Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Gaviiformes > Gaviidae > Gavia > Gavia pacifica

Gavia pacifica (Pacific Loon)

Synonyms: Gavia arctica pacifica
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Pacific loon or Pacific diver (Gavia pacifica), is a medium-sized member of the loon, or diver, family. It may be conspecific with black-throated diver/Arctic loon, which it closely resembles. The genus name Gavia comes from the Latin for "sea mew", as used by ancient Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder. The specific epithet pacifica is Latin for the Pacific Ocean, the term meaning "peaceful". It breeds on deep lakes in the tundra region of Alaska and northern Canada as far east as Baffin Island, and in Russia east of the Lena River.
View Wikipedia Record: Gavia pacifica

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 24.5669
EDGE Score: 3.2413


Adult Weight [2]  4.88 lbs (2.21 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  95 grams
Breeding Habitat [3]  Arctic tundra, Boreal forests
Wintering Geography [3]  Pacific Coast
Wintering Habitat [3]  Coastal marine
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fish [4]  70 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  20 %
Diet - Plants [4]  10 %
Forages - Water Surface [4]  100 %
Clutch Size [2]  2
Global Population (2017 est.) [3]  840,000
Incubation [5]  29 days
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Coastal


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Aleutian Islands tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Aulavik National Park II 3021211 Northwest Territories, Canada
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Cabrillo National Monument V 149 California, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Elkhorn Slough Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 964 California, United States  
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Gulf Islands National Park National Park Reserve II 8785 British Columbia, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Ukkusiksalik National Park II   Nunavut, Canada
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States


Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Active Pass Canada A4i
Baynes Sound Canada A4i
Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir) Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Rasmussen Lowlands Canada A4i, A4iii
West Chaun plain Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Japan Japan No

Prey / Diet

Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[5]
Cottus cognatus (Anadyr sculpin)[6]
Cymatogaster aggregata (Shiner)[5]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[5]
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)[5]
Icichthys lockingtoni (Brown rudderfish)[5]
Pungitius pungitius (Ninespine stickleback)[5]
Thymallus arcticus (Arctic grayling)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aechmophorus occidentalis (Western Grebe)1
Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)1
Aythya fuligula (Tufted Duck)1
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)1
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)1
Bucephala clangula (Common Goldeneye)1
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)1
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)1
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)1
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)1
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)1
Entosphenus tridentatus (Pacific lamprey)1
Eschrichtius robustus (Gray Whale)1
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)1
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)1
Gavia arctica (Black-throated Loon)1
Gavia stellata (Red-throated Loon)1
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)1
Haliaeetus pelagicus (Steller's Sea-Eagle)1
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)1
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)1
Katsuwonus pelamis (White bonito)1
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)1
Larus canus (Mew Gull)1
Larus occidentalis (Western Gull)1
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)2
Lontra canadensis (northern river otter)1
Lota lota (Thin-tailed burbot)1
Melanitta nigra (Black Scoter)1
Mergus serrator (Red-breasted Merganser)1
Micropterus dolomieu (Smallmouth bass)1
Mirounga angustirostris (Northern Elephant Seal)1
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)2
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)1
Oncorhynchus mykiss (redband trout)1
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)1
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)1
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)1
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)1
Phocoenoides dalli (Dall's Porpoise)1
Platalea leucorodia (Eurasian Spoonbill)2
Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)1
Puffinus opisthomelas (Black-vented Shearwater)1
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)1
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)2
Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)1
Salvelinus namaycush (American lake char)1
Sander vitreus (Walleye)1
Sebastes caurinus (Copper rockfish)2
Sebastes maliger (Rockfish)1
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)1
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)1
Thymallus arcticus (Arctic grayling)1
Tringa melanoleuca (Greater Yellowlegs)1
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)2
Uria aalge (Common Murre)1
Zalophus californianus (California Sealion)1


Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[6]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[6]


Parasitized by 
Avioserpens mosgovoyi <Unverified Name>[7]
Baruscapillaria carbonis <Unverified Name>[7]
Biglandatrium biglandatrium <Unverified Name>[7]
Cardiocephaloides brandesii[7]
Confluaria capillaris <Unverified Name>[7]
Contracaecum variegatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Corynosoma strumosum[7]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Dubininolepis fuhrmanni <Unverified Name>[7]
Dubininolepis swiderskii[7]
Echinochasmus coaxatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Echinochasmus spinulosus <Unverified Name>[7]
Echinoparyphium baculus <Unverified Name>[7]
Eucotyle cohni[7]
Eucotyle nephritica[7]
Heterophyopsis continua[7]
Ingliseria circohamata <Unverified Name>[7]
Lateriporus skrjabini <Unverified Name>[7]
Levinseniella brachysoma[7]
Ligula colymbi[7]
Microsomacanthus paramicrosoma <Unverified Name>[7]
Neovalipora parvispinae <Unverified Name>[7]
Paradilepis urceus <Unverified Name>[7]
Polymorphus gavii[7]
Polymorphus magnus[7]
Polymorphus minutus[7]
Polymorphus obtusus[7]
Schistocephalus solidus[7]
Stegophorus stellaepolaris <Unverified Name>[7]
Stellantchasmus falcatus[7]
Tetrabothrius macrocephalus[7]

Range Map

North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
6Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access