Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Sphenisciformes > Spheniscidae > Pygoscelis > Pygoscelis papua
 

Pygoscelis papua (Gentoo Penguin)

Wikipedia Abstract

The long-tailed gentoo penguin (/ˈdʒɛntuː/ JEN-too) (Pygoscelis papua) is a penguin species in the genus Pygoscelis, most closely associated with the Adélie penguin (P. adeliae) and the chinstrap penguin (P. antarcticus). The first scientific description was made in 1781 by Johann Reinhold Forster with a reference point of the Falkland Islands.
View Wikipedia Record: Pygoscelis papua

Infraspecies

Pygoscelis papua ellsworthi (Gentoo penguin)
Pygoscelis papua papua (Gentoo penguin)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
22
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
52
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 17.259
EDGE Score: 3.59781

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  13.12 lbs (5.95 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  136 grams
Female Weight [1]  12.13 lbs (5.50 kg)
Male Weight [1]  14.11 lbs (6.40 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  16.4 %
Female Maturity [4]  2 years
Male Maturity [4]  2 years
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [3]  60 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  40 %
Forages - Underwater [3]  100 %
Clutch Size [2]  2
Incubation [5]  35 days
Speed [6]  22.37 MPH (10 m/s)
Wing Span [5]  8 inches (.21 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra Australia, New Zealand Australasia Tundra    
Patagonian steppe Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Scotia Sea Islands tundra United Kingdom Antarctic Tundra    
Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra South Africa, France, Australia Antarctic Tundra    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Ia 233540 Tasmania, Australia  
Palmer LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Antarctica    
Table Mountain (Cape Peninsula) National Park II 70141 Western Cape, South Africa

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Île aux Cochons French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii    
Île de l'Est French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii    
Île Foch, Île Sainte Lanne Gramont and Île Howe French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii
Îles Nuageuses and Île Clugny French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii  
Beauchêne Island Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii  
Beaver Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A4ii    
Bertha's Beach, East Falkland Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4iii
Bleaker Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4i
Bull Point, East Falkland Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4ii
Canal Beagle Argentina A1, A2
Heard and McDonald Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) A1, A4ii, A4iii  
Hope Harbour, West Falkland Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4ii  
Jason Islands Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii    
Keppel Island Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2  
Lively Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2  
New Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii    
Passage Islands Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2
Péninsule Courbet French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Péninsule Rallier du Baty French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii
Pebble Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4iii  
Saunders Island Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Sea Lion Islands Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2
Seal Bay, East Falkland Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4iii  
Southern coast of Péninsule Jeanne d'Arc French Southern Territories A1, A4ii, A4iii
Speedwell Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Volunteer Point, East Falkland Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2    
West Point Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii  

