Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Pelecaniformes > Threskiornithidae > Geronticus > Geronticus eremita

Geronticus eremita (Northern Bald Ibis)

Wikipedia Abstract

The northern bald ibis, hermit ibis, or waldrapp (Geronticus eremita) is a migratory bird found in barren, semi-desert or rocky habitats, often close to running water. This 70–80 cm (28–31 in) glossy black ibis, which, unlike other members of the ibis family, is non-wading, has an unfeathered red face and head, and a long, curved red bill. It breeds colonially on coastal or mountain cliff ledges, where it typically lays two to three eggs in a stick nest, and feeds on lizards, insects, and other small animals.
View Wikipedia Record: Geronticus eremita

Endangered Species

Status: Critically Endangered
View IUCN Record: Geronticus eremita

EDGE Analysis

The Northern Bald Ibis has a very distinctive appearance, with a bare red face, neck and throat and long, narrow feathers projecting from the back of the head and neck, forming a dark ‘ruff’. Unfortunately the numbers have continuously declined over the centuries due to unidentified natural events like climate cooling.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 19.509
EDGE Score: 5.79345
View EDGE Record: Geronticus eremita


Adult Weight [1]  2.65 lbs (1.20 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  68 grams
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore, Herbivore
Diet - Ectothermic [3]  20 %
Diet - Endothermic [3]  10 %
Diet - Fish [3]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  50 %
Diet - Plants [3]  10 %
Forages - Ground [3]  100 %
Clutch Size [5]  3
Incubation [4]  27 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  33 years
Top 100 Endangered [6]  Yes


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Souss-Massa National Park 132969 Morocco  

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Al-Kadan area Yemen A1, A3, A4i
Karkamis Turkey A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i
National Wildlife Research Center and environs, Taif Saudi Arabia A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Oued Matil: Ksob Morocco A1, A4i
Parc National de Souss-Massa and Aglou Morocco A1, A3, A4i
Ta'izz wadis Yemen A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Tamri and Imsouane Morocco A1, A3, A4i
Tarhazoute Morocco A1, A4i

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Prey / Diet

Acanthodactylus boskianus (Bosk's Fringe-fingered Lizard)[4]
Pelobates syriacus (Syrian spadefoot toad)[7]
Schistocerca gregaria (desert locust)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter nisus (Eurasian Sparrowhawk)1
Alectoris barbara (Barbary Partridge)1
Ammoperdix heyi (Sand Partridge)1
Anthus campestris (Tawny Pipit)1
Aquila nipalensis (Steppe Eagle)1
Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron)1
Athene noctua (Little Owl)1
Bubo africanus (Spotted Eagle-Owl)1
Bubulcus ibis (Cattle Egret)1
Circus macrourus (Pallid Harrier)1
Circus pygargus (Montagu's Harrier)1
Corvus rhipidurus (Fan-tailed Raven)1
Corvus ruficollis (Brown-necked Raven)1
Falco naumanni (Lesser Kestrel)1
Falco pelegrinoides (Barbary Falcon)1
Falco tinnunculus (Eurasian Kestrel)1
Gelochelidon nilotica (Gull-billed Tern)1
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)1
Hypocolius ampelinus (Hypocolius)1
Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)1
Merops orientalis (Green Bee-eater)1
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)1
Monticola solitarius (Blue Rock Thrush)1
Motacilla alba (White Wagtail)1
Oenanthe deserti (Desert Wheatear)1
Oenanthe isabellina (Isabelline Wheatear)1
Oenanthe leucopyga (White-crowned Wheatear)1
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)1
Pycnonotus xanthopygos (White-spectacled Bulbul)1
Turdoides squamiceps (Arabian Babbler)1
Upupa epops (Eurasian Hoopoe)1


Parasitized by 
Ctenocephalides canis (Dog flea)[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Alpenzoo Innsbruck - Tirol
Apenheul Primate Park
Artis Zoo
Assiniboine Park Zoo
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Bird Park Marlow
Birdland Park & Gardens
Birmingham Nature Centre
Blackbrook Zoological Park
Blackpool Zoo
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanat
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Camperdown Wildlife Centre
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Colchester Zoo
Cologne Zoo
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardens
Curraghs Wildlife Park
Dallas Zoo
Dierenpark Amersfoort
Dierenrijk Europa
Dudley Zoological Gardens
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
Edinburgh Zoo-Scottish National Zoo
Emerald Safari Resort
Exmoor Zoological Park
Giza Zoological Garden
Harewood Bird Garden at Leeds
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
Kittenberger Zoo
Kyiv Zoological Park
Lakeland Wildlife Oasis
Lotherton Bird Garden
Louisville Zoological Garden
Marwell Wildlife
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunn
Micke Grove Zoo
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Moscow Zoological Park
Mulhouse Zoo
Museum de Besancon
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africa
Nogeyama Zoological Gardens Yokohama
Nordens Ark
North of England Zoological Society
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opole
Opel-Zoo von Opel HessischeZoostiftung
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Ouwehand Zoo
Paradise Park Wildlife Sanctuary
Parc des Oiseaux
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Parc Zoologique de Champrépus
Parc Zoologique De Cleres (MNHN)
Parco Faunistico La Torbiera
Parco Natura Viva
Parco Zoo Punta Verde
Pensthorpe Conservation Trust Limited
Podkrusnohorsky Zoopark Chomutov
Reserve Zoologique de Calviac
Riverside Zoo
Safari West
Saitama Children's Zoo
San Diego Wild Animal Park
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Shepreth Wildlife Park
Tama Zoological Park
The Living Desert Zoo and Gardens
The Philadelphia Zoo
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens
Thuringer Zoopark Erfurt
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Tiergarten Heidelberg
Tilgate Nature Centre
Toledo Zoological Gardens
Trotter's World of Animals
Twycross Zoo
Tygerberg Zoopark
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Wilhelma Zoo
Yokohama Zool. Gardens
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontaine
Zoo de Jurques
Zoo Duisburg AG
Zoo of Antwerp
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoo Zürich
Zoobotanico de Jerez
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoological Society of Ireland-Dublin
Zoological Society of London
Zoologicka zahrada Ostrava
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouc
Zoologischer Garten Basel
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbH
Zoologischer Garten Leipzig
Zoologischer Garten Schmiding
Zoologischer Garten Wuppertal

Range Map



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Baillie, J.E.M. & Butcher, E. R. (2012) Priceless or Worthless? The world’s most threatened species. Zoological Society of London, United Kingdom.
7"Feeding ecology and behaviour of the last known surviving oriental Northern Bald Ibises, Geronticus eremita (Linnaeus, 1758), at their breeding quarters in Syria", Gianluca Serra, Mahmud Scheisch Abdallah & Ghazy al Qaima, Zoology in the Middle East Volume 43, Issue 1, 2008, p. 55-68
8International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access