Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Struthioniformes > Struthionidae > Struthio > Struthio camelus
 

Struthio camelus (Ostrich; Common Ostrich)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Ostrich or Common Ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either one or two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family. Some analyses indicate that the Somali Ostrich may be better considered a full species separate from the Common Ostrich, but most taxonomists consider it to be a subspecies. The ostrich shares the order Struthioniformes with the kiwis, emus, rheas, and cassowaries.
View Wikipedia Record: Struthio camelus

Infraspecies

Struthio camelus australis (Southern ostrich)
Struthio camelus camelus (Ostrich)
Struthio camelus massaicus (North African ostrich)
Struthio camelus syriacus (Arabian Ostrich)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
74
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
59
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 54.4249
EDGE Score: 4.01503

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  244.71 lbs (111.00 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  3.31 lbs (1.50 kg)
Clutch Size [4]  7
Diet [3]  Herbivore
Maximum Longevity [1]  50 years
Speed [5]  42.99 MPH (19.22 m/s)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
East African halophytics Tanzania Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East Saharan montane xeric woodlands Chad, Sudan Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Eritrean coastal desert Eritrea Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Etosha Pan halophytics Namibia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Hobyo grasslands and shrublands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna Mali Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kaokoveld desert Namibia, Angola Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lake Chad flooded savanna Nigeria, Chad, Niger Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Mandara Plateau mosaic Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Nama Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namib desert Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian halophytics Mozambique, Botswana Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Addo Elephant National Park II 348463 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Augrabies Falls National Park II 137301 Northern Cape, South Africa
Bamingui-Bangoran Conservation Area National Park II 2783298 Central African Republic  
Daan Viljoen Game Park II 9924 Namibia  
Delta du Saloum National Park II 179029 Senegal  
Dinder National Park II 2088300 Sudan  
Golden Gate Highlands National Park II 28689 Free State, South Africa
Hlane Royal National Park VI 30892 Swaziland  
Hwange National Park II 3651385 Zimbabwe  
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Karoo National Park II 190300 Western Cape, South Africa
Katavi National Park II 1054210 Tanzania
Kora National Park II 409762 Kenya
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Lapalala Wilderness Nature Reserve 88958 Limpopo, South Africa
Marakele National Park II 163507 Limpopo, South Africa
Mlawula Nature Reserve IV 46444 Swaziland  
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Mountain Zebra National Park II 60944 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Nairobi National Park II 16444 Kenya
Nylsvley Nature Reserve IV 7698 Limpopo, South Africa
Parc National de Waza National Park II 349858 Cameroon  
Radom National Park II   Sudan  
Richtersveld National Park II 399195 Northern Cape, South Africa
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Shongweni Resources Reserve 42008 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Table Mountain (Cape Peninsula) National Park II 70141 Western Cape, South Africa
Tassili N'Ajjer National Park II 24545308 Algeria  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Waterberg Biosphere Reserve 1024427 Limpopo, South Africa  
Weenen Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
West Caprivi Game Reserve Game Park VI 1448182 Namibia  
West Coast National Park II 59916 Western Cape, South Africa
Wilderness National Park II 5929 Western Cape, South Africa  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa No

