Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Pelecaniformes > Pelecanidae > Pelecanus > Pelecanus occidentalis
 

Pelecanus occidentalis (Brown Pelican)

Language: Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) is the smallest of the eight species of pelican, although it is a large bird in nearly every other regard. It is 106–137 cm (42–54 in) in length, weighs from 2.75 to 5.5 kg (6.1 to 12 lb) and has a wingspan from 1.83 to 2.5 m (6.0 to 8.2 ft).
View Wikipedia Record: Pelecanus occidentalis

Infraspecies

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  7.58 lbs (3.44 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  64 grams
Female Weight [2]  7.00 lbs (3.17 kg)
Male Weight [2]  8.16 lbs (3.70 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  16.6 %
Female Maturity [3]  1 year
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Clutch Size [4]  2
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Incubation [3]  29 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  43 years
Water Biome [1]  Coastal

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves Brazil, Columbia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela Neotropic Mangroves  
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bahamoan-Antillean mangroves Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Mangroves      
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Caribbean shrublands France, United Kingdom, Dominica, St. Lucia, Netherlands Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands      
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Ecuadorian dry forests Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Enriquillo wetlands Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Galápagos Islands scrubland mosaic Ecuador Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hispaniolan dry forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan moist forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan pine forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican dry forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican moist forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
La Costa xeric shrublands Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lara-Falcón dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Leeward Islands moist forests St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua & Barbuda Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lesser Antillean dry forests Grenada, St. Lucia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maracaibo dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Miskito pine forests Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Orinoco Delta swamp forests Venezuela, Guyana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Paraguana xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Puerto Rican dry forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Puerto Rican moist forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sinú Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South American Pacific mangroves Colombia, Panama, Ecuador Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern Atlantic mangroves Brazil Neotropic Mangroves  
Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tumbes-Piura dry forests Ecuador, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Ecuador moist forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Windward Islands moist forests Martinique, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Alejandro de Humboldt National Park II 175430 Cuba  
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Archipelago de Colon Biosphere Reserve 34336011 Galapagos Islands, Ecuador  
Archipelago Golfo de Fonseca Marine National Park 9779 Honduras  
Archipiélago Los Roques National Park 409203 Venezuela    
Île-à-Vache   Haiti  
Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve VI 358906 Mexico    
Barro Colorado Island Natural Monument III   Panama  
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Biscayne National Park II 11085 Florida, United States
Blackbeard Island National Wildlife Refuge IV 4842 Georgia, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Buenavista Wetland Reserve 778949 Cuba    
Cabrillo National Monument V 149 California, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Cayos Cochinos Archipelago National Park Natural Marine Monument   Honduras  
Cayos Utila Wildlife Refuge Marine National Park   Honduras      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary   California, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Corcovado National Park 115845 Costa Rica  
Culebra National Wildlife Refuge   Puerto Rico, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Curecanti National Recreation Area V 31032 Colorado, United States
Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge   Puerto Rico, United States
Dzilam de Bravo Wetland Reserve 149170 Yucatan, Mexico    
El Parque Estatal Lagunas de Yalahau Wetland Reserve   Yucatan, Mexico  
Elkhorn Slough Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 964 California, United States  
