Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Ciconiiformes > Ciconiidae > Leptoptilos > Leptoptilos crumeniferus
 

Leptoptilos crumeniferus (Marabou Stork)

Wikipedia Abstract

The marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumenifer) is a large wading bird in the stork family Ciconiidae. It breeds in Africa south of the Sahara, in both wet and arid habitats, often near human habitation, especially landfill sites. It is sometimes called the "undertaker bird" due to its shape from behind: cloak-like wings and back, skinny white legs, and sometimes a large white mass of "hair".
View Wikipedia Record: Leptoptilos crumeniferus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
28
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
43
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 21.5588
EDGE Score: 3.11613

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  17.64 lbs (8.00 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  4 years
Male Maturity [1]  4 years
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Ectothermic [2]  10 %
Diet - Endothermic [2]  20 %
Diet - Fish [2]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  10 %
Diet - Scavenger [2]  50 %
Forages - Ground [2]  60 %
Forages - Water Surface [2]  40 %
Clutch Size [3]  2
Incubation [1]  30 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  45 years
Wing Span [4]  8.4 feet (2.56 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi,Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cameroonian Highlands forests Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Congolian lowland forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East African montane forests Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East African montane moorlands Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East Saharan montane xeric woodlands Chad, Sudan Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Zimbabwe montane forest-grassland mosaic Zimbabwe, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eritrean coastal desert Eritrea Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane moorlands Ethiopia Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean montane forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna Mali Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Knysna-Amatole montane forests South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lake Chad flooded savanna Nigeria, Chad, Niger Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Mandara Plateau mosaic Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nama Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nigerian lowland forests Nigeria, Benin Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeastern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Rwenzori-Virunga montane moorlands Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Malawi montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Zambezian grasslands Angola, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian Cryptosepalum dry forests Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Augrabies Falls National Park II 137301 Northern Cape, South Africa
Bamingui-Bangoran Conservation Area National Park II 2783298 Central African Republic  
Banc d'Arguin National Park II 2949017 Mauritania
Delta du Saloum National Park II 179029 Senegal  
Dinder National Park II 2088300 Sudan  
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Gombe National Park II 8799 Tanzania
Hlane Royal National Park VI 30892 Swaziland  
Hwange National Park II 3651385 Zimbabwe  
Kakamega Forest Reseve Forest Reserve 44820 Kenya
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Katavi National Park II 1054210 Tanzania
Kibale National Park II 196202 Uganda
Kora National Park II 409762 Kenya
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Lake Manyara National Park II 78767 Tanzania  
Lake Nakuru National Park II 46472 Kenya  
Liwonde National Park II 116740 Malawi  
Malindi-Watamu Biosphere Reserve 48433 Kenya  
Marakele National Park II 163507 Limpopo, South Africa
Mlawula Nature Reserve IV 46444 Swaziland  
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Nairobi National Park II 16444 Kenya
Nouabalï-Ndoki National Park II 1013529 Congo  
Nylsvley Nature Reserve IV 7698 Limpopo, South Africa
Parc National de la Comoe National Park II 2902593 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National de Waza National Park II 349858 Cameroon  
Parc National du Niokolo-Koba National Park II 2046878 Senegal  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Radom National Park II   Sudan  
Reserve de la Biosphere de la Pendjari Biosphere Reserve 217453 Benin  
Rubondo National Park II 50330 Tanzania
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
South Luangwa National Park II 2220358 Zambia  
The W Region National Park II 549843 Niger  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
West Caprivi Game Reserve Game Park VI 1448182 Namibia  

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Chobe National Park Botswana A3, A4i
Okavango Delta Botswana A1, A3, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Sudd (Bahr-el-Jebel system) Sudan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Tarangire National Park Tanzania A1, A2, A3, A4i

