Animalia > Chordata > Amphibia > Anura > Bufonidae > Bufo > Bufo bufo
 

Bufo bufo (Common European toad; European Toad)

Wikipedia Abstract

The common toad, European toad or in Anglophone parts of Europe, simply the toad (Bufo bufo, from Latin bufo "toad"), is an amphibian found throughout most of Europe (with the exception of Ireland, Iceland, and some Mediterranean islands), in the western part of North Asia, and in a small portion of Northwest Africa. It is one of a group of closely related animals that are descended from a common ancestral line of toads and which form a species complex.
View Wikipedia Record: Bufo bufo

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
2
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
16
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.16
EDGE Score: 1.82

Attributes

Female Maturity [1]  4 years
Male Maturity [1]  4 years
Maximum Longevity [1]  40 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Upper Danube Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, DELTA LOUROU KAI ARACHTHOU (PETRA, MYTIKAS, EVRYTERI PERIOCHI) 71136 Greece  
Adamello Presanella 69894 Italy  
Alpi Marittime 83205 Italy  
Area delle Gravine 66076 Italy  
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Beskid Zywiecki 87169 Poland  
Bieszczady 275571 Poland  
Brenta 73487 Italy  
Bukovské vrchy 106836 Slovakia  
Börzsöny és Visegrádi-hegység 122999 Hungary  
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Cerová vrchovina a Rimavská kotlina 76986 Slovakia  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU, EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PETALA 87747 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - ALYKI KITROUS 73260 Greece  
DESFILADEROS DEL RÍO MARTÍN 110851 Spain  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Dolina Dolnego Bugu 183624 Poland  
Dolina Dolnej Wisly 82926 Poland  
Dolina Srodkowej Warty 141108 Poland  
Dolomiti del Cadore e del Comelico 173952 Italy  
Dorzecze Parsety 68474 Poland  
Eastern Beskid National Park II 68484 Poland  
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék 103542 Hungary  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Horná Orava 145144 Slovakia  
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
KENTRIKO TMIMA ZAGORIOU 81829 Greece  
KOILADA ACHELOOU KAI ORI VALTOU 115492 Greece  
Kiskunsági szikes tavak és az õrjegi turjánvidék 88335 Hungary  
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LIMNES KAI LIMNOTHALASSES TIS THRAKIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 72787 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
Lagorai 114140 Italy  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
MONTES UNIVERSALES - SIERRA DEL TREMEDAL 79316 Spain  
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Mount Odaigahara and Mount Omine Biosphere Reserve 88558 Kyushu, Japan  
Murgia Alta 311059 Italy  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
ORI GIDOVOUNI, CHIONOVOUNI, GAIDOUROVOUNI, KORAKIA, KALOGEROVOUNI, KOULOCHERA KAI PERIOCHI MONEMVASI 71161 Greece  
OROS ERYMANTHOS 96330 Greece  
OROS OCHI, PARAKTIA ZONI KAI NISIDES 82497 Greece  
OROS TAYGETOS 131874 Greece  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Ostoja Inska 216738 Poland  
Ostoja Jasliska 72369 Poland  
Ostoja Knyszynska 336272 Poland  
Ostoja Nadbuzanska 113759 Poland  
Ostoja Nadwarcianska 65861 Poland  
Ostoja Nidzianska 68254 Poland  
Ostoja nad Barycza 202692 Poland  
POSETS - MALADETA 82205 Spain  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Naturale Vedrette di Ries - Aurina 77376 Italy  
Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso 175751 Italy  
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Pirin 99722 Bulgaria  
Po¾ana 93067 Slovakia  
Promontorio del Gargano 173003 Italy    
Puszcza Bialowieska 156041 Poland  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Doñana Biosphere Reserve II 123801 Spain
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Retezat National Park II 94183 Romania
Risaie della Lomellina 76457 Italy  
RÍO GUADALOPE - MAESTRAZGO 133800 Spain  
SIERRA DE ARACENA Y PICOS DE AROCHE 461592 Spain  
SIERRAS DE SANTO DOMINGO Y CABALLERA Y RÍO ONSELLA 88167 Spain  
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Slanské vrchy 157675 Slovakia  
Soomaa 98925 Estonia  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Strážovské vrchy 147080 Slovakia  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Ujscie Odry i Zalew Szczecinski 130007 Poland  
Ujscie Warty 82280 Poland  
Uroczyska Puszczy Drawskiej 183887 Poland  
VOREIA CHIOS 80479 Greece  
VOREIA CHIOS KAI NISOI OINOUSSES KAI PARAKTIA THALASSIA ZONI 85029 Greece  
VOUNA EVROU 104705 Greece  
Visimskiy Zapovednik Biosphere Reserve 443816 Russia  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Wolin i Uznam 76089 Poland    
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Prey / Diet

