Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Ciconiiformes > Ciconiidae > Leptoptilos > Leptoptilos dubius

Leptoptilos dubius (Greater Adjutant)

Wikipedia Abstract

The greater adjutant (Leptoptilos dubius) is a member of the stork family, Ciconiidae. Its genus includes the lesser adjutant of Asia and the marabou stork of Africa. Once found widely across southern Asia, mainly in India but extending east to Borneo, the greater adjutant is now restricted to a much smaller range with only two small breeding populations; one in India with the largest colony in Assam and the other in Cambodia. Populations disperse after the breeding season. This large stork has a massive wedge-shaped bill, a bare head and a distinctive neck pouch. During the day, they soar in thermals along with vultures with whom they share the habit of scavenging. They feed mainly on carrion and offal; however, they are opportunistic and will sometimes prey on vertebrates. The English na
View Wikipedia Record: Leptoptilos dubius

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Leptoptilos dubius

EDGE Analysis

This tall, incredible bird has an almost prehistoric appearance. Adults can reach heights of 150cm and have enormous wingspans of about 250cm. Its large size and long, wedge-like bill gives it an unmistakable appearance. Mistakenly, people thought this species was good at coexisting with humans because of its ability to scavenge for food in urban areas. However, the wetland and woodland habitat the adjutant requires for breeding has been destroyed and degraded at a rapid rate.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 18.3667
EDGE Score: 5.043
View EDGE Record: Leptoptilos dubius


Diet [1]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Ectothermic [1]  20 %
Diet - Endothermic [1]  10 %
Diet - Fish [1]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [1]  20 %
Diet - Scavenger [1]  30 %
Forages - Ground [1]  50 %
Forages - Water Surface [1]  50 %
Clutch Size [3]  3
Incubation [2]  29 days
Maximum Longevity [4]  43 years


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy dry forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy freshwater swamp forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bung Boraphet Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area III   Thailand  
Buxa Tiger Reserve Sanctuary IV 23685 West Bengal, India  
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Keoladeo (Bharatpur) National Park II 7668 Rajasthan, India  
Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park II 39512 Thailand
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Sunderban National Park 261613 India  
Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve VI 688326 Cambodia  

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Amchang Hills India A1
Ang Tropeang Thmor Cambodia A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary India A1, A4i, A4iii
Boeung Chhmar / Moat Khla Cambodia A1, A4i, A4iii
Bordoibam: Bilmukh Bird Sanctuary India A1
Bordoloni: Sampora India A1, A2, A4i
Chakrashila Complex India A1, A4i, A4iii
Chhep Cambodia A1, A3, A4i
Chhnuk Tru Cambodia A1, A4i
Chitwan National Park Nepal A1, A3, A4i
Dei Roneat Cambodia A1, A4i
Deobali Jalah India A1, A4i
Dhansiri Reserve Forest India A1, A4i
Dibru: Saikhowa Complex India A1, A2
Dipor Beel Bird Sanctuary India A1, A4iii
Hakaluki Haor Bangladesh A1, A4i, A4iii
Jengdia Beel and Satgaon India A1
Jhanjimukh: Kokilamukh India A1, A4i
Kaziranga National Park India A1, A2, A4i, A4iii
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage Nepal A1, A4i, A4iii
Kuarbari_Dalani India A1
Laokhowa and Burhachapori Sanctuaries India A1, A2
Lomphat Cambodia A1, A2, A3, A4i
Majuli India A1, A2, A4iii
Mokama Taal (Barah) Wetlands India A1, A4i, A4iii
Northern Santuk Cambodia A1, A3, A4i
Orang National Park India A1, A4ii
Pabho Reserve Forest India A1, A2
Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary India A1, A2, A4iii
Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary India A1, A2, A4iii
Prek Toal Cambodia A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Ripu and Chirang Reserve Forest India A1, A2
Sibsagar Tanks India A1, A4i
Stung Kampong Smach Cambodia A1
Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray Cambodia A1, A3, A4i
Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve (National Park) India A1
Sunderbans (East, South, West Wildlife Sanctuaries) Bangladesh A1, A4iii
Tamaranga: Dalani: Bhairab Complex India A1, A4iii
Teknaf Game Reserve Bangladesh A1, A3
Upper Dihing (East) Complex India A1, A2
Upper Stung Sen Catchment Cambodia A1, A4i
Veal Srongae Cambodia A1, A3, A4i

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No

Prey / Diet

Balitora brucei (Gray's stone loach)[2]
Botia dario (Stripped loach)[2]
Botia rostrata (Emperor loach)[2]
Channa striata (Stripped snakehead)[2]
Daboia russelii (Russel’s Viper)[2]
Heteropneustes fossilis (Stinging catfish)[2]
Saara hardwickii (Hardwick's spiny-tailed lizard)[2]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aonyx cinereus (Oriental Small-clawed Otter)1
Icthyophaga ichthyaetus (Grey-headed Fish Eagle)1
Lutra sumatrana (Hairy-nosed Otter)1

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Kaliningrad Zoo
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
Nehru Zoological Park

Range Map



Attributes / relations provided by
1Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
2Greater Adjutant, BirdLife International (2001) Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.
3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access