Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Anseriformes > Anatidae > Melanitta > Melanitta nigra

Melanitta nigra (Black Scoter; Common Scoter)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The common scoter (Melanitta nigra) is a large sea duck, 43–54 cm (17–21 in) in length, which breeds over the far north of Europe and Asia east to the Olenyok River. The genus name is derived from Ancient Greek melas, "black", and netta, "duck". The species name is from Latin niger "shining black". The black scoter (M. americana) of North America and eastern Siberia is sometimes considered a subspecies of M. nigra.
View Wikipedia Record: Melanitta nigra


Melanitta nigra americana (American black scoter) (Attributes)
Melanitta nigra nigra (European black scoter)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.66143
EDGE Score: 2.0362


Adult Weight [1]  2.32 lbs (1.05 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  43 grams
Female Weight [1]  2.18 lbs (987 g)
Male Weight [1]  2.46 lbs (1.12 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  13.2 %
Female Maturity [2]  2 years
Male Maturity [2]  2 years
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fish [3]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  70 %
Diet - Plants [3]  10 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  10 %
Forages - Underwater [3]  100 %
Clutch Size [4]  7
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Incubation [2]  29 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  17 years
Speed [5]  49.44 MPH (22.1 m/s)
Wing Span [5]  33 inches (.85 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka-Kurile taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Baie du Mont Saint Michel 117800 France  
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
CAP BEAR- CAP CERBERE 95012 France  
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Camargue 546256 France  
Cap Gris-Nez 138933 France    
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Chausey 203679 France  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dolina Dolnej Wisly 82926 Poland  
Estuaire de la Loire - Baie de Bourgneuf 198183 France  
Farvandet nord for Anholt 114007 Denmark    
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
KALDOAIVIN ERÄMAA 868904 Finland  
Kevo 176448 Finland  
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
KÄSIVARREN ERÄMAA 654562 Finland  
LITTORAL SEINO-MARIN 367957 France    
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Læsø, sydlige del 253812 Denmark    
MARAIS POITEVIN 168088 France  
Magadansky Zapovednik 2332834 Russia  
Marais Breton, baie de Bourgneuf, île de Noirmoutier et forêt de Monts 137949 France  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Mor Braz 99524 France    
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Noordzeekustzone 305536 Netherlands    
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ostsee östlich Wagrien 97411 Germany  
PULJUN ERÄMAA 139246 Finland  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padjelanta 493958 Sweden  
Pallas-Ounastunturi 146845 Finland  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pessinki fjällurskog 240249 Sweden  
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Przybrzezne wody Baltyku 480933 Poland    
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Pärnu lahe 270781 Estonia  
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Randers og Mariager Fjorde og Ålborg Bugt, sydlige del 96423 Denmark  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Doñana Biosphere Reserve II 123801 Spain
Ria de Aveiro 127029 Portugal  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
SPA Pommersche Bucht 495241 Germany    
SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht 774707 Germany      
Saaristomeri 147873 Finland    
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Seevogelschutzgebiet Helgoland 398663 Germany    
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Sydlige Nordsø 608611 Denmark      
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Ujscie Odry i Zalew Szczecinski 130007 Poland  
Väinamere 670389 Estonia  
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Zalew Szczecinski 116620 Poland    
Zatoka Pomorska 770666 Poland    
Zatoka Pucka 154269 Poland    
Ålborg Bugt, østlige del 438266 Denmark  
Östliche Kieler Bucht 184563 Germany  


Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Albany River Estuary and Assoc. Coastline Canada A4i, A4iii
Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4
Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Berezovye islands of Vyborg Bay Russia (European) A4i, A4iii, B1i
Central Yukon-Kuskokwim USA A1, A4i
Dvuob'ye Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Eastern German Bight Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4    
Ekwan to Lakitusaki Shores Canada A4i, A4iii
Käsivarsi fjelds Finland A3, B2, B3, C2, C6
Kevo Finland A3, B2, B3, C2, C6
Kunashir island Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4ii  
Kuskokwim River Delta USA A1, A4i
Kvichak Bay USA A1, A4i
Lake Ånnsjön-Storlien Sweden A1, A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Lapland Biosphere Reserve Russia (European) A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression) Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Longridge Point and Associated Coastline Canada A4i  
Lover Ob' Russia (Central Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Lower Yuribey Russia (Central Asian) A3, A4i, A4iii
Middle reaches of Bolshaya Rogovaya river Russia (European) A1, A3, B2
Nõva-Osmussaar Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4, C6
Nelson Lagoon-Mud Bay USA A1, A4i  
Nevskoye lake Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Nicolet et Baie-du-Fèbvre Canada A4i, A4iii
North Sea north of the Wadden Sea Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4, C6  
North Wales Coast United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4  
North-east Sakhalin lagoons Russia (Asian) A1, A4i
Northeast James Bay Coast Canada A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Northwestern Kattegat Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Nushagak Bay USA A1, A4i
Pärnu bay (NEW) Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4, C6
Pen Islands Canada A4i  
Petrocrepost' Bay Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i
Point Lepreau/Maces Bay Canada A4i, A4iii
Pomeranian bay Poland C2, C3, C4  
Port Heiden USA A1, A4i
Port Moller-Herendeen Bay USA A1, A4i  
Restigouche River Estuary Canada A4i
River Chernaya Russia (European) A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Ronne Banke Denmark A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, C3, C4  
Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä Finland A3, B2, C7
Sejerø Bay and Nekselø Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4  
Shagamu River and Area Canada A4i, A4iii  
Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3, C3, C4
Vadehavet (Wadden Sea) Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Japan Japan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Prey / Diet

