Animalia > Chordata > Amphibia > Anura > Ranidae > Rana > Rana temporaria

Rana temporaria (European frog)

Synonyms: Rana honnorati

Wikipedia Abstract

The common frog (Rana temporaria), also known as the European common frog, European common brown frog, or European grass frog, is a semi-aquatic amphibian of the family Ranidae, found throughout much of Europe as far north as Scandinavia and as far east as the Urals, except for most of Iberia, southern Italy, and the southern Balkans. The farthest west it can be found is Ireland, where it has long been thought, erroneously, to be an entirely introduced species. They are also found in Asia, and eastward to Japan.
View Wikipedia Record: Rana temporaria

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 7.76
EDGE Score: 2.17


Adult Weight [2]  47.6 grams
Female Maturity [3]  3 years
Male Maturity [3]  3 years
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates)
Litter Size [3]  2,585
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [3]  27 years
Snout to Vent Length [2]  4.3 inches (11 cm)
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Upper Danube Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Adamello Presanella 69894 Italy  
Aggtelek Biosphere Reserve National Park II 59233 Hungary
Alpi Carniche 48186 Italy  
Alpi Giulie 44561 Italy  
Alpi Marittime 83205 Italy  
Alta Valsesia e Valli Otro, Vogna, Gronda, Artogna e Sorba 46789 Italy  
Alte Valli Anzasca, Antrona e Bognanco 53311 Italy  
Alte Valli Stura e Maira 103806 Italy  
Alto Garda Bresciano 53192 Italy  
Bayerischer Wald National Park II 59790 Germany
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Beskid Niski 375518 Poland  
Beskid Slaski 65261 Poland  
Beskid Zywiecki 87169 Poland  
Bieszczady 275571 Poland  
Bodrogzug–Kopasz-hegy–Taktaköz 54874 Hungary  
Brenta 73487 Italy  
Bukovské vrchy 106836 Slovakia  
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve V 619089 Jilin, China  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Dolina Dolnego Bugu 183624 Poland  
Dolina Dolnej Wisly 82926 Poland  
Dolina Ploni i Jezioro Miedwie 51289 Poland  
Dolina Radwi, Chocieli i Chotli 54021 Poland  
Dolina Srodkowej Warty 141108 Poland  
Dolna Odra 72985 Poland  
Dolomiti Friulane 90787 Italy  
Dolomiti del Cadore e del Comelico 173952 Italy  
Dorzecze Parsety 68474 Poland  
Eastern Beskid National Park II 68484 Poland  
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
FORET DE HAGUENAU 47494 France  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Góry Kamienne 59550 Poland  
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
Laborecká vrchovina 266172 Slovakia  
Lagorai 114140 Italy  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lasy Suchedniowskie 47249 Poland  
Legi Odrzanskie 44477 Poland  
Mont Avic e Mont Emilius 77947 Italy  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Ostoja Augustowska 264573 Poland  
Ostoja Inska 216738 Poland  
Ostoja Jasliska 72369 Poland  
Ostoja Nadbuzanska 113759 Poland  
Ostoja Nadwarcianska 65861 Poland  
Ostoja Nidzianska 68254 Poland  
Ostoja Przemyska 97994 Poland  
Ostoja nad Barycza 202692 Poland  
Otepää 56325 Estonia  
Owenduff/Nephin Complex SPA 63516 Ireland    
POSETS - MALADETA 82205 Spain  
Parco Naturale Adamello 53676 Italy  
Parco Naturale Fanes - Senes - Braies 62896 Italy  
Parco Naturale Vedrette di Ries - Aurina 77376 Italy  
Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso 175751 Italy  
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Parco Regionale Orobie Valtellinesi 56377 Italy  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Polana Biosphere Reserve 50311 Slovakia  
Po¾ana 93067 Slovakia  
Puszcza Bialowieska 156041 Poland  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Retezat National Park II 94183 Romania
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Slanské vrchy 157675 Slovakia  
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
Soomaa 98925 Estonia  
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Stelvio 39831 Italy  
Strážovské vrchy 147080 Slovakia  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Trzebiatowsko-Kolobrzeski Pas Nadmorski 43166 Poland    
Ujscie Odry i Zalew Szczecinski 130007 Poland  
Ujscie Warty 82280 Poland  
Ultimo - Solda nel Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio 69162 Italy  
Uroczyska Puszczy Drawskiej 183887 Poland  
VIÑAMALA 62053 Spain  
Val Formazza 54914 Italy  
Vessertal-Thuringian Forest Biosphere Reserve 42250 Germany  
Visimskiy Zapovednik Biosphere Reserve 443816 Russia  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Wolin i Uznam 76089 Poland    
Zempléni-hegység a Szerencsi-dombsággal és a Hernád-völggyel 284651 Hungary  


