Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Anseriformes > Anatidae > Clangula > Clangula hyemalis
 

Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw; Long-tailed Duck)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis), once known as oldsquaw, is a medium-sized sea duck. It is the only living member of its genus, Clangula. This was formerly used for the goldeneyes, with the long-tailed duck being placed in Harelda, but the latter is the type species of the genus. An undescribed congener is known from the Middle Miocene Sajóvölgyi Formation (Late Badenian, 13–12 Mya) of Mátraszőlős, Hungary.
View Wikipedia Record: Clangula hyemalis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
10
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
51
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.05359
EDGE Score: 3.58945

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  1.92 lbs (873 g)
Birth Weight [3]  25 grams
Female Weight [1]  1.79 lbs (814 g)
Male Weight [1]  2.05 lbs (932 g)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  14.5 %
Female Maturity [3]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Breeding Habitat [2]  Arctic tundra
Wintering Geography [2]  Coastal U.S./Canada
Wintering Habitat [2]  Coastal marine, Freshwater lakes and rivers
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [4]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  80 %
Diet - Plants [4]  10 %
Forages - Underwater [4]  100 %
Clutch Size [5]  7
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  2,300,000
Incubation [3]  24 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  23 years
Migration [6]  Intracontinental
Speed [7]  49.21 MPH (22 m/s)
Wing Span [7]  28 inches (.71 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baffin coastal tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian coastal tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Novosibirsk Islands arctic desert Russia Palearctic Tundra
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Torngat Mountain tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wrangel Island arctic desert Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, DELTA LOUROU KAI ARACHTHOU (PETRA, MYTIKAS, EVRYTERI PERIOCHI) 71136 Greece  
Adlergrund 57815 Germany    
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Aulavik National Park II 3021211 Northwest Territories, Canada
Auyuittuq National Park II 4808115 Nunavut, Canada
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Camargue 546256 France  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve 864738 British Columbia, Canada  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dolina Dolnej Wisly 82926 Poland  
Fehmarnbelt 69170 Germany  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hoburgs bank 303019 Sweden  
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kiskunsag Biosphere Reserve II 54598 Hungary  
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Kura kurgu 476839 Estonia  
LIMNES KAI LIMNOTHALASSES TIS THRAKIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 72787 Greece  
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lawica Slupska 197809 Poland    
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mor Braz 99524 France    
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Norra Midsjöbanken 243037 Sweden      
North-east Greenland National Park II 237590314 Greenland
Nõva-Osmussaare 60818 Estonia  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ostsee östlich Wagrien 97411 Germany  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padjelanta 493958 Sweden  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pernajanlahtien ja Pernajan saariston merensuojelualue 162534 Finland  
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Przybrzezne wody Baltyku 480933 Poland    
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Pärnu lahe 270781 Estonia  
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Quttinirpaaq (Ellesmere Island) National Park Reserve II 9436606 Nunavut, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
SPA Pommersche Bucht 495241 Germany    
Saaristomeri 147873 Finland    
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Sydfynske Øhav 111163 Denmark  
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Tavvavuoma 133292 Sweden  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Väinamere 670389 Estonia  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Wolin i Uznam 76089 Poland    
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Zatoka Pomorska 770666 Poland    
Zatoka Pucka 154269 Poland    
Östliche Kieler Bucht 184563 Germany  