Prey / Diet

Ficus carica (piku)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alectoris chukar (Chukar Partridge)1
Coloeus monedula (Western Jackdaw)1
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)1
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)1
Corvus frugilegus (Rook)1
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)1
Genetta genetta (Common Genet)1
Martes foina (Beech Marten)1
Onychognathus tristramii (Tristram's Starling)1
Pycnonotus capensis (Cape Bulbul)1
Rousettus egyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Houttuynia struthionis <Unverified Name>[7]
Libyostrongylus douglassii <Unverified Name>[7]
Libyostrongylus magnus <Unverified Name>[7]
Struthiolipeurus struthionis <Unverified Name>[8]
Versternema struthionis <Unverified Name>[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aalborg Zoo
Abilene Zoological Gardenscamelus
Africa Alive!
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
African Lion Safari & Game Farm Ltd
African Safari
Al Ain Zooaustralis
 camelus
Al Bustan Zoological Centercamelus
Al-Wabra Wildlife Preservation
 camelus
Albuquerque Biological Park
Artis Zooaustralis
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Auckland Zoological Park
Audubon Zoo
Badoca Safari Parkaustralis
Barranquilla Zoo
Bellewaerde Park
Binder Park Zoo
Bioparc Valencia
Bird Park Marlow
Birmingham Zoo
Blaavand Zoo
Blackbrook Zoological Park
Blackpool Zooaustralis
Blair Drummond Safari Park
Blank Park Zoo of Des Moines
Boras Djurpark Zoo
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanat
Bowmanville Zoological Park
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoo
Brevard Zoo
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Bursa Zoo (Bursa Hayvanat Bahcesi)
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Parkaustralis
Cape May County Park Zoo
CERZA Centre d'Etude Rech Zool Augeron
 australis
Chahinkapa Zoo
Chehaw Wild Animal Park
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Chicago Zoological Park
City of Belfast Zoo
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Colchester Zoo
Cologne Zooaustralis
Copenhagen Zoo
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardens
Dallas Zoo
Dartmoor Zoological Park
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dept. of National Zoological Gardens
Detroit Zoological Society
 camelus
Dickerson Park Zoo
Dierenpark Amersfoort
 australis
Dierenpark Emmen
Disney's Animal Kingdom
Drayton Manor Park Zoo
DSI Givskud Zoo
 australis
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Park
Emerald Safari Resort
Espace Zoologique la Boissiere du Dore
Flamingo Land LTD
Folly Farm Leisure Ltd
Fort Wayne Children's Zoo
Fort Worth Zoological Park
Fossil Rim Wildlife Center
Fota Wildlife Park
Fresno Chaffee Zoo
Fundacao Zoo-Botan. de Belo Horizonte
Fundacion Zoologica de Cali
GaiaPark, Kerkrade Zoo
Giza Zoological Gardencamelus
Gladys Porter Zoo
 massaicus
Granby Zoo / Zoo de Granby
Great Plains Zoo
Greater Vancouver Zoo
Guadalajara Zoo
Hai Park Kiriat Motzkin
 camelus
 massaicus
Hamilton Zoo
Hattiesburg Zoo
Henry Vilas Zoo
Honolulu Zoo
 camelus
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Indianapolis Zoo
Jackson Zoological Park
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardenscamelus
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Jyllands Park Zooaustralis
Kaliningrad Zoo
Kansas City Zoo
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
King Khalid Wldf Res Cntr -Thumamah
Knowsley Safari Park
Knuthenborg Safaripark
Kolmardens Djurpark AB
 australis
 massaicus
Kristiansand Dyrepark ASA
Kyiv Zoological Park
Le Pal, Parc Animalier
Lehigh Valley Zoo
Lichtenburg Game Breeding Center
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
Lion Country Safari Inc - Florida
Longleat Safari Park
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardenscamelus
Louisiana Purchase Gardens & Zoo
Louisville Zoological Gardenaustralis
Manor House Wildlife Park
Marwell Wildlife
Maryland Zoo in Baltimore
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunnaustralis
Melbourne Zoo
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquarium
Menagerie du Jardin des Plantes
Mesker Park Zoo
Miami Metrozoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Miskolc Zoo/Állatkert és Kultúrpark
Mogo Zoo P/L
Mokopane Biodiversity Conservation Centre
Monarto Zoological Park
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Moscow Zoological Park
Mountain View Conservation & Breeding
Nagyerdei Kultúrpark KHT.
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
Nashville Zoo at Grassmere
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africa
National Trust for Nature Conservation
Neunkircher Zoologischer Garten GmbHaustralis
Newquay Zoo (Cornwall Animal World)
Niabi Zooaustralis
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
