Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Sphenisciformes > Spheniscidae > Spheniscus > Spheniscus humboldti

Spheniscus humboldti (Humboldt Penguin)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) (also termed Chilean penguin, Peruvian penguin, or patranca) is a South American penguin that breeds in coastal Chile and Peru. Its nearest relatives are the African penguin, the Magellanic penguin and the Galápagos penguin. The penguin is named after the cold water current it swims in, which is itself named after Alexander von Humboldt, an explorer. The species is listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN.
View Wikipedia Record: Spheniscus humboldti

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.33589
EDGE Score: 3.62016


Adult Weight [2]  9.65 lbs (4.38 kg)
Female Weight [2]  8.92 lbs (4.05 kg)
Male Weight [2]  10.39 lbs (4.71 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  16.4 %
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [3]  70 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  30 %
Forages - Underwater [3]  100 %
Clutch Size [1]  2
Incubation [1]  41 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  20 years
Migration [1]  Intraoceanic
Water Biome [1]  Coastal


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Atacama desert Chile Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chilean matorral Chile Neotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Sechura desert Peru Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Reserva del Noroeste Biosphere Reserve 571807 Peru  
Santuario de la Naturaleza Pumalín Sanctuary 713364 Chile

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Isla Foca Peru A1, A4ii
Isla Lobos de Afuera Peru A1  
Isla Lobos de Tierra Peru A1, A4ii
Isla Pachacámac Peru A1, A4ii
Laguna de Ite Peru A1, A2, A3, A4i, A4iii
Reserva Nacional de Paracas Peru A1, A2, A3, A4i, A4ii

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests Chile No

Prey / Diet

Belone belone (Garfish)[4]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[4]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[4]
Cololabis saira (Skipper)[4]
Engraulis anchoita (Anchoita)[5]
Engraulis australis (Australian anchovy)[4]
Engraulis capensis (Southern African anchovy)[4]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[4]
Engraulis japonicus (Japanese anchovy)[4]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[4]
Engraulis ringens (Anchoveta)[5]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[4]
Odontesthes regia (Silverside)[5]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[4]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[5]
Scomberesox saurus (Atlantic saury)[5]
Sprattus fuegensis (chicken sprat)[5]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[4]
Strangomera bentincki (Araucanian herring)[5]
Todarodes filippovae (Antarctic flying squid)[5]
Trachurus murphyi (Southern jack mackerel)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Arctocephalus philippii (Juan Fernández Fur Seal)1
Larosterna inca (Inca Tern)1
Leucocarbo atriceps (imperial shag)1
Leucocarbo bougainvillii (Guanay cormorant)2
Leucophaeus pipixcan (Franklin's Gull)2
Oceanodroma markhami (Markham's Storm-Petrel)1
Otaria flavescens (South American Sealion)3
Pelecanoides garnotii (Peruvian Diving Petrel)1
Pelecanus thagus (Peruvian Pelican)1
Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Neotropic Cormorant)2
Phalacrocorax gaimardi (red-legged cormorant)1
Phalacrocorax magellanicus (rock shag)1
Rynchops niger (Black Skimmer)1
Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)2
Sterna hirundinacea (South American Tern)1
Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)1
Sterna trudeaui (Snowy-crowned Tern)1
Sternula lorata (Peruvian Tern)2
Sula nebouxii (Blue-footed Booby)3
Sula variegata (Peruvian Booby)5


Parasitized by 
Hirudinella ventricosa[6]
Parapsyllus humboldti[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aalborg Zoo
Akron Zoological Park
Al Ain Zoo
Aqua Zoo Friesland
Aquarium of Niagara
Bird Park Marlow
Birdland Park & Gardens
Blackbrook Zoological Park
Blair Drummond Safari Park
Boras Djurpark Zoo
Chessington World of Adventures, Ltd.
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Chicago Zoological Park
City of Belfast Zoo
Colchester Zoo
Cologne Zoo
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Copenhagen Zoo
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardens
Curraghs Wildlife Park
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dept. of National Zoological Gardens
Dierenpark Emmen
Drayton Manor Park Zoo
Drusillas Zoo Park
Dudley Zoological Gardens
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Park
Exmoor Zoological Park
Faunia (Parque Biologico De Madrid,SA)
Flamingo Land LTD
Flamingo Park Wildlife Encounter
Fota Wildlife Park
Great Plains Zoo
Hai Park Kiriat Motzkin
Harewood Bird Garden at Leeds
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Jyllands Park Zoo
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
Kolmardens Djurpark AB
Marineland Mallorca
Marwell Wildlife
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunn
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Moscow Zoological Park
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
Newquay Zoo (Cornwall Animal World)
Nogeyama Zoological Gardens Yokohama
North of England Zoological Society
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Oceanario de Lisboa
Oregon Zoo
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Ouwehand Zoo
Paradise Park Wildlife Sanctuary
Parc des Oiseaux
Parc Merveilleux
Parc Zoologic de Barcelona
Parc Zoologique d'Amiens
Parque Zoologico Huachipa
Roger Williams Park Zoo
Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Park
Rostock Zoologischer Garten
Saint Louis Zoological Park
Santa Barbara Zoological Gardens
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Sedgwick County Zoo
Slottsskogen Zoo
South Lakes Wild Animal Park
Stichting Nederlands Opvang Papegaaien
Stiftelsen Atlanterhavsparken
The Philadelphia Zoo
Tiergarten Bernburg
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Tierpark Dählhölzli
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbH
Tokyo Sea Life Park
Twycross Zoo
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
Welsh Mountain Zoo
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
Woburn Safari Park
Woodland Park Zoological Gardens
Yokohama Zool. Gardens
Zoo am Meer Bremerhaven GmbH
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontaine
Zoo de Jurques
Zoo de La Fleche
Zoo Dortmund
Zoo Dresden GmbH
Zoo Krefeld GmbH
Zoo Landau in der Pfalz
Zoo of Antwerp
Zoo Osnabrück
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoo Zürich
Zool.Nacional Parque Metro De Santiago
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoological Society of Ireland-Dublin
Zoologicka Garden & Chateau Zlin-Lesna
Zoologicka zahrada Liberec
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbH
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg

Range Map



California Academy of Sciences Penguin Cam
Cam Time:
Hours: - ( - )
Feeding: Dly ,


Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Zavalaga, CB and R. Paredes. 1997. Sex determination of adult Humboldt Penguins using morphometric characters. Journal of Field Ornithology 68:102-112
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Diet of the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) in northern and southern Chile, C. Herling, B. M. Culik, J. C. Hennicke, Marine Biology (2005) 147: 13–25
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
7International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access