Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Suliformes > Phalacrocoracidae > Phalacrocorax > Phalacrocorax auritus

Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) is a member of the cormorant family of seabirds. It occurs along inland waterways as well as in coastal areas, and is widely distributed across North America, from the Aleutian Islands in Alaska down to Florida and Mexico. Measuring 70–90 cm (28–35 in) in length, it is an all-black bird which gains a small double crest of black and white feathers in breeding season. It has a bare patch of orange-yellow facial skin. Five subspecies are recognized.
View Wikipedia Record: Phalacrocorax auritus


Phalacrocorax auritus albociliatus (Farallon cormorant)
Phalacrocorax auritus auritus (Double-crested cormorant) (Attributes)
Phalacrocorax auritus cincinatus (White-crested cormorant)
Phalacrocorax auritus floridanus (Florida cormorant) (Attributes)
Phalacrocorax auritus heuretus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.17908
EDGE Score: 1.97117


Adult Weight [2]  4.01 lbs (1.82 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  31 grams
Female Maturity [2]  2 years
Male Maturity [2]  2 years
Breeding Habitat [3]  Wetlands
Wintering Geography [3]  Widespread U.S./Mexico
Wintering Habitat [3]  Coastal marine, Freshwater lakes and rivers
Diet [4]  Piscivore
Diet - Fish [4]  100 %
Forages - Underwater [4]  100 %
Clutch Size [5]  4
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [3]  750,000
Incubation [2]  24 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  20 years
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams, Coastal
Wing Span [6]  4.5 feet (1.37 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bahamoan-Antillean mangroves Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Mangroves      
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Apostle Islands National Lakeshore II 36006 Wisconsin, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Buenavista Wetland Reserve 778949 Cuba    
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve 864738 British Columbia, Canada  
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Dzilam de Bravo Wetland Reserve 149170 Yucatan, Mexico    
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gulf Island National Seashore II 67487 Florida, Mississippi, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge IV 21369 Wisconsin, United States
Isla Mujeres, Punta Cancun y Punta Nizuc National Park II 21428 Quintana Roo, Mexico    
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
San Dimas Biosphere Reserve 17161 California, United States  
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Sarstoon Temash National Park II 42082 Belize  
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shipstern Nature Reserve IV 20453 Belize
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
Wupatki National Monument III 36098 Arizona, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States


Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Balabas Island Canada A4i
Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río Cuba A1, A4i, A4iii, B4i
Lavalleé Lake Canada A4i, A4iii
Malpeque Bay Canada A4iii  
North Channel Island Canada A4i
Pelee Island Archipelago Canada A4i
Presqu'ile Provincial Park Canada A4i, A4iii
Río Máximo Cuba A1, A2, A3, A4i, A4iii, B4i  
South Long Island Canada A4i
Suggi Lake Canada A4i

