Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Anseriformes > Anatidae > Somateria > Somateria mollissima

Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)

Synonyms: Anas mollissima; Eider mollissimus
Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The common eider (pronounced /ˈaɪ.dər/) (Somateria mollissima) is a large (50–71 cm (20–28 in) in body length) sea-duck that is distributed over the northern coasts of Europe, North America and eastern Siberia. It breeds in Arctic and some northern temperate regions, but winters somewhat farther south in temperate zones, when it can form large flocks on coastal waters. It can fly at speeds up to 113 km/h (70 mph).
View Wikipedia Record: Somateria mollissima


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.11996
EDGE Score: 1.41584


Adult Weight [2]  4.55 lbs (2.07 kg)
Birth Weight [4]  76 grams
Female Weight [2]  4.22 lbs (1.92 kg)
Male Weight [2]  4.89 lbs (2.22 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  15.8 %
Female Maturity [4]  2 years
Male Maturity [4]  2 years
Breeding Habitat [3]  Arctic coastal, Arctic tundra
Wintering Geography [3]  Coastal U.S./Canada
Wintering Habitat [3]  Arctic coastal, Arctic polynyas, Coastal marine
Diet [5]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore, Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fish [5]  10 %
Diet - Fruit [5]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [5]  70 %
Diet - Plants [5]  10 %
Forages - Water Surface [5]  20 %
Forages - Underwater [5]  80 %
Clutch Size [6]  5
Clutches / Year [4]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [3]  2,400,000
Incubation [4]  28 days
Maximum Longevity [4]  38 years
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Speed [7]  40.04 MPH (17.9 m/s)
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Wing Span [7]  39 inches (.98 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Aleutian Islands tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baffin coastal tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Faroe Islands boreal grasslands Denmark Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian coastal tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Novosibirsk Islands arctic desert Russia Palearctic Tundra
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Torngat Mountain tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wrangel Island arctic desert Russia Palearctic Tundra    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Aulavik National Park II 3021211 Northwest Territories, Canada
Auyuittuq National Park II 4808115 Nunavut, Canada
Bakarlaka 82794 Bulgaria  
Basses Vallées du Cotentin et Baie des Veys 83262 France  
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Camargue 546256 France  
Cap Gris-Nez 138933 France    
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Chausey 203679 France  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Emine 164580 Bulgaria  
Estuaire de la Loire - Baie de Bourgneuf 198183 France  
Estuaire et marais de la Basse Seine 46555 France  
Farvandet mellem Skælskør Fjord og Glænø 39470 Denmark  
Farvandet nord for Anholt 114007 Denmark    
Fehmarnbelt 69170 Germany  
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Forêts et étangs d'Argonne et vallée de l'Ornain 37827 France  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Hoburgs bank 303019 Sweden  
Horsens Fjord og Endelave 105168 Denmark  
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Kahtla-Kübassaare 34639 Estonia  
Kirkkonummen saaristo (SPA) 35173 Finland  
Kiskunsag Biosphere Reserve II 54598 Hungary  
Kokkolan saaristo (SPA) 36322 Finland  
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Kura kurgu 476839 Estonia  
LITTORAL AUGERON 52930 France    
LITTORAL SEINO-MARIN 367957 France    
Lacs de la forêt d'Orient 58255 France  
Lahemaa 183898 Estonia  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lillebælt 86610 Denmark  
Luodon saaristo 35731 Finland    
Læsø, sydlige del 253812 Denmark    
MARAIS POITEVIN 168088 France  
Marais Breton, baie de Bourgneuf, île de Noirmoutier et forêt de Monts 137949 France  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Noordzeekustzone 305536 Netherlands    
North-east Greenland National Park II 237590314 Greenland
Nõva-Osmussaare 60818 Estonia  
Ostsee östlich Wagrien 97411 Germany  
Pakri 50588 Estonia  
Plateau ardennais 186972 France  
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Pärnu lahe 270781 Estonia  
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Quttinirpaaq (Ellesmere Island) National Park Reserve II 9436606 Nunavut, Canada
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Randers og Mariager Fjorde og Ålborg Bugt, sydlige del 96423 Denmark  
SPA Pommersche Bucht 495241 Germany    
Saaristomeri 147873 Finland    
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Seevogelschutzgebiet Helgoland 398663 Germany    
Seksmiilarin saaristo 42581 Finland  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Sydfynske Øhav 111163 Denmark  
Sydlige Nordsø 608611 Denmark      
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Trzebiatowsko-Kolobrzeski Pas Nadmorski 43166 Poland    
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Ujscie Odry i Zalew Szczecinski 130007 Poland  
Uudenkaupungin saaristo 140830 Finland  
Vilsandi 45057 Estonia    
Väinamere 670389 Estonia  
Vättern (östra) 158858 Sweden  
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Waddenzee 672193 Netherlands    
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Wolin i Uznam 76089 Poland    
Ålborg Bugt, østlige del 438266 Denmark  
Östliche Kieler Bucht 184563 Germany  


Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Ainov islands Russia (European) B1i, B2, B3  
Île Bicquette Canada A4i, A4iii
Îles Sainte-Marie Canada A4iii
Ørland wetland system Norway A4i, B1i, B2  
Ædey Iceland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2  
Billings cape Russia (Asian) A4i, A4iii  
Booth Sund area Greenland (to Denmark) B1i
Borgarfjördur Iceland A4i, A4iii, B1i
Bråviken: Hävringe Sweden A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Breidafjördur Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3
Cape Freels Coastline and Cabot Island Canada A4i, A4iii    
Cayes à Meck Canada A4i, A4iii
Coastal areas of eastern Gotland island Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6    
Coastal belt of eastern Murmansk Russia (European) A4i, B1i
Commander islands Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Dalrymple Rock Greenland (to Denmark) B1i  
Eaux de l'archipel de Mingan Canada A4i, A4iii
First Kuril strait Russia (Asian) A4i, A4iii
Forlandet National Park Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Froan Norway A1, A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3  
Geka bay Russia (Asian) A4i
Hanko western archipelago Finland A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4
Höfdahverfi Iceland A4i, B1i
Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4
Hrísey Iceland A4i, A4iii, B1i
Hvalnesskridur-Thvottárskridur Iceland B1i
Ikkattoq fjord and islands Greenland (to Denmark) B1i, B2
Inchoun and Uelen lagoons Russia (Asian) A4i, A4iii  
Inner part of Porsanger fjord Norway A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3
Inner parts of Kongsfjorden Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A3, B1i, B3
Inner Trondheimsfjord wetland system Norway A4i, A4iii, B1i
Irbe strait Estonia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Kandalaksha Bay Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2
Karaginskiy island Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii  
Khaypudyrskaya Bay (islands of B. Zelenets, Dolgi, Matveyev) Russia (European) A4i, A4iii, B1i  
Kinburns'kyj peninsula Ukraine A4i, B1i, B2
Kingittuarsuk III Greenland (to Denmark) B1i  
Kitsissorsuit (Ederfugleøer) Greenland (to Denmark) B1i    
Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago Finland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C3, C4  
Korshage, Hundested and surrounding sea area Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4  
Löngufjörur Iceland A4i, A4iii, B1i  
Lillebælt Denmark A4iii, B1i, C3, C4, C6
Littleton island and nearby islets Greenland (to Denmark) B1i  
Malkachan tundra Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Meinypylginski and Kapylgyn lakes Russia (Asian) A3, A4i
Melrakkaslétta Iceland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3  
Neiden and Munkefjord Norway B1i
Nordenskiøldkysten Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A4i, B1i
North Sea north of the Wadden Sea Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4, C6  
North-west Spitsbergen National Park Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3  
Northwestern Kattegat Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Onega Bay of the White Sea Russia (European) A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3  
Outer Stockholm archipelago Sweden A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Petite Île Sainte-Geneviève Canada A4i, A4iii
Point Lepreau/Maces Bay Canada A4i, A4iii
Qeqertaarsuit (Ederfugleøer) Greenland (to Denmark) B1i  
Sejerø Bay and Nekselø Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4  
Seven islands Russia (European) A4iii, B1i, B2, B3  
Sireniki coast Russia (Asian) A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Skardsfjördur Iceland A4iii, B1i
Skerjafjördur Iceland A4i, B1i
Smøla archipelago Norway A1, A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2  
Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2  
South Flaherty Islands Canada A4i
South Spitsbergen National Park Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B3
Sprogø and Halsskov Rev Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4
Stafnes-Gardur Iceland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3
Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3, C3, C4
Stjørdals Fjord Norway A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Stordal-Moskusoksefjord-Badlanddal-Loch Fyne-Myggbukta Greenland (to Denmark) A4i, B1i, B2
Sydfynske Ø-hav Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Tanamunningen Norway A4i, A4iii, B1i
Terski coast Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i
Vadehavet (Wadden Sea) Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Varangerfjord Norway A1, A3, A4i, A4iii, B1i
Vresen and sea area between Fyn and Langeland Denmark A4iii, B1i, C3, C4
Wadden Sea Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4  
Wadham Islands and adjacent Marine Area Canada A4i, A4iii    
West Chaun plain Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Wrangel island Russia (Asian) A4i, A4iii  
Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays Ukraine A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Prey / Diet