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Aniva bay Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii  
Baie de Gaspé Canada A4i, A4iii  
Berezovye islands of Vyborg Bay Russia (European) A4i, A4iii, B1i
Bjørnøya (Bear Island) Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A3, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2  
Bråviken: Hävringe Sweden A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Burnaya River Mouth Russia (European) A4i, A4iii, B1i
Cap d'Espoir Canada A4i, A4iii
Central Polish coastal waters Poland C3, C4  
Chaun delta Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Coastal areas of eastern Gotland island Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6    
East Point Canada A4i, A4iii
Eastern Beaufort Sea Lagoons and Barrier Islands USA A4i  
First Kuril strait Russia (Asian) A4i, A4iii
Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands Italy A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Gulf of Riga, west coast Latvia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C4  
Hoburgs Bank Sweden A4i, B1i, B1ii, C3
Hochstetter Forland Greenland (to Denmark) A3, A4i, B1i, B3
Inchoun and Uelen lagoons Russia (Asian) A4i, A4iii  
Inner parts of Kongsfjorden Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A3, B1i, B3
Irbe strait Estonia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Irbe strait Latvia A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii
Kabli Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4
Kahtla-Kübassaare Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4, C6
Käsivarsi fjelds Finland A3, B2, B3, C2, C6
Keremesit-Sundrun lowland Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Korfa bay (northern part) Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Kunashir island Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4ii  
Kurgalski Peninsula Russia (European) A4i, A4iii, B1i  
Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir) Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Lake Ånnsjön-Storlien Sweden A1, A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Lapland Biosphere Reserve Russia (European) A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression) Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Lena delta Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Lover Ob' Russia (Central Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Lower Yuribey Russia (Central Asian) A3, A4i, A4iii
Marine waters along the Curonian Spit Lithuania A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2
Merenkurkku archipelago Finland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B1iv, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Nõva-Osmussaar Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4, C6
Netitishi Point Canada A4i, A4iii  
Northern Midsjö Bank Sweden A4i, B1i, B1ii, C3    
Pakri Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4  
Parapol'skiy valley Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Pärnu bay (NEW) Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4, C6
Petrocrepost' Bay Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i
Pomeranian bay Poland C2, C3, C4  
Prince Edward Point Canada A4i, A4iii
Ronne Banke Denmark A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, C3, C4  
Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra Russia (European) A3, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2  
Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä Finland A3, B2, C7
San-Yuryakh Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Slupsk bank Poland C3, C4  
South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet Greenland (to Denmark) A3, B1i, B2
Taavavuoma Sweden A3, B2, C6
Tadoussac Canada A4i, A4iii
Terpyay-Tumus Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Valley of the Yorkutayakha river Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4iii
Vaygach island Russia (European) A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
West End of Lake Ontario Canada A4i, A4iii
Western part of Germania land Greenland (to Denmark) A3, A4i, B1i
Yana delta Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Japan Japan No

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[8]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[9]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[9]
Crangon septemspinosa (sevenspine bay shrimp)[8]
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)[10]
Glebocarcinus oregonensis (pygmy rock crab)[8]
Hyas lyratus (Pacific lyre crab)[8]
Lacuna vincta (northern lacuna)[9]
Leukoma staminea (Pacific littleneck)[8]
Mactromeris polynyma (Arctic surfclam)[8]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[9]
Mitrella tuberosa (variegate dovesnail)[8]
Mya arenaria (Clam)[9]
Mytilus edulis (Blue mussel)[8]
Nuculana pernula (northern nutclam)[8]
Onchidoris bilamellata (barnacle-eating onchidoris)[8]
Ophiopholis aculeata (daisy brittle star)[8]
Pandalus goniurus (humpy shrimp)[8]
Pronucula tenuis (smooth nutclam)[8]
Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)[10]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Beringraja binoculata (Big skate)2
Dasycottus setiger (Spinyhead sculpin)2
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)2
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)2
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)2
Gavia arctica (Black-throated Loon)2
Gavia stellata (Red-throated Loon)2
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)2
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)3
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)3
Larus canus (Mew Gull)2
Melanitta fusca deglandi (American white-winged scoter)2
Melanitta nigra (Black Scoter)2
Mergus serrator (Red-breasted Merganser)2
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)2
Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)2
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)2
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)2
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)3

