavernosa (great star coral)[4]
Mussa angulosa (large flower coral)[4]
Mycetophyllia aliciae (Knobby cactus coral)[4]
Mycetophyllia ferox (Rough cactus coral)[4]
Mycetophyllia lamarckiana (Ridged cactus coral)[4]
Mycetophyllia reesi[4]
Oculina diffusa (Ivory bush coral)[4]
Oculina valenciennesi (Ivory lace bush coral)[4]
Orbicella annularis (boulder star coral)[4]
Phyllangia americana (hidden cup coral)[4]
Porites astreoides (mustard hill coral)[4]
Porites branneri (blue crust coral)[4]
Porites furcata (Hump coral)[4]
Porites porites (Finger coral)[4]
Pseudodiploria clivosa (knobby brain coral)[4]
Pseudodiploria strigosa (symmetrical brian coral)[4]
Rhizosmilia maculata (Speckled cup coral)[4]
Scolymia cubensis (Artichoke coral)[4]
Scolymia lacera (Atlantic mushroom coral)[4]
Siderastrea radians (lesser starlet coral)[4]
Siderastrea siderea (Massive starlet coral)[4]
Solenastrea hyades (knobby star coral)[4]
Stylaster roseus (Purple hydrocoral)[4]
Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass)[4]
Thalamophyllia riisei[4]
Thalassia testudinum (turtlegrass)[4]
Tubastraea coccinea (Orange cup coral)[4]


Amphichthys cryptocentrus (Sapo bocon)[5]
Anisotremus surinamensis (Thicklip grunt)[6]
Balistes capriscus (Grey triggerfish)[4]
Balistes vetula (Turbot)[6]
Bodianus rufus (Spanish hogfish)[6]
Calamus bajonado (Jolthead porgy)[6]
Calamus calamus (Sugereye porgy)[6]
Calamus pennatula (Sheepshead porgy)[6]
Canthidermis sufflamen (Filefish)[6]
Canthigaster rostrata (Sharpnose pufferfish)[6]
Carpilius corallinus (batwing coral crab)[4]
Cassis tuberosa (Caribbean helmet)[4]
Cypraecassis testiculus (reticulate cowrie-helmet)[4]
Diodon holocanthus (Ajargo)[4]
Diodon hystrix (Ajargo)[6]
Ginglymostoma cirratum (Sand shark)[4]
Haemulon album (Yellow grunt)[4]
Haemulon carbonarium (Redmouth grunt)[4]
Haemulon flavolineatum (Yellow grunt)[4]
Haemulon macrostomum (Spanish grunt)[6]
Haemulon plumierii (White snapper)[4]
Haemulon sciurus (Yellow grunt)[6]
Halichoeres bivittatus (Slippery dick)[6]
Halichoeres garnoti (Yellowhead wrasse)[4]
Halichoeres poeyi (Black-ear wrasse)[6]
Halichoeres radiatus (Puddingwife wrasse)[6]
Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Molly miller)[4]
Lactophrys bicaudalis (Trunkfish)[6]
Myrichthys breviceps (Sharptail eel)[4]
Paguristes cadenati (red reef hermit)[4]
Paguristes grayi (Gray's hermit crab)[4]
Paguristes tortugae (bandeye hermit)[4]
Pagurus bonairensis[4]
Pagurus brevidactylus (Hermit crab)[4]
Prognathodes aculeatus (Poey's butterflyfish)[6]
Sanopus barbatus (Bearded toadfish)[5]
Sphoeroides spengleri (Puffer)[6]
Thalassoma bifasciatum (Tikitiki)[6]
Thalassoma noronhanum (Noronha wrasse)[4]
Trachinotus falcatus (Yellow-wax pompano)[6]


Parasitized by 
Syndesmis antillarum[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aquarium & Rainforest at Moody Gardens
Bermuda Aquarium Museum and Zoo
Dierenpark Emmen
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium
Rotterdam Zoo
Wonders of Wildlife Museum



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Impact of coral predators on tropical reefs, Randi D. Rotjan, Sara M. Lewis, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 367: 73–91, 2008
3Predation of the Sea Urchin Diadema antillarum Philippi on Living Coral, Rolf P. M. Bak and Guillaume van Eys, Oecologia (Berl.) 20, 111-115 (1975)
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Responses of Two Coral Reef Toadfishes (Batrachoididae) to the Demise of Their Primary Prey, the Sea Urchin Diadema antillarum, D. Ross Robertson, Copeia, 1987(3), pp. 637-642
6Food Habits of Reef Fishes of the West Indies, John E. Randall, Stud. Trop. Oceanogr. 5, 665–847 (1967)
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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