Animalia > Chordata > Amphibia > Anura > Hylidae > Osteopilus > Osteopilus septentrionalis

Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) is an amphibian native to the Caribbean region of the Western Hemisphere. It is the largest tree frog of North America. Its wide diet and ability to thrive amongst humans has made it a highly invasive species with established colonies in northern Florida, the Hawaiian island of Oahu, and throughout the Caribbean Islands. They range in size from 3 to 5.5 in (76 to 140 mm) and vary in color from olive-brown and bronze to gray or grayish-white. A nocturnal, tree-dwelling frog, it is known to eat almost anything that will fit in its mouth and to mate year-round. Cuban tree frogs are commonly available as pets; however, because the animal secretes a toxic mucus from its skin that can cause a burning sensation in the eyes, it is not an ideal pet.
View Wikipedia Record: Osteopilus septentrionalis

Invasive Species

The Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis is a voracious, nocturnal predator that eats any prey that it can grab, including members of its own species, other frogs, lizards, insects, spiders, and small snakes. It is an arboreal species, but it can also survive in moist areas. It is an excellent climber and is variable in color. This species is a threat to native species primarily through predation and competition. The Cuban treefrog is easily distinguishable from other frogs by its comparably large size and warty skin. This species is very successful in colonizing and has a long life span, which can make it a very significant problem in regions where it is introduced.
View ISSG Record: Osteopilus septentrionalis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 10.66
EDGE Score: 2.46


Female Maturity [2]  8 months 15 days
Male Maturity [2]  4 months
Diet [1]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates)
Gestation [2]  1 days
Litter Size [2]  1,500
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  13 years
Snout to Vent Length [1]  6 inches (16.5 cm)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bahamoan-Antillean mangroves Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Mangroves      
Caribbean shrublands France, United Kingdom, Dominica, St. Lucia, Netherlands Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands      
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Puerto Rican moist forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alejandro de Humboldt National Park II 175430 Cuba  
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Buenavista Wetland Reserve 778949 Cuba    
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Fort Matanzas National Monument III 269 Florida, United States
Pico Mogote Ecological Reserve II 3698 Cuba  
Tuabaquey - Limones Ecological Reserve II 4859 Cuba  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. Yes


Pseudoscops grammicus (Jamaican Owl)[3]
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)[4]


Parasitized by 
Aplectana hamatospicula <Unverified Name>[5]
Batracholandros bassi <Unverified Name>[5]
Foleyella brachyoptera <Unverified Name>[5]
Hammerschmidtiella diesingi <Unverified Name>[5]
Oswaldocruzia lenteixeirai <Unverified Name>[5]
Parapharyngodon osteopili <Unverified Name>[5]
Physalopteroides bahamensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Physalopteroides valdesi <Unverified Name>[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aquarium & Rainforest at Moody Gardens
Assiniboine Park Zoo
Brandywine Zoo
Brevard Zoo
Bristol Zoo Gardens
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park
Cameron Park Zoo
Central Park Zoo
Charles Paddock Zoo
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Connecticut's Beardsley Zoo
Cosley Zoo
Detroit Zoological Society
Erie Zoological Gardens
Florida Aquarium
Great Plains Zoo
Henson Robinson Zoo
Hutchinson Zoo
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens
John Ball Zoological Garden
Kansas City Zoo
Knoxville Zoological Gardens
Louisiana Purchase Gardens & Zoo
Louisville Zoological Garden
Miami Metrozoo
Museum of Science - Live Animal Center
Newport Aquarium
Oatland Island Wildlife Center
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Palm Beach Zoo at Dreher Park
Pueblo Zoo
Riverview Park & Zoo
Santa Fe CollegeTeaching Zoo
Sedgwick County Zoo
St. Paul's Como Zoo
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
Valley Zoo & John Janzen Nature Center
Virginia Living Museum
Zoologischer Garten Frankfurt

Range Map

Caribbean; North America; Oceania;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Oliveira, Brunno Freire; São-Pedro, Vinícius Avelar; Santos-Barrera, Georgina; Penone, Caterina; C. Costa, Gabriel. (2017) AmphiBIO, a global database for amphibian ecological traits. Sci. Data.
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
4Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177
5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access