Noah's Ark Zoo Farmmassaicus
Nogeyama Zoological Gardens Yokohama
North Carolina Zoological Park
North of England Zoological Society
Novosibirsk Zoological Park
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Oasys Parque del Desierto de Tabernas
Odense Zoologiske Have
 massaicus
Oglebay's Good Children's Zoo
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opole
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniu
 massaicus
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Olmense Zoo
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Opel-Zoo von Opel HessischeZoostiftung
Orana Wildlife Park
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Out of Africa Wildlife Park
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)
Parc de Lunaret
Parc des Oiseaux
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Paysager Et Animalier Du Reynou
Parc Safari / F.A.P.S.
 australis
Parc Zoologic de Barcelona
Parc Zoologique d'Amiens
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
 australis
Parc Zoologique de la Barben
Parc Zoologique de La Palmyre
Parc Zoologique de Paris (MNHN)australis
 massaicus
Parco Zoo di Falconara
Parco Zoo Punta Verde
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowie
Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabarceno
Parque Ornitologico de Lourosa
Parque Recreativo y Zool. Piscilago
Parque Zoologico Benito Juarez
Parque Zoologico Huachipaaustralis
Parque Zoologico Jaime Duque - Bogota
Parque Zoologico Nacional, ZOODOMaustralis
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leon
Phoenix Zoo
 australis
 massaicus
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium
Planete Sauvage
Port Lympne Wild Animal Park
Potter Park Zoological Gardens
Pueblo Zooaustralis
 massaicus
Ragunan Zoological Park
Ree Park - Ebeltoft Safari
Reid Park Zoo
Riga Zoo
Riverbanks Zoo and Garden
 massaicus
Rome Zoo-Fondazione Bioparco di Roma
Rotterdam Zoo
Sacramento Zoo
Safari de Peaugres
Safari West
Safaripark Beekse Bergen
Saint Louis Zoological Park
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquar
San Diego Zooaustralis
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
 australis
Sharjah Breeding Centre For Endangered
Silver Springs Park
Singapore Zoological Gardens
Societa Zoologica Di Pistoia S.R.L
Songkhla Zoo
St. Paul's Como Zoo
Szeged Zoo
Tama Zoological Park
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo
Taronga Zoo
Tata Steel Zoological Park
Tbilisi Zoo
The Anne van Dyk Cheetah Centreaustralis
The Living Desert Zoo and Gardens
The Philadelphia Zoo
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens
 massaicus
Thoiry Zoological Parkaustralis
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnbergaustralis
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbHaustralis
Toledo Zoological Gardens
Toronto Zooaustralis
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
Utah's Hogle Zoo
Valencia Bioparc, Rainforest S.A.
Virginia Safari Park & Preserv Ctr,Inc
Virginia Zoological Park
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
Wadi Al Safa Wildlife Centre
Washington Park Zoological Gardens
Wellington Zoo Trust
Welsh Mountain Zoo
Werribee Open Range Zoo
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltd
Western Plains Zoo
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munsteraustralis
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendaelaustralis
Wildlife Safari Inc
Wildlife World Zoo
Wilhelma Zoo
Woburn Safari Park
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Xantus János Állatkert Kht.
Zivalski vrt Ljubljana
Zoo and Aqua-Terrarium Ltd. Pécs
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo Atlanta
Zoo de Jurques
Zoo de la Bourbansais
Zoo de Pont-Scorff
Zoo Dresden GmbHaustralis
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.
Zoo Hannover GmbHaustralis
Zoo Krefeld GmbHaustralis
Zoo Melaka
Zoo New England, Franklin Park Zoo
Zoo of Acadiana
Zoo Osnabrück
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoo Safari Swierkocin
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoo Taiping & Night Safariaustralis
 camelus
Zoobotanico de Jerezaustralis
Zoological Garden Praguecamelus
Zoological Society of Ireland-Dublin
Zoologicka zahrada Ostrava
Zoologicka Garden & Chateau Zlin-Lesna
Zoologicka Zahrada Bratislava
Zoologicka Zahrada Jihlava
Zoologicka Zahrada Mesta Brna
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora
Zoologischer Garten Frankfurt
Zoologischer Garten Leipzigaustralis
Zoologischer Garten Schmidingaustralis
 massaicus

Distribution

Africa; Cape Peninsula National Park; Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 2005-12-27, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 8Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011 Out of Africa Wildlife Park