Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Sphenisciformes > Spheniscidae > Eudyptes > Eudyptes chrysolophus

Eudyptes chrysolophus (Macaroni Penguin)

Wikipedia Abstract

The macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) is a species of penguin found from the Subantarctic to the Antarctic Peninsula. One of six species of crested penguin, it is very closely related to the royal penguin, and some authorities consider the two to be a single species. It bears a distinctive yellow crest, and the face and upperparts are black and sharply delineated from the white underparts. Adults weigh on average 5.5 kg (12 lb) and are 70 cm (28 in) in length. The male and female are similar in appearance, although the male is slightly larger and stronger with a relatively larger bill. Like all penguins, it is flightless, with a streamlined body and wings stiffened and flattened into flippers for a marine lifestyle. They also have red eyes.
View Wikipedia Record: Eudyptes chrysolophus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.84728
EDGE Score: 3.44646


Adult Weight [1]  9.90 lbs (4.49 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  142 grams
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [3]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  90 %
Forages - Underwater [3]  100 %
Clutch Size [2]  2
Incubation [4]  35 days
Migration [4]  Interoceanic
Speed [5]  5.10 MPH (2.28 m/s)
Wing Span [6]  28 inches (.7 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra Australia, New Zealand Australasia Tundra    
Patagonian steppe Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Scotia Sea Islands tundra United Kingdom Antarctic Tundra    
Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra South Africa, France, Australia Antarctic Tundra    
Tristan Da Cunha-Gough Islands shrub and grasslands United Kingdom Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Ia 233540 Tasmania, Australia  
Palmer LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Antarctica    
South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Marine Protected Area 264402758 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands      
Table Mountain (Cape Peninsula) National Park II 70141 Western Cape, South Africa

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Île aux Cochons French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii    
Île de l'Est French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii    
Île de la Possession French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Île des Pingouins French Southern Territories A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii    
Îles des Apôtres French Southern Territories A1, A4ii, A4iii    
Îles Nuageuses and Île Clugny French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii  
Beauchêne Island Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii  
Heard and McDonald Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) A1, A4ii, A4iii  
Jason Islands Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii    
Northern part of Péninsule Loranchet French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii  
Péninsule Courbet French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Péninsule Rallier du Baty French Southern Territories A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii
Pebble Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4iii  
Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve South Africa A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Southern coast of Péninsule Jeanne d'Arc French Southern Territories A1, A4ii, A4iii

Prey / Diet

Champsocephalus gunnari (Mackerel icefish)[7]
Channichthys rhinoceratus (Unicorn icefish)[7]
Electrona antarctica (Lanternfish)[7]
Electrona carlsbergi (Electron subantarctic)[8]
Euphausia frigida[7]
Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill)[9]
Euphausia triacantha[7]
Euphausia vallentini[7]
Hyperia macrocephala[7]
Krefftichthys anderssoni (Anderson's lanternfish)[7]
Primno macropa[8]
Stylocheiron abbreviatum[8]
Themisto gaudichaudii[10]
Thysanoessa macrura[7]
Thysanoessa vicina[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aphrodroma brevirostris (Kerguelen Petrel)1
Aptenodytes forsteri (Emperor Penguin)3
Aptenodytes patagonicus (King Penguin)2
Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic Fur Seal)2
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)1
Daption capense (Cape Petrel)6
Dissostichus eleginoides (Patagonsky klykach)2
Electrona antarctica (Lanternfish)2
Electrona carlsbergi (Electron subantarctic)2
Eudyptes chrysocome (Rockhopper Penguin)6
Eudyptes schlegeli (Royal Penguin)3
Fregetta tropica (Black-bellied Storm Petrel)2
Fulmarus glacialoides (Southern Fulmar)2
Garrodia nereis (Grey-backed Storm Petrel)1
Gymnoscopelus braueri (Lanternfish)2
Gymnoscopelus nicholsi (Nichol's lanternfish)5
Halobaena caerulea (Blue Petrel)4
Lagenorhynchus cruciger (Hourglass Dolphin)2
Larus dominicanus (Kelp Gull)1
Lepidonotothen squamifrons (Grey rockcod)2
Lobodon carcinophaga (Crabeater Seal)1
Macronectes giganteus (Southern Giant Petrel)1
Macronectes halli (Northern Giant Petrel)1
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)1
Mirounga leonina (Southern Elephant Seal)1
Notothenia microlepidota (Black cod)1
Oceanites oceanicus (Wilson's Storm-Petrel)4
Pachyptila belcheri (Slender-billed Prion)5
Pachyptila desolata (Antarctic Prion)3
Pachyptila salvini (Salvin's Prion)3
Pachyptila turtur (Fairy Prion)3
Pagodroma nivea (Snow Petrel)3
Pelecanoides georgicus (South Georgia Diving Petrel)4
Pelecanoides urinatrix (Common Diving Petrel)2
Phoebetria fusca (Sooty Albatross)2
Phoebetria palpebrata (Light-mantled Albatross)2
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)1
Procellaria aequinoctialis (White-chinned Petrel)3
Protomyctophum bolini (Lanternfish)2
Pterodroma mollis (Soft-plumaged Petrel)1
Pygoscelis adeliae (Adelie Penguin)2
Pygoscelis antarcticus (Chinstrap Penguin)2
Pygoscelis papua (Gentoo Penguin)5
Stercorarius antarcticus lonnbergi (Brown Skua)1
Stercorarius maccormicki (South Polar Skua)2
Sterna vittata (Antarctic Tern)1
Thalassarche chrysostoma (Grey-headed Albatross)4
Thalassarche melanophris (Black-browed Albatross)4
Thalassoica antarctica (Antarctic Petrel)3


Hydrurga leptonyx (Leopard seal)[4]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[4]


Parasitized by 
Austrogoniodes cristati[11]
Austrogoniodes macquariensis[11]
Contracaecum heardi <Unverified Name>[12]
Parapsyllus heardi[13]
Tetrabothrius eudyptidis[12]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aquarium & Rainforest at Moody Gardens
Biodome de Montreal
Detroit Zoological Society
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium
Tennessee Aquarium
Zoo of Antwerp

Range Map

Cape Peninsula National Park;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Marchant, S.; Higgins, PJ (eds.) 1990. The handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, Vol. 1., ratites to ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
6Wildlife As Canon Sees It
7Studying Seabird Diet through Genetic Analysis of Faeces: A Case Study on Macaroni Penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus), Bruce E. Deagle, Nick J. Gales, Karen Evans, Simon N. Jarman, Sarah Robinson, Rowan Trebilco, Mark A. Hindell, PLoS ONE 2(9): e831
9Towards the trophic structure of the Bouvet Island marine ecosystem, U. Jacob, T. Brey, I. Fetzer, S. Kaehler, K. Mintenbeck, K. Dunton, K. Beyer, U. Struck , E.A. Pakhomov and W.E. Arntz, Polar Biology, 29 (2). pp. 106-113 (2006)
10Amphipod-based food web: Themisto gaudichaudii caught in nets and by seabirds in Kerguelen waters, southern Indian Ocean, Pierrick Bocher, Yves Cherel, Jean-Philippe Labat, Patrick Mayzaud, Suzanne Razouls, Pierre Jouventin, Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 223: 261–276, 2001
11Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
13International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
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