Alitta virens (zager)[8]
Asterias rubens (Starfish)[8]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[8]
Buccinum undatum (common whelk)[8]
Carcinus maenas (green crab)[9]
Cerastoderma edule (Common cockle)[9]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[8]
Corophium volutator (mud shrimp)[8]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[8]
Hediste diversicolor (veelkleurige zeeduizendpoot)[8]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[8]
Lacuna vincta (northern lacuna)[8]
Lanice conchilega (schelpkokerworm)[9]
Leptasterias tenera (Slender sea star)[8]
Limecola balthica (Baltic macoma)[9]
Littorina littorea (Common periwinkle)[9]
Littorina obtusata (yellow periwinkle)[8]
Littorina saxatilis (rough periwinkle)[8]
Modiolus sacculifer (bag horsemussel)[8]
Mya arenaria (Clam)[9]
Mytilus edulis (Blue mussel)[9]
Patella pellucida (blue-rayed limpet)[10]
Peringia ulvae (Laver spire shell)[8]
Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)[8]
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Green sea urchin)[8]
Testudinalia testudinalis (plant limpet)[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Actitis hypoleucos (Common Sandpiper)1
Anguilla anguilla (River eel)1
Bucephala islandica (Barrow's Goldeneye)1
Calidris alpina (Dunlin)2
Calidris canutus (Red Knot)4
Calidris maritima (Purple Sandpiper)1
Calidris minutilla (Least Sandpiper)1
Calidris pusilla (Semipalmated Sandpiper)1
Carcinus maenas (green crab)3
Caretta caretta (Loggerhead)1
Chen canagica (Emperor Goose)2
Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Common Black-headed Gull)4
Ciliata mustela (Rockling)1
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)1
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)2
Crossaster papposus (spiny sun star, common sun star)1
Ctenolabrus rupestris (Rock cook)1
Cygnus cygnus (Whooper Swan)1
Gadus morhua (rock cod)1
Gobius niger (Black goby)1
Haematopus bachmani (Black Oystercatcher)1
Haematopus ostralegus (Eurasian Oystercatcher)3
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)3
Larus canus (Mew Gull)2
Lepidochelys kempii (Atlantic Ridley, Kemp’s Ridley Seaturtle)1
Leucophaeus atricilla (Laughing Gull)1
Limnodromus griseus (Short-billed Dowitcher)1
Limnodromus scolopaceus (Long-billed Dowitcher)1
Limosa lapponica (Bar-tailed Godwit)3
Limosa limosa (Black-tailed Godwit)1
Melanitta fusca deglandi (American white-winged scoter)1
Melanitta nigra (Black Scoter)4
Melanitta perspicillata (Surf Scoter)1
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)1
Mullus surmuletus (Red mullet)1
Myoxocephalus scorpius (Short-spined sea scorpion)1
Numenius arquata (Eurasian Curlew)3
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)2
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)2
Pomatoschistus microps (Common goby)2
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)1
Rutilus rutilus (Roach)2
Tadorna tadorna (Common Shelduck)2
Tautoga onitis (Tautog)1
Tautogolabrus adspersus (Sea perch)1


Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[8]
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)[8]
Falco rusticolus (Gyrfalcon)[11]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[8]
Homo sapiens (man)[8]
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)[8]
Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)[8]
Profilicollis botulus[8]
Psilostomum brevicolle[8]
Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)[8]
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[8]
Vulpes lagopus (Arctic Fox)[12]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Cryptocotyle lingua[8]
Himasthla elongata[8]
Monorchis parvus[8]
Mytilicola intestinalis[8]
Paramonostomum chabaudi[8]
Podocotyle atomon[8]
Sacculina carcini[8]


Parasitized by 
Amidostomoides acutum <Unverified Name>[13]
Amidostomoides monodon <Unverified Name>[13]
Amidostomum acutum[13]
Amidostomum anseris <Unverified Name>[13]
Anacetabulitrema samarae[13]
Apatemon fuligulae <Unverified Name>[13]
Apatemon gracilis[13]
Apatemon somateriae <Unverified Name>[13]
Apophallus muehlingi[13]
Ascorhytis charadriformis[13]
Baruscapillaria mergi <Unverified Name>[13]
Bilharziella polonica[13]
Capillaria anatis <Unverified Name>[13]
Capillaria mergi <Unverified Name>[13]
Capillaria nyrocinarum <Unverified Name>[13]
Catatropis verrucosa <Unverified Name>[13]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[14]
Ceratophyllus garei[14]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus[14]
Corynosoma strumosum[13]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[13]
Cryptocotyle concava[13]
Cryptocotyle lingua[13]
Cyathocotyle prussica <Unverified Name>[13]
Dicranotaenia fallax <Unverified Name>[13]
Diplostomum mergi <Unverified Name>[13]
Diplostomum puntingi <Unverified Name>[13]
Echinuria borealis <Unverified Name>[13]
Echinuria uncinata[13]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[13]
Filicollis anatis[13]
Fimbriaria fasciolaris[13]
Fimbriarioides intermedia[13]
Gymnophalloides macomae[8]
Gymnophallus bursicola[13]
Gymnophallus choledochus[13]
Gymnophallus deliciosus[13]
Gymnophallus minor[13]
Gymnophallus somateriae[13]
Gynaecotyla adunca[13]
Himasthla continua[8]
Himasthla elongata[8]
Himasthla militaris[13]
Hymenolepis diorchis <Unverified Name>[13]
Hymenolepis fallax <Unverified Name>[13]
Hymenolepis formosoides <Unverified Name>[13]
Hymenolepis jagerskioldi <Unverified Name>[13]
Hymenolepis microskrjabini <Unverified Name>[13]
Hymenolepis przewalskii <Unverified Name>[13]
Hymenolepis retracta <Unverified Name>[13]
Hymenolepis setigera <Unverified Name>[13]
Hymenolepis sibirica <Unverified Name>[13]
Hymenolepis somateriae <Unverified Name>[13]
Hymenolepis tenuirostris <Unverified Name>[13]
Lateriporus geographicus[13]
Lateriporus teres[13]
Levinseniella propinqua[13]
Levinseniella somateriae <Unverified Name>[13]
Maritrema subdolum[13]
Meiogymnophallus macroporus[13]
Microphallus abortivus[13]
Microphallus papillorobustus[13]
Microphallus pirum[13]
Microphallus primas[13]
Microphallus pseudopygmaeus <Unverified Name>[13]
Microphallus pygmaeus[13]
Microsomacanthus abortiva[13]
Microsomacanthus diorchis <Unverified Name>[13]
Microsomacanthus ductilis[13]
Microsomacanthus formosoides <Unverified Name>[13]
Microsomacanthus heterospinus[13]
Microsomacanthus jaegerskioldi[13]
Microsomacanthus microskrjabini[13]
Microsomacanthus microsoma[13]
Microsomacanthus paraparvula <Unverified Name>[13]
Microsomacanthus somateriae <Unverified Name>[13]
Notocotylus attenuatus[13]
Notocotylus seineti[13]
Notocotylus skrjabini[13]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[13]
Paramonostomum alveatum[13]
Paramonostomum anatis[13]
Paramonostomum bucephalae[13]
