Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Pelecaniformes > Threskiornithidae > Eudocimus > Eudocimus albus
 

Eudocimus albus (White Ibis; American White Ibis)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The American white ibis (Eudocimus albus) is a species of bird in the ibis family, Threskiornithidae. It is found from North Carolina via the Gulf Coast of the United States south through most of the coastal New World tropics. This particular ibis is a medium-sized bird with an overall white plumage, bright red-orange down-curved bill and long legs, and black wing tips that are usually only visible in flight. Males are larger and have longer bills than females.
View Wikipedia Record: Eudocimus albus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
21
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
39
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 16.6031
EDGE Score: 2.86807

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  1.98 lbs (900 g)
Birth Weight [3]  36 grams
Female Weight [2]  1.68 lbs (764 g)
Male Weight [2]  2.28 lbs (1.04 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  35.6 %
Female Maturity [3]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Clutch Size [4]  2
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Diet [1]  Carnivore (Invertebrates)
Incubation [3]  22 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  28 years
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Wing Span [1]  24 inches (.62 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves Brazil, Columbia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela Neotropic Mangroves  
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bahamoan-Antillean mangroves Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Mangroves      
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Caribbean shrublands France, United Kingdom, Dominica, St. Lucia, Netherlands Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands      
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Ecuadorian dry forests Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Enriquillo wetlands Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Guayaquil flooded grasslands Ecuador Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hispaniolan dry forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan moist forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan pine forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican dry forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican moist forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
La Costa xeric shrublands Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Llanos Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Orinoco Delta swamp forests Venezuela, Guyana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Orinoco wetlands Venezuela Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sinú Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South American Pacific mangroves Colombia, Panama, Ecuador Neotropic Mangroves    
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tumbes-Piura dry forests Ecuador, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Archipelago Golfo de Fonseca Marine National Park 9779 Honduras  
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve VI 358906 Mexico    
Barra de Santiago Wildlife Refuge Area de Uso Møltiple 5575 El Salvador  
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Biscayne National Park II 11085 Florida, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Buenavista Wetland Reserve 778949 Cuba    
Cabrillo National Monument V 149 California, United States
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Caratasca Lagoon Wildlife Refuge 795317 Honduras  
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Cayos Utila Wildlife Refuge Marine National Park   Honduras      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Cinaruco-Capanaparo National Park II 1664173 Venezuela  
Congaree Swamp National Park II 6095 South Carolina, United States
Corcovado National Park 115845 Costa Rica  
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Currawinya Lakes National Park II 372252 Queensland, Australia
Dzilam de Bravo Wetland Reserve 149170 Yucatan, Mexico    
Estación Biológica El Frío 57221 Venezuela  
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Fort Caroline National Memorial III 137 Florida, United States
Fort Matanzas National Monument III 269 Florida, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States
La Amistad International Park National Park II 541617 Panama, Costa Rica  
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Little St. Simons Island   Georgia, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Moores Creek National Battlefield III 100 North Carolina, United States
Morrocoy National Park 63672 Venezuela  
Ocmulgee National Monument V 693 Georgia, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Parque Nacional Henri Pittier National Park 218030 Venezuela  
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve   Honduras      
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva del Noroeste Biosphere Reserve 571807 Peru  
Reserva Especial de la Biosfera Ría Celestún Biosphere Reserve VI 202424 Mexico  
Ria Lagartos Biosphere Reserve VI 149920 Mexico    
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shipstern Nature Reserve IV 20453 Belize
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (incl. Tayrona NP) National Park II 1031303 Colombia  
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Vicksburg National Military Park V 1651 Mississippi, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Wilson's Promontory National Park II 119279 Victoria, Australia

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Battery Island Audubon Sanctuary USA A4i
Chimán Islands Panama A4i
Congo and Cucunatí Estuaries Panama A4i
Humedal Sur de Sancti Spiritus Cuba A1, A4i, A4iii
Miskito Keys and terrestrial landscape Nicaragua A1    
Northern Everglades USA A4i
Palo Verde Wetlands Costa Rica A1, A4i, A4iii
Taborcillo Island and Chame Bay Panama A4i

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Belostoma lutarium[5]
Lethocerus americanus (giant water bug)[5]
Poecilia latipinna (Sailfin molly)[5]
Pomacea paludosa (Florida applesnail)[5]
Procambarus alleni (Southern crayfish)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Rostrhamus sociabilis (Snail Kite)1

Predators

Alligator mississippiensis (Alligator, Gator, American alligator, Florida alligator, Mississippi alligator, Louisiana alligator.)[6]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ancyracanthopsis coronata <Unverified Name>[7]
Ascocotyle ampullacea <Unverified Name>[7]
Ascocotyle mcintoshi <Unverified Name>[7]
Capillaria contorta <Unverified Name>[7]
Carneophallus turgidus <Unverified Name>[7]
Clinostomum marginatum[7]
Cyclustera ibisae <Unverified Name>[7]
Eustrongylides ignotus <Unverified Name>[7]
Gnathostoma procyonis <Unverified Name>[7]
Gynaecotyla adunca <Unverified Name>[7]
Ibirhynchus dimorpha[7]
Lyperosomum sinuosum <Unverified Name>[7]
Microparyphium facetum <Unverified Name>[7]
Parastrigea diovadena <Unverified Name>[7]
Patagifer vioscai[7]
Polycyclorchis eudocimi <Unverified Name>[7]
Probolocoryphe glandulosa <Unverified Name>[7]
Sciadiocara chabaudi <Unverified Name>[7]
Sciadiocara umbellifera <Unverified Name>[7]
Skrjabinoclava thapari <Unverified Name>[7]
Stomylotrema vicarium <Unverified Name>[7]
Syngamus trachea (gapeworm)[7]
Tanaisia fedtschenkoi[7]
Tetrameres williamsi <Unverified Name>[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Alexandria Zoological Park
Assiniboine Park Zoo
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Blackbrook Zoological Park
Brookgreen Gardens
Caldwell Zoo
Charles Paddock Zoo
Chicago Zoological Park
Dickerson Park Zoo
Florida Aquarium
Honolulu Zoo
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardens
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Monterey Bay Aquarium
Nogeyama Zoological Gardens Yokohama
Oatland Island Wildlife Center
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Potawatomi Zoo
Saint Louis Zoological Park
South Carolina Aquarium
Tama Zoological Park
Texas Zoo
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Umgeni River Bird Park
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr
Wildlife World Zoo
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternario
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoological Society of Trinidad &Tobago
Zoologicka zahrada Bojnice

Range Map

Caribbean; North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2Kushlan, JA 1977. Sexual dimorphism in the White Ibis. Wilson Bulletin 89:92–98 3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5FOOD OF THE WHITE IBIS IN SOUTHERN FLORIDA, James A. Kushlan and Marilyn S. Kushlan, Florida Field Naturalist Vol. 3 Fall 1975, p. 31-38 6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access