Prey / Diet

Allium sativum (cultivated garlic)[7]
Antarctomysis maxima[7]
Chaenocephalus aceratus (Scotian icefish)[7]
Champsocephalus gunnari (Mackerel icefish)[8]
Channichthys rhinoceratus (Unicorn icefish)[7]
Chorismus antarcticus[7]
Cryodraco antarcticus (Long-fingered icefish)[7]
Cyllopus lucasii[7]
Dissostichus eleginoides (Patagonsky klykach)[8]
Doryteuthis gahi[7]
Electrona antarctica (Lanternfish)[7]
Electrona carlsbergi (Electron subantarctic)[7]
Euphausia frigida[7]
Euphausia longirostris[7]
Euphausia similis[9]
Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill)[10]
Euphausia triacantha[7]
Euphausia vallentini[8]
Gobionotothen acuta (Triangular rockcod)[8]
Gobionotothen angustifrons (Narrowhead rockcod)[7]
Gobionotothen gibberifrons (Humped rockcod)[7]
Gymnoscopelus braueri (Lanternfish)[7]
Gymnoscopelus fraseri (Lanternfish)[7]
Gymnoscopelus nicholsi (Nichol's lanternfish)[9]
Harpagifer antarcticus (Antarctic spiny plunderfish)[7]
Harpagifer georgianus (S. Georgia spiny plunderfish)[7]
Harpagifer kerguelensis (Kerguelen spiny plunderfish)[8]
Harpagifer spinosus (Deep-water spiny plunderfish)[7]
Hyperiella antarctica[9]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[8]
Krefftichthys anderssoni (Anderson's lanternfish)[8]
Lepidonotothen squamifrons (Grey rockcod)[8]
Lindbergichthys mizops (Toad notie)[8]
Lindbergichthys nudifrons (Yellowfin notie)[7]
Magnisudis prionosa (Southern barracudina)[7]
Martialia hyadesi (sevenstar flying squid)[7]
Muraenolepis orangiensis (Patagonian moray cod)[7]
Nauticaris marionis[9]
Notothenia coriiceps (Black rockcod)[7]
Notothenia neglecta (Yellowbelly rockcod)[7]
Notothenia rossii (Marbled rockcod)[7]
Nototheniops larseni (Painted notie)[9]
Nototheniops nybelini[7]
Parachaenichthys georgianus (Antarctic dragonfish)[7]
Paradiplospinus gracilis (Slender escolar)[9]
Paranotothenia magellanica (Orange throat notothen)[8]
Patagonotothen ramsayi (Longtail Southern cod)[7]
Platynereis australis[7]
Pleuragramma antarctica (Antarctic silverfish)[7]
Primno macropa[7]
Protomyctophum bolini (Lanternfish)[7]
Protomyctophum choriodon (Lanternfish)[7]
Protomyctophum normani (Norman's lanterrnfish)[7]
Protomyctophum tenisoni (Lanternfish)[7]
Pseudosagitta gazellae[9]
Stylocheiron abbreviatum[7]
Themisto gaudichaudii[11]
Thysanoessa macrura[7]
Trematomus bernacchii (Emerald notothen)[7]
Trematomus hansoni (Striped rockcod)[7]
Trematomus newnesi (Dusky notothen)[7]
Zanclorhynchus spinifer (Antarctic horsefish)[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aphrodroma brevirostris (Kerguelen Petrel)2
Aptenodytes forsteri (Emperor Penguin)3
Aptenodytes patagonicus (King Penguin)4
Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic Fur Seal)4
Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic Fur Seal)1
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)1
Daption capense (Cape Petrel)6
Diomedea epomophora (Royal Albatross)1
Diomedea exulans (Wandering Albatross)1
Dissostichus eleginoides (Patagonsky klykach)2
Electrona antarctica (Lanternfish)1
Electrona carlsbergi (Electron subantarctic)2
Eudyptes chrysocome (Rockhopper Penguin)3
Eudyptes chrysolophus (Macaroni Penguin)5
Eudyptes schlegeli (Royal Penguin)2
Fregetta tropica (Black-bellied Storm Petrel)2
Fulmarus glacialoides (Southern Fulmar)2
Gymnoscopelus braueri (Lanternfish)2
Gymnoscopelus nicholsi (Nichol's lanternfish)2
Halobaena caerulea (Blue Petrel)4
Hydrurga leptonyx (Leopard seal)1
Hyperoodon planifrons (Southern Bottlenose Whale)1
Lagenorhynchus cruciger (Hourglass Dolphin)1
Larus dominicanus (Kelp Gull)1
Lepidonotothen squamifrons (Grey rockcod)1
Leptonychotes weddellii (Weddell Seal)1
Leucocarbo atriceps (imperial shag)7
Lobodon carcinophaga (Crabeater Seal)2
Macronectes giganteus (Southern Giant Petrel)4
Macronectes halli (Northern Giant Petrel)2
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)3
Mirounga leonina (Southern Elephant Seal)3
Notothenia microlepidota (Black cod)1
Oceanites oceanicus (Wilson's Storm-Petrel)3
Ommatophoca rossii (Ross Seal)1
Pachyptila belcheri (Slender-billed Prion)2
Pachyptila desolata (Antarctic Prion)3
Pachyptila salvini (Salvin's Prion)3
Pachyptila turtur (Fairy Prion)2
Pagodroma nivea (Snow Petrel)5
Pelecanoides georgicus (South Georgia Diving Petrel)2
Pelecanoides urinatrix (Common Diving Petrel)2
Phoebetria fusca (Sooty Albatross)3
Phoebetria palpebrata (Light-mantled Albatross)3
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)1
Procellaria aequinoctialis (White-chinned Petrel)3
Pterodroma macroptera (Great-winged Petrel)1
Pterodroma mollis (Soft-plumaged Petrel)1
Pygoscelis adeliae (Adelie Penguin)3
Pygoscelis antarcticus (Chinstrap Penguin)1
Stercorarius maccormicki (South Polar Skua)1
Sterna vittata (Antarctic Tern)1
Thalassarche chrysostoma (Grey-headed Albatross)4
Thalassarche melanophris (Black-browed Albatross)9
Thalassoica antarctica (Antarctic Petrel)5

