Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Accipitriformes > Accipitridae > Elanus > Elanus leucurus
 

Elanus leucurus (White-tailed Kite)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The white-tailed kite (Elanus leucurus) is an elanid kite of genus Elanus found in western North America and parts of South America.Their coloration is gull-like, but their shape and flight falcon-like, with a rounded tail. Mainly white underneath, they have black wingtips and shoulders. A mid-sized kite, it measures 35–43 cm (14–17 in) in length, spans 88–102 cm (35–40 in) across the wings and weighs 250–380 g (8.8–13.4 oz).
View Wikipedia Record: Elanus leucurus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
21
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
39
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 16.1389
EDGE Score: 2.84135

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  280 grams
Birth Weight [1]  17 grams
Clutch Size [2]  4
Clutches / Year [1]  2
Incubation [1]  30 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  6 years
Wing Span [3]  37 inches (.94 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alta Paraná Atlantic forests Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Apure-Villavicencio dry forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Araucaria moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Araya and Paria xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic Coast restingas Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Atlantic dry forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Bahia coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Bahia interior forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Belizean pine forests Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Beni savanna Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Caatinga Brazil Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Campos Rupestres montane savanna Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Catatumbo moist forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Andean puna Argentina, Bolivia, Peru Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cerrado Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chiquitano dry forests Bolivia, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Dry Chaco Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Espinal Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Guianan Freshwater swamp forests Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan moist forests Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan savanna Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
High Monte Argentina Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Humid Chaco Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Humid Pampas Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
La Costa xeric shrublands Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lara-Falcón dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Lesser Antillean dry forests Grenada, St. Lucia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Llanos Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Low Monte Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Magdalena Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maracaibo dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Marajó varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Miskito pine forests Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Motagua Valley thornscrub Guatemala Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Orinoco Delta swamp forests Venezuela, Guyana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Orinoco wetlands Venezuela Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pantanal Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Paraguana xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Paraná flooded savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Patagonian steppe Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Patía Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pernambuco coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pernambuco interior forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Serra do Mar coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sinú Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Andean steppe Argentina, Chile Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Andean Yungas Bolivia, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tehuacán Valley matorral Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Trinidad and Tobago moist forests Trinidad and Tobago Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Uruguayan savanna Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Valdivian temperate forests Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Ecuador moist forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve Ia 8848 Espirito Santo, Brazil  
Bañados del Este Wetland Reserve 986054 Uruguay  
Big Morongo Canyon Preserve Area of Critical Environmental Concern V 3906 California, United States
Bosque Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve V 691895 Paraguay  
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Caparaó National Park II 78887 Espirito Santo, Brazil
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carapá Biological Refuge IV 9071 Paraguay  
Carmo State Ecological Reserve   Brazil      
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Carrizo Plain Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7550 California, United States  
Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary IV 122962 Belize
Cosumnes River Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 2138 California, United States
Creighton Ranch Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3275 California, United States  
Defensores del Chaco National Park II 1792493 Paraguay  
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
El Palmar National Park II   Entre Rios, Argentina  
El Rey National Park II 110298 Salta, Argentina
Elkhorn Slough Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 964 California, United States  
Heath and Marjorie Angelo Coast Range Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7008 California, United States
Imataca Forest Reserve VI 13252422 Venezuela  
Itabó Biological Reserve IV 34092 Paraguay  
Itatiaia National Park II 69730 Minas Gerais, Brazil  
Jepson Prairie Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 1553 California, United States
Kaweah Oaks Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 319 California, United States  
Kern River Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 834 California, United States
Kuri'y National Reserve Natural Monument III 4972 Paraguay  
Lago Puelo National Park II 47607 Chubut, Argentina
Laguna Blanca National Park II 19735 Neuquen, Argentina  
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Lanphere-Christensen Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 471 California, United States  
Limoy Biological Reserve IV 33774 Paraguay  
Linhares State Forest Reserve   Brazil      
Maracá Ecological Reserve Ia 257554 Roraima, Brazil  
Mbaracayú Biological Refuge IV 4039 Paraguay  
Mburucuyá National Park II   Corrientes, Argentina  
McGinty Mountain Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 753 California, United States  
Montecristo National Park IV 9237 El Salvador  
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
Nipomo Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3725 California, United States
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park II 4006523 Bolivia  
Paine Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 2965 California, United States    
Parque Atlantico Mar Chiquita Nature Reserve VI 706059 Cordoba, Argentina  
Parque Nacional Iguazú National Park II 115949 Argentina  
Parque Nacional Serranía San Luis National Park II 29816 Paraguay  
Parque Nacional Torres del Paine National Park II 542393 Magallanes, Chile  
Parque Nacional Yacambu National Park II 43025 Venezuela  
Paso Bravo National Park 256207 Paraguay  
Pikyry Biological Refuge IV 2898 Paraguay  
Pixley Vernal Pools Preserve 37 California, United States
Ralleigh Falls - Voltzberg Nature Reserve 191114 Suriname  
Río Negro National Park II 73775 Paraguay  
Río Pilcomayo National Park II 123699 Formosa, Argentina
Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve   Honduras      
Reserva de la Biosfera de Pozuelos Biosphere Reserve 988422 Argentina  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Cielo Biosphere Reserve 353161 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Reserva Ecologica de Ñacuñan Ecological Reserve Ia   Argentina  
Reserva Nacional Lauca National Park II 349990 Chile  
Reserva Natural Otamendi Strict Nature Reserve Ia   Buenos Aires, Argentina  
Reserve de Biosphere Cerrado Biosphere Reserve II 1812 Parana, Brazil  
San Rafael, Reserva de Recursos Manejados Managed Resource Reserve VI 165840 Paraguay  
Sand Ridge Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 285 California, United States
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santuario de la Naturaleza Pumalín Sanctuary 713364 Chile
Serra da Canastra National Park II 491304 Minas Gerais, Brazil  
Serra do Cipó National Park II 78590 Minas Gerais, Brazil  
Serra dos Orgãos National Park II 26072 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  
Sooretama Biological Reserve Ia 69202 Espirito Santo, Brazil  
Sumidouro State Park II 3292 Minas Gerais, Brazil  
Tatí Yupí Biological Refuge IV 5052 Paraguay  
Tinfunqué National Park 607935 Paraguay  
Ypoa National Park 303997 Paraguay  