Abax pilleri[2]
Adelphocoris quadripunctatus[2]
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)[2]
Cryphoeca silvicola[2]
Dolichopus nigricornis[2]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrocephalus palustris (Marsh Warbler)3
Aegithalos caudatus (Long-tailed Bushtit)2
Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit)2
Anthus spinoletta (Water Pipit)2
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)3
Apus apus (Common Swift)1
Athene noctua (Little Owl)1
Calopteryx splendens (Banded Demoiselle)1
Calopteryx virgo (Beautiful Demoiselle)1
Certhia brachydactyla (Short-toed Treecreeper)1
Certhia familiaris (Eurasian Treecreeper)2
Ciconia ciconia (White Stork)1
Coenagrion puella (Azure Damselfly)1
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)1
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)1
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)1
Dendrocopos medius (Middle Spotted Woodpecker)1
Dolomedes fimbriatus (Raft Spider)1
Emberiza schoeniclus (Reed Bunting)1
Enallagma cyathigerum (Common Blue Damselfly)1
Erinaceus europaeus (western European hedgehog)1
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)1
Falco subbuteo (Northern Hobby)2
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)1
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)1
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)2
Gerris lacustris (Common Pond Skater)1
Ischnura elegans (Blue-tailed Damselfly)1
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)2
Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)1
Lestes sponsa (Emerald Damselfly)1
Lestes viridis (Green Emerald Damselfly)1
Locustella naevia (Common Grasshopper Warbler)1
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)1
Lullula arborea (Woodlark)1
Martes martes (European Pine Marten)1
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)1
Milvus milvus (Red Kite)1
Motacilla flava (Western Yellow Wagtail)1
Nucifraga caryocatactes (Spotted Nutcracker)1
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)1
Pardosa agricola1
Pardosa amentata (Spotted Wolf Spider)1
Parus major (Great Tit)1
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)2
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)2
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)1
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)2
Phylloscopus collybita (Common Chiffchaff)2
Phylloscopus sibillatrix (Wood Warbler)1
Phylloscopus trochilus (Willow Warbler)2
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)1
Pirata piraticus (Spider)1
Poecile montanus (Willow Tit)1
Poecile palustris (Marsh Tit)1
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)1
Pyrrhosoma nymphula (Large Red Damselfly)1
Rana temporaria (European frog)2
Regulus ignicapilla (Firecrest)1
Regulus regulus (Goldcrest)2
Rhagio lineola (Small Fleck-winged Snipe Fly)1
Rhagio scolopaceus (Downlooker Snipe Fly)1
Rhagio tringarius (Marsh Snipe Fly)1
Saxicola rubetra (Whinchat)2
Sorex araneus (Eurasian shrew)1
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)2
Sus scrofa (wild boar)1
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)1
Sylvia curruca (Lesser Whitethroat)1
Tetragnatha extensa (Long-jawed Orb Weaver)1
Tetragnatha montana1
Thereva nobilitata (Common Stiletto)1
Troglodytes troglodytes (Winter Wren)2
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)2
Vanellus vanellus (Northern Lapwing)2
Voria ruralis1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1