Arctica islandica (Cyprine)[6]
Cerastoderma edule (Common cockle)[6]
Donax vittatus (banded wedge-shell)[6]
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)[7]
Limecola balthica (Baltic macoma)[6]
Macomangulus tenuis[6]
Mya arenaria (Clam)[6]
Mytilus edulis (Blue mussel)[6]
Siliqua patula (northern razor)[8]
Spisula subtruncata (cut trough shell)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aythya fuligula (Tufted Duck)1
Bucephala clangula (Common Goldeneye)1
Bucephala islandica (Barrow's Goldeneye)1
Calidris alpina (Dunlin)1
Calidris canutus (Red Knot)3
Calidris maritima (Purple Sandpiper)1
Calidris minutilla (Least Sandpiper)1
Calidris pusilla (Semipalmated Sandpiper)1
Carcinus maenas (green crab)2
Caretta caretta (Loggerhead)1
Chen canagica (Emperor Goose)2
Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Common Black-headed Gull)3
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)2
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)2
Crossaster papposus (spiny sun star, common sun star)1
Ctenolabrus rupestris (Rock cook)1
Cygnus cygnus (Whooper Swan)1
Cymatogaster aggregata (Shiner)1
Gavia arctica (Black-throated Loon)1
Gavia pacifica (Pacific Loon)1
Gavia stellata (Red-throated Loon)1
Haematopus bachmani (Black Oystercatcher)1
Haematopus ostralegus (Eurasian Oystercatcher)2
Haliaeetus pelagicus (Steller's Sea-Eagle)1
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)1
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)2
Larus canus (Mew Gull)3
Lepidochelys kempii (Atlantic Ridley, Kemp’s Ridley Seaturtle)1
Limnodromus griseus (Short-billed Dowitcher)1
Limnodromus scolopaceus (Long-billed Dowitcher)1
Limosa lapponica (Bar-tailed Godwit)2
Limosa limosa (Black-tailed Godwit)1
Melanitta fusca deglandi (American white-winged scoter)1
Melanitta perspicillata (Surf Scoter)1
Mergus serrator (Red-breasted Merganser)1
Mullus surmuletus (Red mullet)1
Numenius arquata (Eurasian Curlew)2
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)1
Platalea leucorodia (Eurasian Spoonbill)1
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)1
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)2
Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)1
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)1
Ptychocheilus oregonensis (Seatrout)1
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)1
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)1
Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)1
Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)4
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)1
Tadorna tadorna (Common Shelduck)2
Tautoga onitis (Tautog)1
Tautogolabrus adspersus (Sea perch)1
Tringa melanoleuca (Greater Yellowlegs)1


Parasitized by 
Acanthoparyphium kurogamo <Unverified Name>[9]
Amidostomoides acutum <Unverified Name>[9]
Amidostomoides monodon <Unverified Name>[9]
Amidostomoides petrovi <Unverified Name>[9]
Amidostomum acutum[9]
Amidostomum anseris <Unverified Name>[9]
Apatemon gracilis[9]
Capillaria anatis <Unverified Name>[9]
Capillaria nyrocinarum <Unverified Name>[9]
Capillaria spinulosa <Unverified Name>[9]
Catatropis verrucosa <Unverified Name>[9]
Contracaecum rudolphii <Unverified Name>[9]
Cotylurus cornutus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cryptocotyle concava[9]
Cryptocotyle lingua[9]
Dicranotaenia coronula[9]
Echinochasmus coaxatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Echinoparyphium recurvatum[9]
Echinuria hypognatha <Unverified Name>[9]
Epomidiostomum anatinum <Unverified Name>[9]
Epomidiostomum orispinum <Unverified Name>[9]
Epomidiostomum ovispinum <Unverified Name>[9]
Epomidiostomum ryzhikovi <Unverified Name>[9]
Epomidiostomum uncinatum <Unverified Name>[9]
Eucotyle cohni[9]
Fimbriaria fasciolaris[9]
Gymnophalloides macomae[9]
Gymnophallus bursicola[9]
Gymnophallus deliciosus[9]
Hymenolepis coronulan <Unverified Name>[9]
Hymenolepis jagerskioldi <Unverified Name>[9]
Hymenolepis kenaiensis <Unverified Name>[9]
Levinseniella brachysoma[9]
Maritrema subdolum[9]
Meiogymnophallus macroporus[9]
Meiogymnophallus strigatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Microphallus primas[9]
Paramonostomum alveatum[9]
Parvatrema affinis <Unverified Name>[9]
Parvatrema minutum[9]
Polymorphus magnus[9]
Profilicollis botulus[9]
Pseudocorynosoma constrictum[9]
Retinometra macracanthos <Unverified Name>[9]
Sobolevicanthus kenaiensis <Unverified Name>[9]
Streptocara crassicauda <Unverified Name>[9]
Tschertkovilepis setigera <Unverified Name>[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Arundel Wildfowl & Wetlands Trustnigra
Biodome de Montrealamericana
Helsinki Zoo
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Rostock Zoologischer Garten
Slimbridge New Grounds W&WTrustnigra

Range Map

Africa; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Oceania;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Bordage, D. and J.-P. L. Savard. 1995. Black scoter (Melanitta nigra). In A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The Birds of North America, No.177. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C., USA.
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
6del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
7Food web topology and parasites in the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake, Per-Arne Amundsen, Kevin D. Lafferty, Rune Knudsen, Raul Primicerio, Anders Klemetsen and Armand M. Kuris, Journal of Animal Ecology 2009, 78, 563–572
8Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979
9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access