Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Sphenisciformes > Spheniscidae > Aptenodytes > Aptenodytes patagonicus
 

Aptenodytes patagonicus (King Penguin)

Wikipedia Abstract

The king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is the second largest species of penguin. In size it is second only to the emperor penguin. There are two subspecies—A. p. patagonicus and A. p. halli; patagonicus is found in the South Atlantic and halli elsewhere. King penguins eat small fish, mainly lanternfish, and squid and rely less than most Southern Ocean predators on krill and other crustaceans. On foraging trips they repeatedly dive to over 100 metres (330 ft), and have been recorded at depths greater than 300 metres (980 ft).
View Wikipedia Record: Aptenodytes patagonicus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
22
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
40
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 17.2393
EDGE Score: 2.90358

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  25.91 lbs (11.75 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  306 grams
Female Weight [2]  24.40 lbs (11.07 kg)
Male Weight [2]  27.41 lbs (12.44 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  12.4 %
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [4]  90 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  10 %
Forages - Underwater [4]  100 %
Clutch Size [3]  1
Incubation [1]  54 days
Maximum Longevity [5]  26 years
Speed [6]  4.97 MPH (2.221 m/s)
Water Biome [1]  Coastal

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra Australia, New Zealand Australasia Tundra    
Patagonian steppe Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Scotia Sea Islands tundra United Kingdom Antarctic Tundra    
Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra South Africa, France, Australia Antarctic Tundra    
Tristan Da Cunha-Gough Islands shrub and grasslands United Kingdom Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Lavinia Nature Reserve State Reserve II 17390 Tasmania, Australia    
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Ia 233540 Tasmania, Australia  
South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Marine Protected Area 264402758 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands      
Table Mountain (Cape Peninsula) National Park II 70141 Western Cape, South Africa
Tierra Del Fuego National Park II 172861 Argentina

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Île aux Cochons French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii    
Île de l'Est French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii    
Île de la Possession French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Baie Larose French Southern Territories A1, A4ii, A4iii
Heard and McDonald Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) A1, A4ii, A4iii  
Péninsule Courbet French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Péninsule Rallier du Baty French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii
Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve South Africa A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  