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Fort Caroline National Memorial III 137 Florida, United States
Fort Matanzas National Monument III 269 Florida, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Guadeloupe Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 172250 Guadeloupe  
Gulf Island National Seashore II 67487 Florida, Mississippi, United States
Gulf Islands National Park National Park Reserve II 8785 British Columbia, Canada
Isla Mujeres, Punta Cancun y Punta Nizuc National Park II 21428 Quintana Roo, Mexico    
Jeanette Kawas National Park 6379 Honduras    
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
La Amistad International Park National Park II 541617 Panama, Costa Rica  
Lanphere-Christensen Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 471 California, United States  
Little St. Simons Island   Georgia, United States
Maya Multiple Use Area 1156412 Guatemala  
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Morrocoy National Park 63672 Venezuela  
Nipomo Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3725 California, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Paine Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 2965 California, United States      
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Parque Marino Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano National Park II 129688 Mexico      
Parque Nacional Henri Pittier National Park 218030 Venezuela  
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve   Honduras        
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Saba Marine Park National Marine Park II 5573 Netherlands Antilles  
Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge IV 507 Virgin Islands, United States  
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Sarstoon Temash National Park II 42082 Belize  
Seaflower Marine Protected Area 15125514 Colombia      
Shipstern Nature Reserve IV 20453 Belize
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (incl. Tayrona NP) National Park II 1031303 Colombia  
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Tikal National Park II 142943 Guatemala
Virgin Islands Biosphere Reserve 15148 Virgin Islands, United States  
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Map   Climate   Land Use 
Altamaha River Delta USA A1, A4i
Anegada: Western salt ponds and coastal areas Virgin Islands (to UK) A2, A4i, B4i, B4ii    
Black River Great Morass Jamaica A1, A2, A4i, B4i, B4ii  
Booby Rocks and Pirates Bay Bahamas A1, B4i, B4ii  
Cay Sal Bahamas A1, A4i, B4i, B4ii    
Cayo Sabinal, Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahía de Nuevitas Cuba A1, A2, A3, A4i, B4i  
Channel Islands (Northern) USA A1, A4i, A4ii  
Chimán Islands Panama A4i
Delta del Mayarí Cuba A1, A3, B4i
Delta del Río San Juan Colombia A4i
East Caicos and adjacent areas Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) A1, A2, A4i, B4i  
Fort Amsterdam, Sint Maarten Netherlands Antilles A2, B4i  
Grand Turk Salinas and Shores Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) A4i, B4i    
Great Inagua Bahamas A1, A4i, A4iii, B4i  
Humedal Chacopata Venezuela A4i
Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río Cuba A1, A4i, A4iii, B4i
Isla La Blanquilla Venezuela A1, A4i, A4ii    
Isla Santa Clara Ecuador A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Jaragua National Park Dominican Republic A1, A2, A4i, A4iii, B4i
Jiquilisco and Jaltepeque El Salvador A3
Laguna de Ite Peru A1, A2, A3, A4i, A4iii
McKinnons Salt Pond Antigua and Barbuda A1, A4i, B4i
Mustique Island St Vincent and the Grenadines A2, B4i  
North Atlantic Abaco Cays Bahamas A4i, B4i, B4ii  
North, Middle and East Caicos Ramsar Site Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) A1, A2, A4i, A4iii, B4i  
North-west Cays Virgin Islands (to USA) A4ii, B4i, B4ii  
Offshore Islands Antigua and Barbuda A1, A4i, B4i
Parque Nacional Archipiélago Los Roques Venezuela A4i    
Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona Colombia A4i, A4ii    
Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga Colombia A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii    
Pearl Archipelago Panama A4i  
Pelikan Rock, Sint Maarten Netherlands Antilles A4i, B4i  
Ponds of the Southeast Peninsula St Kitts and Nevis B4i  
Potworks Dam Antigua and Barbuda A1, A2, A4i, B4i
Prickly Pear (East and West) Anguilla (to UK) A4i, B4i, B4ii  
Río Máximo Cuba A1, A2, A3, A4i, A4iii, B4i  
Refugio de Vida Silvestre Isla Corazón e Isla Fragata Ecuador A4i, A4ii
Reserva de Biosfera RAMSAR Ciénaga Grande, Isla de Salamanca y Sabana Grande Colombia A1, A2, A3, A4i, A4iii
Salt Cay Creek and Salinas Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) A2, A4i, B4i    
Southgate and Green Cay Virgin Islands (to USA) A1, A2, B4i  
St John Virgin Islands (to USA) A2, B4i  
Suroeste Puerto Rico (to USA) A1, A2, A4i, A4iii, B4i
Taboga Group Panama A4i
Valley Church Bay Antigua and Barbuda A1, A2, B4i
Vieques Puerto Rico (to USA) A2, B4i  
West Coast Mudflats Trinidad and Tobago A4i, A4iii, B4i

