Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Gaviiformes > Gaviidae > Gavia > Gavia immer
 

Gavia immer (Great Northern Loon; Common Loon)

Language: French; Spanish

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  10.98 lbs (4.98 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  94 grams
Female Weight [2]  9.92 lbs (4.50 kg)
Male Weight [2]  12.04 lbs (5.46 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  21.3 %
Female Maturity [3]  4 years
Male Maturity [3]  4 years
Clutch Size [4]  2
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Incubation [3]  28 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  20 years
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams, Coastal, Brackish Water

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Aleutian Islands tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Faroe Islands boreal grasslands Denmark Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queen Charlotte Islands Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Archipel de Glénan 145273 France  
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Auyuittuq National Park II 4808115 Nunavut, Canada
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Camargue 546256 France  
Cap Gris-Nez 138933 France    
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Delta de l'Ebre 119562 Spain  
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Essex Estuaries 114016 England, United Kingdom
Estuaire de la Loire - Baie de Bourgneuf 198183 France  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
LITTORAL SEINO-MARIN 367957 France    
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
MARAIS POITEVIN 168088 France  
Marais Breton, baie de Bourgneuf, île de Noirmoutier et forêt de Monts 137949 France  
Mor Braz 99524 France    
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
North-east Greenland National Park II 237590314 Greenland
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Ouessant-Molène 190983 France  
PERTUIS CHARENTAIS - ROCHEBONNE 2024431 France  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Secteur marin de l'île d'Yeu jusqu'au continent 606421 France  
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Map   Climate   Land Use 
Arnarvatnsheidi-Tvídægra Iceland A4i, B1i
Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula Ireland A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6  
Costa de la Muerte (North coast) Spain A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Donegal Bay Ireland A4i, B1i, C2
Melrakkaslétta Iceland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3  
Scapa Flow United Kingdom A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C3, C6
Smøla archipelago Norway A1, A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2  
Sounds around Wyre United Kingdom A4i, B1i, C2, C6  
South Cornwall Coast United Kingdom A4i, B1i, C2, C6
Tralee Bay and Barrow Harbour Ireland B1i, B2, C3, C6
Veidivötn Iceland A4i, B1i, B2

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Emblem of

Minnesota
Ontario

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Amphimerus arcticus <Unverified Name>[5]
Andracantha gravida[5]
Andracantha phalacrocoracis[5]
Apophallus brevis[5]
Arhythmorhynchus brevis[5]
Armadoskrjabinia rostellata <Unverified Name>[5]
Austrobilharzia terrigalensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Baruscapillaria mergi <Unverified Name>[5]
Capillaria mergi <Unverified Name>[5]
Clinostomum complanatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Confluaria capillaris <Unverified Name>[5]
Contracaecum variegatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Corynosoma anatarium[5]
Corynosoma semerme[5]
Corynosoma strumosum[5]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Cotylurus erraticus[5]
Cotylurus platycephalus <Unverified Name>[5]
Cryptocotyle concava[5]
Cryptocotyle lingua[5]
Cyathostoma pheniscus <Unverified Name>[5]
Cyclustera ibisae <Unverified Name>[5]
Dendritobilharzia pulverulenta[5]
Diphyllobothrium ditremum[5]
Diplostomum gavium <Unverified Name>[5]
Diplostomum immer <Unverified Name>[5]
Drepanidotaenia lanceolata <Unverified Name>[5]
Dubininolepis pseudorostellatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Dubininolepis rostellata[5]
Echinochasmus skrjabini <Unverified Name>[5]
Echinochasmus spinulosus <Unverified Name>[5]
Echinostoma revolutum[5]
Erschoviorchis lintoni <Unverified Name>[5]
Euamphimerus sibiricus <Unverified Name>[5]
Eustrongylides tubifex <Unverified Name>[5]
Himasthla alincia <Unverified Name>[5]
Ichthyocotylurus erraticus[5]
Ichthyocotylurus platycephalus[5]
Mesorchis denticulatus[5]
Mesostephanus appendiculatoides[5]
Microparyphium facetum <Unverified Name>[5]
Microphallus forresteri <Unverified Name>[5]
Microphallus nicolli <Unverified Name>[5]
Microsomacanthus pseudorostellatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Neovalipora parvispinae <Unverified Name>[5]
Odhneria odhneri[5]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[5]
Paricterotaenia ransomi[5]
Parorchis acanthus[5]
Phagicola longa[5]
Phagicola longus[5]
Plotnikovia fodiens <Unverified Name>[5]
Plotnikovia podilymbae[5]
Posthodiplostomum minimum[5]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[5]
Pseudopsilostoma varium[5]
Schistocephalus solidus[5]
Sciadiocara rugosa <Unverified Name>[5]
Southwellina hispida[5]
Splendidofilaria fallisensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Stegophorus diomedeae <Unverified Name>[5]
Stegophorus stellaepolaris <Unverified Name>[5]
Stephanoprora pseudoechinatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Stictodora lariformicola <Unverified Name>[5]
Streptocara crassicauda <Unverified Name>[5]
Streptocara formosensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Streptocara formosus <Unverified Name>[5]
Tanaisia fedtschenkoi[5]
Tetrabothrius immerinus[5]
Tetrabothrius macrocephalus[5]
Tylodelphys immer <Unverified Name>[5]

Range Map

Link to Map
North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Audio

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Provided by eNature via Myxer Author: Lang Elliot

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Banks R.C., 22-Sep-2011, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2McIntyre, JW and JF Barr. 1997. Common Loon (Gavia immer). In A. Poole and F. Gill [eds.], The birds of North America, No. 313. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia and American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC 3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Important Bird Areas provided by BirdLife International (2010) Important Bird Areas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2010
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2