Prey / Diet

Arctozenus risso (Spotted barracudina)[7]
Brachioteuthis riisei (common arm squid)[7]
Champsocephalus gunnari (Mackerel icefish)[7]
Channichthys rhinoceratus (Unicorn icefish)[7]
Dissostichus eleginoides (Patagonsky klykach)[7]
Doryteuthis gahi[8]
Electrona antarctica (Lanternfish)[7]
Electrona carlsbergi (Electron subantarctic)[8]
Electrona subaspera (Rough lanternfish)[7]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[7]
Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill)[7]
Euphausia vallentini[7]
Filippovia knipovitchi (Smooth Hooked Squid)[8]
Gobionotothen acuta (Triangular rockcod)[7]
Gymnoscopelus braueri (Lanternfish)[7]
Gymnoscopelus fraseri (Lanternfish)[7]
Gymnoscopelus nicholsi (Nichol's lanternfish)[8]
Gymnoscopelus piabilis (Southern blacktip lanternfish)[7]
Harpagifer spinosus (Deep-water spiny plunderfish)[7]
Histioteuthis atlantica[7]
Histioteuthis eltaninae[7]
Histioteuthis macrohista[7]
Illex argentinus (Argentine Shortfin Squid)[7]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[9]
Krefftichthys anderssoni (Anderson's lanternfish)[8]
Lampanyctus australis (Austral lanternfish)[7]
Lampichthys procerus (Lanternfish)[7]
Magnisudis prionosa (Southern barracudina)[7]
Martialia hyadesi (sevenstar flying squid)[7]
Maurolicus muelleri (Silvery lightfish)[7]
Metelectrona ventralis (Flaccid lanternfish)[7]
Muraenolepis marmorata (Marbled parketnik)[8]
Muraenolepis orangiensis (Patagonian moray cod)[7]
Notolepis coatsi (Antarctic jonasfish)[7]
Notothenia coriiceps (Black rockcod)[7]
Nototheniops larseni (Painted notie)[7]
Ommastrephes bartramii (red flying squid)[7]
Onykia ingens (warty squid)[9]
Paradiplospinus gracilis (Slender escolar)[10]
Paranotothenia magellanica (Orange throat notothen)[7]
Phosichthys argenteus (Silver lighthouse fish)[7]
Protomyctophum andriashevi (Lanternfish)[7]
Protomyctophum bolini (Lanternfish)[7]
Protomyctophum choriodon (Lanternfish)[8]
Protomyctophum gemmatum (Lanternfish)[7]
Protomyctophum normani (Norman's lanterrnfish)[10]
Protomyctophum tenisoni (Lanternfish)[8]
Slosarczykovia circumantarctica[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aptenodytes forsteri (Emperor Penguin)2
Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic Fur Seal)4
Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic Fur Seal)1
Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Commerson's Dolphin)1
Diomedea epomophora (Royal Albatross)2
Diomedea exulans (Wandering Albatross)4
Dissostichus eleginoides (Patagonsky klykach)4
Eudyptes chrysocome (Rockhopper Penguin)1
Eudyptes chrysolophus (Macaroni Penguin)2
Eudyptes schlegeli (Royal Penguin)2
Fulmarus glacialoides (Southern Fulmar)2
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)2
Hydrurga leptonyx (Leopard seal)2
Hyperoodon planifrons (Southern Bottlenose Whale)3
Lagenorhynchus australis (Peale's Dolphin)1
Lagenorhynchus cruciger (Hourglass Dolphin)1
Lagenorhynchus obscurus (Dusky Dolphin)1
Lepidonotothen squamifrons (Grey rockcod)1
Leptonychotes weddellii (Weddell Seal)2
Leucocarbo atriceps (imperial shag)1
Lobodon carcinophaga (Crabeater Seal)1
Macronectes giganteus (Southern Giant Petrel)1
Macronectes halli (Northern Giant Petrel)2
Mirounga leonina (Southern Elephant Seal)2
Pachyptila belcheri (Slender-billed Prion)2
Pagodroma nivea (Snow Petrel)1
Phalacrocorax magellanicus (rock shag)1
Phoebetria fusca (Sooty Albatross)2
Phoebetria palpebrata (Light-mantled Albatross)1
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)4
Procellaria aequinoctialis (White-chinned Petrel)1
Pygoscelis adeliae (Adelie Penguin)1
Pygoscelis antarcticus (Chinstrap Penguin)1
Pygoscelis papua (Gentoo Penguin)4
Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)1
Stercorarius antarcticus lonnbergi (Brown Skua)1
Stercorarius maccormicki (South Polar Skua)1
Thalassarche chrysostoma (Grey-headed Albatross)2
Thalassarche melanophris (Black-browed Albatross)2
Thalassoica antarctica (Antarctic Petrel)2
Ziphius cavirostris (Cuvier's Beaked Whale)1

Predators

Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic Fur Seal)[1]
Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic Fur Seal)[1]
Hydrurga leptonyx (Leopard seal)[1]
Macronectes giganteus (Southern Giant Petrel)[7]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[1]
Stercorarius antarcticus (Subantarctic Skua)[7]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Austrogoniodes brevipes[11]
Nesiotinus demersus[11]
Tetrabothrius pauliani[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aquarium & Rainforest at Moody Gardenspatagonicus
Biodome de Montreal
 patagonicus
Birdland Park & Gardenspatagonicus
Central Park Zoopatagonicus
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
 patagonicus
Detroit Zoological Society
 halli
 patagonicus
Edinburgh Zoo-Scottish National Zoopatagonicus
Faunia (Parque Biologico De Madrid,SA)
Indianapolis Zoo
 patagonicus
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
 patagonicus
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunn
Newport Aquarium
Ocean Park Corporationpatagonicus
Odense Zoologiske Havepatagonicus
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoopatagonicus
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
 halli
 patagonicus
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium
 patagonicus
Riverbanks Zoo and Garden
 patagonicus
Rotterdam Zoo
 patagonicus
Saint Louis Zoological Park
 patagonicus
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Sea World Orlandopatagonicus
Taipei Zoopatagonicus
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Zoo of Antwerp
Zoo Zürich
 patagonicus
Zoologischer Garten Basel
 patagonicus
Zoologischer Garten Wuppertal
 patagonicus

Range Map

Cape Peninsula National Park;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
2SAFRING, University of Cape Town, Department of Statistical Sciences, Avian Demography Unit
3Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
6Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Summer diet of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at the Falkland Islands, southern Atlantic Ocean, Yves Cherel, Klemens Pütz and Keith A. Hobson, Polar Biol (2002) 25: 898–906
9CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
10THE DIETS AND DIETARY SEGREGATION OF SEABIRDS AT THE SUBANTARCTIC CROZET ISLANDS, VINCENT RIDOUX, MARINE ORNITHOLOGY Vol. 22 No. 1 1994
11Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
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