Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Sphenisciformes > Spheniscidae > Aptenodytes > Aptenodytes forsteri

Aptenodytes forsteri (Emperor Penguin)

Wikipedia Abstract

The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica. The male and female are similar in plumage and size, reaching 122 cm (48 in) in height and weighing from 22 to 45 kg (49 to 99 lb). The dorsal side and head are black and sharply delineated from the white belly, pale-yellow breast and bright-yellow ear patches.
View Wikipedia Record: Aptenodytes forsteri

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 17.2393
EDGE Score: 3.59672


Adult Weight [2]  74.63 lbs (33.85 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  425 grams
Female Weight [2]  65.04 lbs (29.50 kg)
Male Weight [2]  84.22 lbs (38.20 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  29.5 %
Female Maturity [4]  5 years
Male Maturity [4]  5 years 6 months
Clutch Size [3]  1
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Incubation [1]  64 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  20 years
Migration [1]  Intracontinental
Speed [5]  4.65 MPH (2.08 m/s)
Water Biome [1]  Pelagic, Coastal


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra South Africa, France, Australia Antarctic Tundra    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Palmer LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Antarctica    


Prey / Diet

Abyssorchomene rossi[6]
Alluroteuthis antarctica[7]
Antarctomysis ohlinii[6]
Chaenodraco wilsoni (Spiny icefish)[8]
Chionodraco hamatus (Crocodile icefish)[6]
Cyllopus lucasii[6]
Dacodraco hunteri (Crocodile icefish)[8]
Dissostichus eleginoides (Patagonsky klykach)[9]
Dissostichus mawsoni (Antarctic blenny)[9]
Electrona antarctica (Lanternfish)[10]
Epimeriella macronyx[6]
Euphausia crystallorophias (ice krill)[6]
Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill)[9]
Eusirus microps[6]
Eusirus perdentatus[6]
Gerlachea australis (Antarctic dragonfish)[8]
Gymnodraco acuticeps (Ploughfish)[10]
Hyperia macrocephala[6]
Hyperiella macronyx[6]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[7]
Neopagetopsis ionah (Jonah's icefish)[6]
Notolepis coatsi (Antarctic jonasfish)[10]
Onykia ingens (warty squid)[9]
Pagothenia borchgrevinki (Bald notothen)[6]
Pleuragramma antarctica (Antarctic silverfish)[6]
Trematomus lepidorhinus (Slender scalyhead)[8]
Trematomus newnesi (Dusky notothen)[6]
Uristes gigas[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aphrodroma brevirostris (Kerguelen Petrel)1
Aptenodytes patagonicus (King Penguin)2
Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic Fur Seal)6
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)3
Daption capense (Cape Petrel)2
Diomedea epomophora (Royal Albatross)2
Diomedea exulans (Wandering Albatross)3
Eudyptes chrysolophus (Macaroni Penguin)3
Fulmarus glacialoides (Southern Fulmar)3
Halobaena caerulea (Blue Petrel)2
Hydrurga leptonyx (Leopard seal)1
Lagenorhynchus cruciger (Hourglass Dolphin)1
Larus dominicanus (Kelp Gull)1
Leptonychotes weddellii (Weddell Seal)4
Lobodon carcinophaga (Crabeater Seal)5
Macronectes giganteus (Southern Giant Petrel)2
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)4
Mirounga leonina (Southern Elephant Seal)3
Oceanites oceanicus (Wilson's Storm-Petrel)1
Ommatophoca rossii (Ross Seal)2
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)1
Pachyptila belcheri (Slender-billed Prion)2
Pachyptila desolata (Antarctic Prion)1
Pachyptila salvini (Salvin's Prion)1
Pachyptila turtur (Fairy Prion)2
Pagodroma nivea (Snow Petrel)4
Phoebetria fusca (Sooty Albatross)1
Phoebetria palpebrata (Light-mantled Albatross)3
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)2
Procellaria aequinoctialis (White-chinned Petrel)1
Pygoscelis adeliae (Adelie Penguin)9
Pygoscelis antarcticus (Chinstrap Penguin)1
Pygoscelis papua (Gentoo Penguin)3
Stercorarius maccormicki (South Polar Skua)4
Sterna vittata (Antarctic Tern)1
Thalassarche chrysostoma (Grey-headed Albatross)4
Thalassarche melanophris (Black-browed Albatross)4
Thalassoica antarctica (Antarctic Petrel)3


Hydrurga leptonyx (Leopard seal)[9]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[9]


Parasitized by 
Austrogoniodes mawsoni <Unverified Name>[11]
Contracaecum prevosti <Unverified Name>[12]
Parorchites zederi[12]
Tetrabothrius wrighti <Unverified Name>[12]

Range Map



Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at 2Marchant, S.; Higgins, PJ (eds.) 1990. The handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, Vol. 1., ratites to ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne 3Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 5Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 6Food of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, Y. Cherel and G. L. Kooyman, Marine Biology (1998) 130: 335-344 7CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database 8The role of notothenioid fish in the food web of the Ross Sea shelf waters: a review, M. La Mesa, J. T. Eastman, M. Vacchi, Polar Biol (2004) 27: 321–338 9Who's Eating Who 10A balanced model of the food web of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, M.H. Pinkerton, S.M. Hanchet, J. Bradford-Grieve, CCAMLR Science, Vol. 17 (2010) 11Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19 12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06
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