Paramonostomum pseudoalveatum[13]
Parapronocephalum symmetricum <Unverified Name>[13]
Parvatrema affinis <Unverified Name>[13]
Parvatrema margaritense[13]
Parvatrema minutum[13]
Platyscolex ciliata[13]
Polymorphus minutus[13]
Polymorphus phippsi[13]
Profilicollis botulus[13]
Psilostomum brevicolle[8]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[14]
Schistocephalus solidus[13]
Spelotrema nicolli <Unverified Name>[13]
Streptocara crassicauda <Unverified Name>[13]
Streptocara dogieli <Unverified Name>[13]
Tetrameres fissispina <Unverified Name>[13]
Tetrameres somateriae <Unverified Name>[13]
Tschertkovilepis heterospinus <Unverified Name>[13]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Arundel Wildfowl & Wetlands Trustmollissima
Beale Park
Biodome de Montreal
Birdland Park & Gardens
Blackbrook Zoological Parkborealis
Blackpool Zoo
Bristol Zoo Gardens
Burger's Zoo
Canolfan Llanelli Centre W&WTrustmollissima
Castle Espie Wildfowl & Wetlands Trustmollissima
Central Park Zoodresseri
Cologne Zoo
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardensmollissima
Denver Zoological Gardensborealis
Dierenrijk Europa
Dudley Zoological Gardens
Exmoor Zoological Parkmollissima
Flamingo Park Wildlife Encounter
Fota Wildlife Park
Harewood Bird Garden at Leedsmollissima
Helsinki Zoomollissima
Kyiv Zoological Park
London Wetland Centre (W&WT)mollissima
Lotherton Bird Garden
Martin Mere Wildfowl & Wetlands Trustmollissima
Marwell Wildlifemollissima
Mulhouse Zoo
North of England Zoological Society
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Paradise Park Wildlife Sanctuarymollissima
Parc des Oiseaux
Parc Zoologique De Cleres (MNHN)
Riga Zoomollissima
Rotterdam Zoo
Slimbridge New Grounds W&WTrust
Tallinn Zoo
Tiergarten Heidelberg
Tierpark Dählhölzli
Tilgate Nature Centre
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
Washington Waterfowl Park W&WTmollissima
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munster
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
Wilhelma Zoo
Zoo am Meer Bremerhaven GmbH
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternariomollissima
Zoo Dresden GmbHmollissima
Zoo Krefeld GmbH
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoo Zürich
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzenmollissima
Zoologischer Garten Leipzigmollissima
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg

Range Map

Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Belopol'skii L.O. 1957. Ecology of sea colony birds of the Barents Sea. Izdat. Akad. Nauk SSSR. Moscow-Leningrad.
3Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
5Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
6Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
7Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9Energy flow of a boreal intertidal ecosystem, the Sylt-Rømø Bight, Dan Baird, Harald Asmus, Ragnhild Asmus, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 279: 45–61, 2004
10Food web studies in a Norwegian kelp forest based on stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) analysis, Stein Fredriksen, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 260: 71–81, 2003
11POTAPOV, E. 2011. Gyrfalcon diet: Spatial and temporal variation In R. T. Watson, T. J. Cade, M. Fuller, G. Hunt, and E. Potapov (Eds.). Gyrfalcons and Ptarmigan in a Changing World. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA
12Alopex lagopus, Alexandra M. Audet, C. Brian Robbins, and Serge Larivière, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 713, pp. 1–10 (2002)
13Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
14International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access