Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Sphenisciformes > Spheniscidae > Spheniscus > Spheniscus mendiculus

Spheniscus mendiculus (Galapagos Penguin)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) is a penguin endemic to the Galápagos Islands. It is the only penguin that lives north of the equator in the wild. It can survive due to the cool temperatures resulting from the Humboldt Current and cool waters from great depths brought up by the Cromwell Current. The Galápagos penguin is one of the banded penguins, the other species of which live mostly on the coasts of Africa and mainland South America.
View Wikipedia Record: Spheniscus mendiculus

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Spheniscus mendiculus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.33709
EDGE Score: 4.31344


Adult Weight [2]  4.26 lbs (1.93 kg)
Female Weight [2]  3.81 lbs (1.73 kg)
Male Weight [2]  4.71 lbs (2.14 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  23.4 %
Diet [3]  Piscivore
Diet - Fish [3]  100 %
Forages - Underwater [3]  100 %
Clutch Size [5]  2
Emoji [4]  penguin
Incubation [5]  40 days
Water Biome [1]  Coastal


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Galápagos Islands scrubland mosaic Ecuador Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Archipelago de Colon Biosphere Reserve 34336011 Galapagos Islands, Ecuador  

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Áreas costeras de Fernandina y del occidente de Isabela Ecuador A1, A2, A4i, A4ii
Humedales del Sur de Isabela Ecuador A1, A2, A4i, A4ii
Isla Floreana Ecuador A1, A2, A4i, A4ii  

Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) Sites

Name  Location   Map   Climate   Land Use 
Áreas costeras de Fernandina y del occidente de Isabela Ecuador

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru Yes

Prey / Diet

Belone belone (Garfish)[6]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[6]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[6]
Cololabis saira (Skipper)[6]
Engraulis anchoita (Anchoita)[6]
Engraulis australis (Australian anchovy)[6]
Engraulis capensis (Southern African anchovy)[6]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[6]
Engraulis japonicus (Japanese anchovy)[6]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[6]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[6]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[6]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[7]
Scomberesox saurus (Atlantic saury)[6]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Balaenoptera borealis (Sei Whale)1
Balaenoptera edeni (Bryde's whale)1
Kajikia audax (Stripey)1
Sula leucogaster (Brown Booby)1
Sula nebouxii (Blue-footed Booby)1
Thunnus albacares (Yellowfin-tuna)1
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)1

Range Map



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Williams TD (1995) The Penguins: Spheniscidae, Oxford University Press, Oxford
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Emoji by Twitter is licensed under CC BY 4.0
5del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Diet of the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) in northern and southern Chile, C. Herling, B. M. Culik, J. C. Hennicke, Marine Biology (2005) 147: 13–25
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
AZE sites provided by Alliance for Zero Extinction (2010). 2010 AZE Update.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access