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Emblem of

Louisiana
Saint Kitts And Nevis

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Andracantha gravida[5]
Austrobilharzia terrigalensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Bolbophorus confusus[5]
Bursacetabulus macrobursatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Bursacetabulus pelecanus <Unverified Name>[5]
Bursatintinnabulus bassanus <Unverified Name>[5]
Bursatintinnabulus macrobursus <Unverified Name>[5]
Capillaria contorta <Unverified Name>[5]
Capillaria mergi <Unverified Name>[5]
Carneophallus turgidus <Unverified Name>[5]
Ceratophyllus pelecani[6]
Contracaecum mexicanum <Unverified Name>[5]
Contracaecum microcephalum <Unverified Name>[5]
Contracaecum multipapillatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Contracaecum rudolphii <Unverified Name>[5]
Contracaecum spiculigerum[5]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Cyathostoma pheniscus <Unverified Name>[5]
Cyclustera ibisae <Unverified Name>[5]
Galactosomum darbyi <Unverified Name>[5]
Galactosomum fregate <Unverified Name>[5]
Galactosomum puffini <Unverified Name>[5]
Gigantobilharzia huttoni <Unverified Name>[5]
Glossocercus caribaensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Gnathostoma spinigerum <Unverified Name>[5]
Ligula intestinalis[5]
Mesorchis denticulatus[5]
Mesostephanus appendiculatoides[5]
Mesostephanus microbursa <Unverified Name>[5]
Mesostephanus yedeae <Unverified Name>[5]
Microparyphium facetum <Unverified Name>[5]
Paracoenogonimus ovatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Paracuaria tridentata <Unverified Name>[5]
Paratetrabothrius orientalis <Unverified Name>[5]
Parvitaenia eudocimi <Unverified Name>[5]
Parvitaenia heardi <Unverified Name>[5]
Parvitaenia ibisae <Unverified Name>[5]
Phagicola longa[5]
Pholeter anterouterus <Unverified Name>[5]
Physaloptera maxillaris[5]
Prohemistomum appendiculatoides <Unverified Name>[5]
Southwellina hispida[5]
Synhimantus invaginata <Unverified Name>[5]
Tetrabothrius sulae <Unverified Name>[5]
Tetrameres inerme <Unverified Name>[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Albuquerque Biological Park
Alexandria Zoological Park
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Assiniboine Park Zoo
 carolinensis
Bird Park Marlow
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoo
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Cameron Park Zoo
Dallas Zoo
 carolinensis
Fort Worth Zoological Park
Fundacion Zoologica de Cali
Giza Zoological Garden
Gladys Porter Zoo
Hattiesburg Zoo
 carolinensis
Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park
 carolinensis
Hope Zoo (Nature Preservation Found.)occidentalis
Houston Zoo, Inc.carolinensis
Jackson Zoological Park
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardenscarolinensis
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Lion Country Safari Inc - Florida
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardenscalifornicus
Miami Metrozoo
Montecasino Bird Gardens
National Aviary in Pittsburgh
Oatland Island Wildlife Center
Palm Beach Zoo at Dreher Park
Saint Louis Zoological Park
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquarcarolinensis
San Diego Zoocarolinensis
Sea World Orlandocarolinensis
Smithsonian National Zoological Park
St. Augustine Alligator Farm
The Philadelphia Zoocalifornicus
 carolinensis
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museumcarolinensis
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr
Virginia Living Museum
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbHcalifornicus
 carolinensis

Range Map

Link to Map
Caribbean; North America;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 22-Sep-2011, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2Hartman FA 1961. Locomotor mechanisms of birds. Smithson Misc Collect 143:1–91 3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 6International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Important Bird Areas provided by BirdLife International (2010) Important Bird Areas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2010
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011