Prey / Diet

Cryphoeca silvicola[4]
Dolichopus nigricornis[4]
Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrocephalus palustris (Marsh Warbler)2
Aegithalos caudatus (Long-tailed Bushtit)1
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)1
Amaurobius similis (Lace webbed spider)1
Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit)2
Anthus spinoletta (Water Pipit)2
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)2
Apus apus (Common Swift)1
Araneus diadematus (Cross garden spider)1
Araneus quadratus (Spider)1
Argiope bruennichi (Bruennich's garden spider)1
Bufo bufo (Common European toad)2
Calopteryx splendens (Banded Demoiselle)1
Calopteryx virgo (Beautiful Demoiselle)1
Certhia brachydactyla (Short-toed Treecreeper)1
Certhia familiaris (Eurasian Treecreeper)2
Coenagrion puella (Azure Damselfly)1
Coloeus monedula (Western Jackdaw)1
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)1
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)2
Delichon urbicum (Northern House Martin)1
Dendrocopos medius (Middle Spotted Woodpecker)1
Dolomedes fimbriatus (Raft Spider)1
Emberiza citrinella (Yellowhammer)1
Emberiza schoeniclus (Reed Bunting)2
Enallagma cyathigerum (Common Blue Damselfly)1
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)1
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)2
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)1
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)1
Gerris lacustris (Common Pond Skater)1
Haplodrassus dalmatensis1
Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)1
Ischnura elegans (Blue-tailed Damselfly)1
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)2
Larinioides cornutus (Furrow Orbweaver)1
Lestes sponsa (Emerald Damselfly)1
Locustella naevia (Common Grasshopper Warbler)1
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)2
Lullula arborea (Woodlark)1
Motacilla flava (Western Yellow Wagtail)1
Muscicapa striata (Spotted Flycatcher)1
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)2
Pardosa agricola1
Pardosa amentata (Spotted Wolf Spider)1
Parus major (Great Tit)2
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)1
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)1
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)1
Phoenicurus ochruros (Black Redstart)1
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)2
Phylloscopus collybita (Common Chiffchaff)2
Phylloscopus sibillatrix (Wood Warbler)1
Phylloscopus trochilus (Willow Warbler)2
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)1
Pirata piraticus (Spider)1
Pisaura mirabilis (Tent Spider)1
Poecile montanus (Willow Tit)1
Poecile palustris (Marsh Tit)1
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)2
Pyrrhosoma nymphula (Large Red Damselfly)1
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Eurasian Bullfinch)1
Regulus ignicapilla (Common Firecrest)1
Regulus regulus (Goldcrest)1
Saxicola rubetra (Whinchat)1
Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch)1
Sorex araneus (Eurasian shrew)1
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)1
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)1
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)1
Tetragnatha extensa (Long-jawed Orb Weaver)1
Tetragnatha montana1
Troglodytes troglodytes (Eurasian Wren)2
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)1
Turdus torquatus (Ring Ouzel)1
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)1
Vanellus vanellus (Northern Lapwing)1
Vespa crabro (European hornet)1
Xysticus cristatus (Wandering Crab Spider)1
Xysticus erraticus1
Zelotes latreillei1


Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)[5]
Aeshna cyanea (Southern Hawker Dragonfly)[4]
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)[6]
Anax imperator (Emperor Dragonfly )[4]
Aquila pomarina (Lesser Spotted Eagle)[7]
Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron)[4]
Charadrius dubius (Little Ringed Plover)[7]
Ciconia ciconia (White Stork)[4]
Ciconia nigra (Black Stork)[4]
Dolomedes fimbriatus (Raft Spider)[4]
Dytiscus marginalis (Predaceous diving beetle)[4]
Ichthyosaura alpestris (Alpine Newt)[4]
Lissotriton helveticus (Palmate Newt)[4]
Meles meles (European Badger)[4]
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)[4]
Milvus milvus (Red Kite)[4]
Mustela putorius (European Polecat)[4]
Natrix natrix (European Grass Snake)[4]
Nepa cinerea (Water Scorpion)[4]
Notonecta glauca (Water boatman)[4]
Notonecta obliqua <Unverified Name>[4]
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)[4]
Zamenis longissimus (Aesculapean Snake)[8]


Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus falcatus[9]
Acanthocephalus ranae[9]
Alaria alata <Unverified Name>[9]
Allocreadium ranae <Unverified Name>[9]
Aplectana acuminata <Unverified Name>[9]
Aplectana macintoshii <Unverified Name>[9]
Brandesia turgida <Unverified Name>[9]
Cosmocerca commutata <Unverified Name>[9]
Cosmocerca ornata <Unverified Name>[9]
Diplodiscus amphichrus <Unverified Name>[9]
Diplodiscus subclavatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Dolichosaccus rastellus <Unverified Name>[9]
Echinochasmus beleocephalus <Unverified Name>[9]
Echinoparyphium recurvatum[9]
Echinostoma miyagawai[9]
Echinostoma revolutum[9]
Echinostoma robustum <Unverified Name>[9]
Gorgodera cygnoides <Unverified Name>[9]
Gorgodera euzeti <Unverified Name>[9]
Gorgoderina vitelliloba <Unverified Name>[9]
Haematoloechus asper <Unverified Name>[9]
Haematoloechus pyrenaicus <Unverified Name>[9]
Haematoloechus variegatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Halipegus ovocaudatus[9]
Haplometra cylindracea <Unverified Name>[9]
Leptophallus nigrovenosus <Unverified Name>[9]
Moedlingeria amphoraeformis <Unverified Name>[9]
Nematotaenia dispar <Unverified Name>[9]
Neoraillietnema praeputiale <Unverified Name>[9]
Neoxysomatium brevicaudatum <Unverified Name>[9]
Opisthioglyphe ranae <Unverified Name>[9]
Opisthioglyphe rastellus <Unverified Name>[9]
Opisthodiscus diplodiscoides <Unverified Name>[9]
Oswaldocruzia bialata <Unverified Name>[9]
Oswaldocruzia filiformis <Unverified Name>[9]
Oswaldocruzia guyetanti <Unverified Name>[9]
Oswaldocruzia hispanica <Unverified Name>[9]
Oxysomatium brevicaudatum <Unverified Name>[9]
Paralepoderma cloacicola <Unverified Name>[9]
Pleurogenes claviger <Unverified Name>[9]
Pleurogenes intermedius <Unverified Name>[9]
Pleurogenoides medians <Unverified Name>[9]
Polystoma ozakii <Unverified Name>[9]
Polystoma temporariae <Unverified Name>[9]
Polystoma uncinulatum <Unverified Name>[9]
Polystoma viridis <Unverified Name>[9]
Prosotocus confusus <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhabdias bufonis <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhabdias nigrovenosum <Unverified Name>[9]
Skrjabinoeces similis <Unverified Name>[9]
Strigea sphaerula <Unverified Name>[9]
Telorchis assula <Unverified Name>[9]
Tylodelphys excavata <Unverified Name>[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Helsinki Zoo
Highland Wildlife Park
Kaliningrad Zoo
Nordens Ark
Riga Zoo
Universeum Science Center
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC

Range Map



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Oliveira, Brunno Freire; São-Pedro, Vinícius Avelar; Santos-Barrera, Georgina; Penone, Caterina; C. Costa, Gabriel. (2017) AmphiBIO, a global database for amphibian ecological traits. Sci. Data.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Ecology of Commanster
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177
7del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
8Food habits of Zamenis longissimus (Laurenti, 1768) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae) in Bieszczady (south-eastern Poland), BARTŁOMIEJ NAJBAR, Vertebrate Zoology 57 (1) 2007, 73-77
9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access