Predators

Hydrurga leptonyx (Leopard seal)[7]
Leptonychotes weddellii (Weddell Seal)[5]
Macronectes giganteus (Southern Giant Petrel)[7]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[7]
Phalcoboenus australis (Striated Caracara)[12]
Phocarctos hookeri (New Zealand Sealion)[7]
Stercorarius antarcticus (Subantarctic Skua)[7]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Contracaecum heardi <Unverified Name>[13]
Corynosoma bullosum[13]
Corynosoma shackletoni[13]
Parapsyllus heardi[14]
Parapsyllus longicornis[14]
Parorchites zederi[13]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Acquario di Genova
 papua
Aquarium & Rainforest at Moody Gardens
 ellsworthi
Artis Zoopapua
Biodome de Montreal
Central Park Zooellsworthi
City of Belfast Zoopapua
Edinburgh Zoo-Scottish National Zoo
 papua
Faunia (Parque Biologico De Madrid,SA)
 papua
Indianapolis Zoo
 ellsworthi
 papua
L'Oceanograficpapua
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunn
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardensellsworthi
Newport Aquariumellsworthi
Ocean Park Corporation
 ellsworthi
Odense Zoologiske Have
 ellsworthi
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
 ellsworthi
 papua
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquariumellsworthi
Riverbanks Zoo and Gardenellsworthi
Rotterdam Zooellsworthi
Saint Louis Zoological Parkellsworthi
Sea World Orlandoellsworthi
 papua
Tennessee Aquariumpapua
Zoo of Antwerppapua
Zoologischer Garten Basel
 papua
Zoologischer Garten Frankfurt
 papua
Zoologischer Garten Wuppertalpapua

Range Map

Cape Peninsula National Park;

Photos

Webcams


Marinepia Matsushumia Aquarium Penguins
Cam Time:
Hours: - ( - )

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Stonehouse, B. 1970. Geographic variation in Gentoo Penguins Pygoscelis papua. Ibis 112: 52-57
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
5Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
6Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Spatial and temporal variation in the diet of the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) at Kerguelen Islands, Amélie Lescroël, Vincent Ridoux and Charles André Bost, Polar Biol (2004) 27: 206–216
9THE DIETS AND DIETARY SEGREGATION OF SEABIRDS AT THE SUBANTARCTIC CROZET ISLANDS, VINCENT RIDOUX, MARINE ORNITHOLOGY Vol. 22 No. 1 1994
10DENSITIES OF ANTARCTIC SEABIRDS AT SEA AND THE PRESENCE OF THE KRILL EUPHAUSIA SUPERBA, BRYAN S. OBST, The Auk 102: 540-549. July 1985
11Amphipod-based food web: Themisto gaudichaudii caught in nets and by seabirds in Kerguelen waters, southern Indian Ocean, Pierrick Bocher, Yves Cherel, Jean-Philippe Labat, Patrick Mayzaud, Suzanne Razouls, Pierre Jouventin, Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 223: 261–276, 2001
12Population growth and density, diet and breeding success of striated caracaras Phalcoboenus australis on New Island, Falkland Islands, Paulo Catry, Miguel Lecoq, Ian J. Strange, Polar Biology Volume 31, Number 10, 1167-1174
13Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
14International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access