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No

Prey / Diet

Anas capensis (Cape Teal)[5]
Phrynobatrachus mababiensis (Mababe River Frog)[5]
Psammophis angolensis (Dwarf Sand Snake)[5]
Steatomys pratensis (fat mouse)[5]
Xenopus muelleri (Mueller's clawed frog)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aonyx capensis (African Clawless Otter)3
Asio capensis (Marsh Owl)2
Atelerix albiventris (Four-toed Hedgehog)1
Bucorvus leadbeateri (Southern Ground Hornbill)3
Canis mesomelas (Black-backed Jackal)4
Dendroaspis polylepis (Black Mamba)5
Eremomela icteropygialis (Yellow-bellied Eremomela)1
Eupodotis senegalensis (White-bellied Bustard)3
Glaucidium perlatum (Pearl-spotted Owlet)5
Haliaeetus vocifer (African Fish Eagle)4
Helogale parvula (Common Dwarf Mongoose)4
Leptailurus serval (Serval)3
Lycaon pictus (African wild dog)1
Necrosyrtes monachus (Hooded Vulture)2
Nycteris grandis (large slit-faced bat)1
Otocyon megalotis (Bat-eared Fox)2
Otolemur crassicaudatus (greater galago)2
Panthera pardus (Leopard)3
Poecilogale albinucha (African Striped Weasel)2
Potamochoerus porcus (red river hog)2
Psammophis angolensis (Dwarf Sand Snake)2
Stigmochelys pardalis (Leopard Tortoise)2
Tachybaptus ruficollis (Little Grebe)4
Torgos tracheliotus (lappet-faced vulture)2
Varanus niloticus (Nile Monitor, Water Leguaan)5
Xenopus muelleri (Mueller's clawed frog)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Eustrongylides africanus <Unverified Name>[6]
Taenia leptoptili <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
African Safari
Al Ain Zoo
Al-Wabra Wildlife Preservation
Albuquerque Biological Park
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Aqua Zoo Friesland
Artis Zoo
Assiniboine Park Zoo
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Badoca Safari Park
Binder Park Zoo
Bird Park Marlow
Birdland Park & Gardens
Blackbrook Zoological Park
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoo
Brevard Zoo
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park
Cameron Park Zoo
Cango Wildlife Ranch
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Cologne Zoo
Dallas Zoo
Dierenpark Emmen
Dierenpark Wissel
Disney's Animal Kingdom
DSI Givskud Zoo
Fort Wayne Children's Zoo
Gladys Porter Zoo
Granby Zoo / Zoo de Granby
Grand Parc Du Puy Du Fou
Greater Vancouver Zoo
Honolulu Zoo
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Indianapolis Zoo
Jackson Zoological Park
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
Johannesburg Zoological Gardens
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Kishinev Zoopark
Kolmardens Djurpark AB
Kyiv Zoological Park
Linton Zoological Gardens
Lion Country Safari Inc - Florida
Lotherton Bird Garden
Magnetic Hill Zoo
Maktoum Wildlife Centre
Marwell Wildlife
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquarium
Miami Metrozoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodz
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Montecasino Bird Gardens
Montgomery Zoo
Nagyerdei Kultúrpark KHT.
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africa
Natural Encounters, Inc.
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Oasys Parque del Desierto de Tabernas
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniu
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Opel-Zoo von Opel HessischeZoostiftung
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)
Parc de Lunaret
Parc des Oiseaux
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Safari / F.A.P.S.
Parc Zoologique de La Palmyre
Parco Natura Viva
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowie
Parque De Animales Silvestres Temaikèn
Parque Zoologico Nacional, ZOODOM
Pensthorpe Conservation Trust Limited
Phoenix Zoo
Racine Zoological Gardens
Ree Park - Ebeltoft Safari
Reid Park Zoo
Rome Zoo-Fondazione Bioparco di Roma
Rotterdam Zoo
Safaripark Beekse Bergen
Saint Louis Zoological Park
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquar
San Diego Wild Animal Park
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
St. Augustine Alligator Farm
Taipei Zoo
Tallinn Zoo
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens
Tiergarten der Stadt Wels
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbH
Toronto Zoo
Tygerberg Zoopark
Umgeni River Bird Park
Usti nad Labem Zoo
Valencia Bioparc, Rainforest S.A.
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
Wildlife World Zoo
Wilhelma Zoo
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Xantus János Állatkert Kht.
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zoo and Aqua-Terrarium Ltd. Pécs
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo de la Bourbansais
Zoo Dortmund
Zoo Dresden GmbH
Zoo Duisburg AG
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.
Zoo Hannover GmbH
Zoo Osnabrück
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoo Zürich
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoologicka zahrada Ostrava
Zoologicka Garden & Chateau Zlin-Lesna
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouc
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbH
Zoologischer Garten Leipzig
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg
ZOOMARINE - Mundo Aquatico S.A.

Range Map

Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
4del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
5The Serengeti food web: empirical quantification and analysis of topological changes under increasing human impact, Sara N. de Visser, Bernd P. Freymann and Han Olff, Journal of Animal Ecology 2011, 80, 484–494
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access