Predators

Bubo scandiacus (Snowy Owl)[9]
Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)[9]
Falco rusticolus (Gyrfalcon)[9]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[9]
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)[9]
Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)[9]
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[9]
Ursus maritimus (Polar Bear)[9]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Amidostomoides acutum <Unverified Name>[11]
Amidostomoides petrovi <Unverified Name>[11]
Amidostomum anseris <Unverified Name>[11]
Apatemon gracilis[11]
Aploparaksis clangulae <Unverified Name>[11]
Aploparaksis furcigera[11]
Baruscapillaria anseris <Unverified Name>[11]
Baruscapillaria mergi <Unverified Name>[11]
Baruscapillaria podicipitis <Unverified Name>[11]
Bilharziella polonica[11]
Capillaria anatis <Unverified Name>[11]
Capillaria nyrocinarum <Unverified Name>[11]
Capillaria spinulosa <Unverified Name>[11]
Catatropis verrucosa <Unverified Name>[11]
Cloacotaenia megalops[11]
Cotylurostrigea brandivitellata <Unverified Name>[11]
Cotylurus cornutus <Unverified Name>[11]
Cryptocotyle concava[11]
Cyathocotyle prussica <Unverified Name>[11]
Diagonaliporus spasskyi <Unverified Name>[11]
Dicranotaenia coronula[11]
Echinatrium clanguli <Unverified Name>[11]
Echinatrium skrjabini <Unverified Name>[11]
Echinocotyle clanguli <Unverified Name>[11]
Echinoparyphium aconiatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Echinoparyphium recurvatum[11]
Echinostoma revolutum[11]
Echinuria borealis <Unverified Name>[11]
Epomidiostomum anatinum <Unverified Name>[11]
Epomidiostomum ovispinum <Unverified Name>[11]
Epomidiostomum uncinatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Erschoviorchis lintoni[11]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[11]
Eucotyle cohni[11]
Filicollis anatis[11]
Filicollis trophimenkoi[11]
Fimbriaria fasciolaris[11]
Gymnophallus bursicola[11]
Gymnophallus choledochus[11]
Holostephanus curonensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis arcticus <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis coronulan <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis diorchis <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis furcigera <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis groenlandica <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis jagerskioldi <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis retracta <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis setigera <Unverified Name>[11]
Hymenolepis sobolevi <Unverified Name>[11]
Hypoderaeum conoideum[11]
Lateriporus geographicus[11]
Levinseniella brachysoma[11]
Levinseniella propinqua[11]
Maritrema subdolum[11]
Meiogymnophallus macroporus[11]
Metorchis xanthostomus[11]
Microphallus fusiformis[11]
Microphallus papillorobustus[11]
Microphallus primas[11]
Microsomacanthus accuratus <Unverified Name>[11]
Microsomacanthus mica <Unverified Name>[11]
Microsomacanthus microsoma[11]
Microsomacanthus paraparvula <Unverified Name>[11]
Notocotylus attenuatus[11]
Paramonostomum alveatum[11]
Parvatrema affinis <Unverified Name>[11]
Parvatrema macroporus[11]
Polymorphus magnus[11]
Polymorphus minutus[11]
Polymorphus strumosoides[11]
Retinometra spiralistylosa <Unverified Name>[11]
Streptocara californica <Unverified Name>[11]
Streptocara crassicauda <Unverified Name>[11]
Streptocara formosensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Tetrameres fissispina <Unverified Name>[11]
Tschertkovilepis setigera <Unverified Name>[11]
Unciunia ciliata <Unverified Name>[11]
Wardium pararetracta <Unverified Name>[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Alaska SeaLife Center
Arundel Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust
Biodome de Montreal
Martin Mere Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust
Oregon Zoo
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
San Diego Zoo
Slimbridge New Grounds W&WTrust
Zoologischer Garten Wuppertal

Range Map

Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Oceania; Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Palmer, RS 1962–1988 Handbook of North American Birds. Yale University Press, New Haven CT. Volumes 1–5
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
7Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
8Winter feeding ecology and trophic relationships of Oldsquaws and White-winged Scoters on Kachemak Bay, Alaska, Gerald A. Sanger and Robert D. Jones, Jr., Canadian Wildlife Service, 1984
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10Food web topology and parasites in the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake, Per-Arne Amundsen, Kevin D. Lafferty, Rune Knudsen, Raul Primicerio, Anders Klemetsen and Armand M. Kuris, Journal of Animal Ecology 2009, 78, 563–572
11Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
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