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Cerrado Brazil No
Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests Chile No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Abrothrix longipilis (long-haired grass mouse)[4]
Abrothrix olivaceus (Manso grass mouse)[4]
Holochilus sciureus (marsh rat)[5]
Microtus californicus (California vole)[6]
Mus musculus (house mouse)[7]
Octodon degus (Degus)[4]
Phyllotis darwini (Darwin's leaf-eared mouse)[4]
Reithrodontomys megalotis (western harvest mouse)[7]
Zonotrichia capensis (Rufous-collared Sparrow)[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)2
Athene cunicularia (Burrowing Owl)3
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)3
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)1
Buteo polyosoma (Variable Hawk)3
Buteogallus meridionalis (Savanna Hawk)1
Caiman crocodilus (Common caiman, Spectacled caiman)1
Canis latrans (Coyote)1
Caracara plancus (Southern Crested Caracara)1
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)1
Falco sparverius (American Kestrel)2
Galictis cuja (Lesser Grison)3
Geranoaetus melanoleucus (Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle)2
Leopardus guigna (Kodkod)2
Lycalopex fulvipes (Darwin's Fox)1
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)1
Mustela erminea (Ermine)1
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)1
Parabuteo unicinctus (Harris's Hawk)4
Philodryas chamissonis (Chilean Green Racer)2
Pituophis catenifer (Gopher Snake)1
Strix rufipes (Rufous-legged Owl)2
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)6
Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Gray Fox)1

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo

Range Map

North America; Patfa Valley dry forests; Serra do Cipo National Park; Serra dos Orgaos National Park;

Audio

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Provided by Center for Biological Diversity via Myxer Author: ASU-Ask A Biologist

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 3On the allometry of wings, Enrique Morgado, Bruno Günther and Urcesino Gonzalez, Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 60: 71-79, 1987 4Predation upon small mammals in shrublands and grasslands of southern South America: ecological correlates and presumable consequences, Fabian M. Jaksic, Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 59: 209-221 (1986) 5Holochilus sciureus, Guillermo R. Barreto and Shaenandhoa GarcÍa-Rangel, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 780, pp. 1-5 (2005) 6Raptor Predation on Wintering Shorebirds, G. Page and D. F. Whitacre, The Condor, Vol. 77, No. 1 (Spring, 1975), pp. 73-83 7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
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