Predators

Anax imperator (Emperor Dragonfly )[2]
Dytiscus marginalis (Predaceous diving beetle)[2]
Lucilia bufonivora (Toadfly)[2]
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)[2]
Milvus milvus (Red Kite)[2]
Mustela putorius (European Polecat)[3]
Natrix natrix (European Grass Snake)[4]
Natrix tessellata (Dice Snake)[4]
Nepa cinerea (Water Scorpion)[2]
Notonecta glauca (Water boatman)[2]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[5]
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)[2]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus ranae[6]
Alaria alata <Unverified Name>[6]
Aplectana brumpti <Unverified Name>[6]
Aplectana macintoshii <Unverified Name>[6]
Astiotrema monticelli <Unverified Name>[6]
Cosmocerca ornata <Unverified Name>[6]
Cosmocercella multipapillata <Unverified Name>[6]
Cosmocercella pulchra <Unverified Name>[6]
Crepidostomum farionis[6]
Cryptotropa kuretanii <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplodiscus amphichrus <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplodiscus bufonis <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplodiscus mehrai <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplodiscus papillatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplodiscus subclavatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplopylidium acanthotetra[6]
Dorylaimus parasiticus <Unverified Name>[6]
Echinoparyphium recurvatum[6]
Euryhelmis squamula[6]
Gorgodera microovata <Unverified Name>[6]
Gorgoderina vitelliloba <Unverified Name>[6]
Haematoloechus carbonelli <Unverified Name>[6]
Haematoloechus variegatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Haplometra cylindracea <Unverified Name>[6]
Isthmiophora melis[6]
Leptophallus nigrovenosus <Unverified Name>[6]
Loxogenes sinense <Unverified Name>[6]
Lucilia bufonivora[2]
Mesocoelium brevicaecum[6]
Mesocoelium japonicum <Unverified Name>[6]
Mesocoelium lanceatum <Unverified Name>[6]
Meteterakis japonica <Unverified Name>[6]
Nematotaenia dispar <Unverified Name>[6]
Nematotaenia lopezneyrai <Unverified Name>[6]
Neoraillietnema praeputiale <Unverified Name>[6]
Neoxysomatium brevicaudatum <Unverified Name>[6]
Neyraplectana schneideri <Unverified Name>[6]
Opisthioglyphe endoloba <Unverified Name>[6]
Opisthioglyphe ranae <Unverified Name>[6]
Opisthioparorchis ranae <Unverified Name>[6]
Opisthodiscus diplodiscoides <Unverified Name>[6]
Opisthodiscus nigrivasis <Unverified Name>[6]
Oswaldocruzia filiformis <Unverified Name>[6]
Oswaldocruzia galeonoae <Unverified Name>[6]
Oswaldocruzia peipingensis <Unverified Name>[6]
Oswaldocruzia ukraine <Unverified Name>[6]
Oxysomatium brevicaudatum <Unverified Name>[6]
Paralepoderma cloacicola <Unverified Name>[6]
Phyllodistomum sinense <Unverified Name>[6]
Pleurogenes claviger <Unverified Name>[6]
Pleurogenes medians <Unverified Name>[6]
Pleurogenoides japonicus <Unverified Name>[6]
Pleurogenoides medians <Unverified Name>[6]
Polystoma integerrimum[6]
Prosotocus confusus <Unverified Name>[6]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[6]
Rhabdias biconis <Unverified Name>[6]
Rhabdias bufonis <Unverified Name>[6]
Rhabdias dossei <Unverified Name>[6]
Rhabdias incerta <Unverified Name>[6]
Rhabdias microoris <Unverified Name>[6]
Rhabdias sphaerocephala <Unverified Name>[6]
Strongylus auricularis <Unverified Name>[6]
Tylodelphys excavata <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Detroit Zoological Society
Highland Wildlife Park
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
Kaliningrad Zoo
Nordens Ark
Parc Zoologic de Barcelona
Riga Zoo
Slimbridge New Grounds W&WTrust
Universeum Science Center
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Zoo Dresden GmbH
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen

Range Map

Africa; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China);

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Ecology of Commanster 3Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177 4The prey spectrum of Natrix natrix (LINNAEUS, 1758) and Natrix tessellata (LAURENTI, 1768) in sympatric populations (Squamata: Serpentes: Colubridae), ERNESTO FILIPPI & MASSIMO CAPULA & LUCA LUISELLI & UMBERTO AGRIMI, HERPETOZOA 8 (3/4): 155 -164 Wien, 30. Jänner 1996 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access