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Prey / Diet

Albula vulpes (Bonefish)[7]
Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)[8]
Ameiurus natalis (Yellow bullhead)[9]
Ammodytes americanus (inshore sand lance)[7]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[8]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[7]
Anax junius (green darner)[9]
Anguilla rostrata (American eel)[9]
Aplodinotus grunniens (Freshwater drum)[10]
Apodichthys flavidus (Pen-point blenny)[8]
Ariopsis felis (Sea catfish)[7]
Atherinops affinis (Topsmelt silverside)[7]
Atherinopsis californiensis (Jack silverside)[7]
Bagre panamensis (Sea catfish)[7]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[7]
Brachyistius frenatus (Brown sea-perch)[7]
Brevoortia patronus (Bunker)[7]
Catostomus commersonii (White sucker)[7]
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)[9]
Chilara taylori (Spotted cusk-eel)[11]
Citharichthys sordidus (Sanddab)[7]
Citharichthys stigmaeus (Speckled sanddab)[7]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[8]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[7]
Colpichthys regis (pez del rey)[7]
Corydalus cornutus (dobsonfly)[9]
Cryptacanthodes maculatus (Bastard cusk)[7]
Cymatogaster aggregata (Shiner)[8]
Dorosoma cepedianum (American gizzard shad)[10]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[7]
Embiotoca jacksoni (Black perch)[7]
Embiotoca lateralis (Blue seaperch)[7]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[7]
Etheostoma olmstedi (Tessellated darter)[9]
Etropus crossotus (Fringed Flounder)[7]
Eucinostomus gracilis (Pacific flagfin mojarra)[7]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[7]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[7]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[7]
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)[7]
Hypentelium nigricans (Northern hog sucker)[9]
Hyperprosopon argenteum (Walleye seaperch)[7]
Hypsurus caryi (Rainbow surfperch)[7]
Ictalurus punctatus (Channel catfish)[9]
Lampsilis radiata (eastern lampmussel)[9]
Lepidogobius lepidus (Finescale goby)[7]
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)[7]
Leuresthes sardina (Gulf grunion)[7]
Leuresthes tenuis (Grunion)[7]
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)[9]
Lumpenus sagitta (Eel-blenny)[8]
Lymnaea stagnalis (swamp lymnaea)[9]
Macruronus magellanicus (Patagonian whiphake)[7]
Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake)[7]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[7]
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)[7]
Microgadus proximus (Tommy cod)[7]
Microgadus tomcod (Frostfish)[7]
Micromesistius australis (Southern poutassou)[7]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[7]
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)[9]
Morone chrysops (White perch)[10]
Mugil cephalus (gray mullet)[7]
Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus (Sea raven)[8]
Myoxocephalus scorpius (Short-spined sea scorpion)[8]
Nerodia sipedon (Northern Water Snake)[9]
Notemigonus crysoleucas (Golden shiner minnow)[9]
Notropis atherinoides (Common emerald shiner)[10]
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)[12]
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)[7]
Oncorhynchus nerka (sockeye salmon or kokanee)[7]
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)[7]
Opsanus beta (Gulf toadfish)[7]
Parophrys vetulus (English sole)[11]
Perca flavescens (Yellow perch)[10]
Petrotyx hopkinsi (Velvetnose brotula)[11]
Phanerodon furcatus (White seaperch)[7]
Pholis gunnellus (Tissy)[8]
Pholis laeta (Crescent gunnel)[8]
Platichthys stellatus (Starry flounder)[7]
Pleurogrammus azonus (Okhotsk atka mackerel)[7]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[7]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[7]
Porichthys analis (Darkedge midshipman)[7]
Porichthys notatus (Midshipman)[7]
Pseudophycis bachus (Southern rockcod)[7]
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (rough flounder)[8]
Rhacochilus vacca (Pile surfperch)[7]
Rhinogobiops nicholsii (Blackeye goby)[7]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[7]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[7]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[7]
Semotilus atromaculatus (Horned dace)[9]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[7]
Syacium ovale (Oval flounder)[7]
Symphurus atricaudus (California tonguefish)[7]
Tautogolabrus adspersus (Sea perch)[8]
Trinectes fonsecensis (Spottedfin sole)[11]
Zalembius rosaceus (Pink surfperch)[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)2
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)2
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)2
Ameiurus natalis (Yellow bullhead)4
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)5
Anguilla rostrata (American eel)7
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)11
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)2
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)3
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)4
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)3
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)2
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)3
Chelydra serpentina (Common Snapping Turtle)7
Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)4
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)2
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)2
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)2
Etheostoma olmstedi (Tessellated darter)2
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)2
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)2
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)2
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)2
Hypentelium nigricans (Northern hog sucker)4
Ictalurus punctatus (Channel catfish)6
Lagenorhynchus acutus (Atlantic White-sided Dolphin)2
Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)6
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)2
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)3
Lophius americanus (Monkfish)3
Lota lota (Thin-tailed burbot)2
Megaceryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher)8
Micropterus dolomieu (Smallmouth bass)2
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)4
Nerodia sipedon (Northern Water Snake)5
Notemigonus crysoleucas (Golden shiner minnow)3
Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt)6
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)2
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)2
Oncorhynchus mykiss (redband trout)2
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)2
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)3
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)2
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)4
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Strawberry bass)4
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)5
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)2
Salvelinus namaycush (American lake char)2
Sander vitreus (Walleye)2
Semotilus atromaculatus (Horned dace)2
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)3
Strix varia (Barred Owl)6
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)2
Uria aalge (Common Murre)2


Alligator mississippiensis (Alligator, Gator, American alligator, Florida alligator, Mississippi alligator, Louisiana alligator.)[7]
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[7]
Crocodylus acutus (American crocodile)[13]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[7]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[9]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[9]


Acer rubrum (red maple)[9]
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar)[9]
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)[9]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[9]
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)[9]
Quercus alba (White Oak)[9]
Salix nigra (black willow)[9]


Parasitized by 
Amphimerus elongatus <Unverified Name>[14]
Andracantha gravida[14]
Austrobilharzia variglandis[14]
Austrodiplostomum mordax[14]
Capillaria carbonis <Unverified Name>[14]
Capillaria contorta <Unverified Name>[14]
Capillaria spiculatus <Unverified Name>[14]
Ceratophyllus lari[15]
Ceratophyllus niger (Western chicken flea)[15]
Clinostomum attenuatum <Unverified Name>[14]
Contracaecum multipapillatum <Unverified Name>[14]
Contracaecum rudolphii <Unverified Name>[14]
Contracaecum spiculigerum[14]
Cyclustera ibisae <Unverified Name>[14]
Desmidocercella incognita <Unverified Name>[14]
Desmidocercella skrjabini <Unverified Name>[14]
Drepanocephalus spathans[14]
Hysteromorpha triloba[14]
Mesoophorodiplostomum pricei[14]
Mesostephanus appendiculatoides[14]
Mesostephanus cubaensis[14]
Mioctenopsylla traubi traubi[15]
Paradilepis caballeroi <Unverified Name>[14]
Parorchis acanthus[14]
Phagicola diminuta <Unverified Name>[14]
Phocitremoides butionis[14]
Polymorphus obtusus[14]
Skrjabinocara squamata <Unverified Name>[14]
Southwellina hispida[14]
Syncuaria squamata <Unverified Name>[14]
Syngamus trachea (gapeworm)[14]
Tetrameres microspinosa <Unverified Name>[14]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Societyauritus
Chicago Zoological Park
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Erie Zoological Gardens
Florida Aquarium
Jackson Zoological Park
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardensfloridanus
National Aviary in Pittsburgh
Saint Louis Zoological Park
Smithsonian National Zoological Park
Tracy Aviary
Turtle Back Zoocincinatus
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr
Virginia Living Museum

Range Map

Caribbean; North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979
9Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
10Diet of the Double-Crested Cormorant in Western Lake Erie, Michael T. Bur, Sandra L. Tinnirello, Charles D. Lovell, Jeff T. Tyson, USDA National Wildlife Research Center Symposia, 1997
11Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository.
12National Geographic Magazine - May 2016 - Yellowstone - The Carnivore Comeback
14Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
15International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access