Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Accipitriformes > Accipitridae > Buteo > Buteo buteo
 

Buteo buteo (Common Buzzard)

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
1
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
9
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 1.86878
EDGE Score: 1.05389

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  1.93 lbs (875 g)
Birth Weight [2]  60 grams
Female Weight [1]  2.14 lbs (969 g)
Male Weight [1]  1.72 lbs (781 g)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  24.1 %
Female Maturity [3]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Clutch Size [4]  3
Maximum Longevity [3]  29 years
Speed [5]  25.95 MPH (11.6 m/s)
Wing Span [5]  4.1 feet (1.24 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi,Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic coastal desert Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests Myanmar, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East Afghan montane conifer forests Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East African halophytics Tanzania Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East African mangroves Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia Afrotropic Mangroves
East African montane forests Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East African montane moorlands Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Java-Bali rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Eastern Zimbabwe montane forest-grassland mosaic Zimbabwe, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Eritrean coastal desert Eritrea Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane moorlands Ethiopia Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Etosha Pan halophytics Namibia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guinean mangroves Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire Afrotropic Mangroves
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Honshu alpine conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Irrawaddy dry forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Knysna-Amatole montane forests South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luzon rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Madeira evergreen forests Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nama Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests Japan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests China, India, Bhutan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle subtropical forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle temperate forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows China, Pakistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Red Sea coastal desert Egypt, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Rwenzori-Virunga montane moorlands Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Saharan halophytics Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Sakhalin Island taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Socotra Island xeric shrublands Yemen Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Malawi montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Africa mangroves South Africa, Mozambique Afrotropic Mangroves
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka montane rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sulaiman Range alpine meadows Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Thar desert India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Java rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yarlung Tsangpo arid steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian halophytics Mozambique, Botswana Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Addo Elephant National Park II 348463 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Ailaoshan Nature Reserve V 332544 Yunnan, China  
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Bassigny 194044 France  
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berbak National Park II 423927 Sumatra, Indonesia
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Camargue 546256 France  
Chae Son National Park II 194441 Thailand
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve 1433211 Romania
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Desert National Park II 672840 Rajasthan, India  
Doi Luang National Park II 325736 Thailand  
ETHNIKO THALASSIO PARKO ALONNISOU - VOREION SPORADON, ANATOLIKI SKOPELOS 615652 Greece      
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Fujian Wuyishan Nature Reserve V 206754 Fujian, China  
Great Gobi National Park Ia 13211440 Mongolia  
Hevesi-sík 191445 Hungary  
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Hwange National Park II 3651385 Zimbabwe  
KENTRIKI RODOPI KAI KOILADA NESTOU 261804 Greece  
Kaeng Krachan National Park II 753452 Thailand
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Kamchiyska Mountain 219637 Bulgaria  
Kaplankyr Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 1293994 Turkmenistan  
Katavi National Park II 1054210 Tanzania
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kibale National Park II 196202 Uganda
Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve II 256073 Western Cape, South Africa  
Kotlenska Mountain 245286 Bulgaria  
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
LOS ALCORNOCALES 414561 Spain  
Les Cévennes 227446 France  
Les Ecrins 227201 France  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Ludogorie 225827 Bulgaria  
MONFRAGÜE Y LAS DEHESAS DEL ENTORNO 287016 Spain  
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania
Malaya Sozva Zapovednik Ia 557376 Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia
Marahoue National Park II 293884 Côte d'Ivoire  
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Nam Nao National Park II 240993 Thailand
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
Nouabalï-Ndoki National Park II 1013529 Congo  
OROS PAIKO, STENA APSALOU KAI MOGLENITSAS 227258 Greece  
OROS VORAS 196334 Greece  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Om Koi Wildlife Sanctuary IV 299357 Thailand  
PERIOCHI THESSALIKOU KAMPOU 236223 Greece  
Parc National de la Comoe National Park II 2902593 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National de la Lopé National Park 1227419 Gabon  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 227671 Thailand  
Plateau ardennais 186972 France  
Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau 207644 Bulgaria  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Rila 200269 Bulgaria  
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
SIERRA NEVADA 424554 Spain  
SIERRA NORTE 438558 Spain  
SIERRA Y CAÑONES DE GUARA 201020 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
Sakar 310629 Bulgaria  
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Socotra Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 6626477 Yemen  
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Sredna Gora 244788 Bulgaria  
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 619152 Thailand  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Waterberg Biosphere Reserve 1024427 Limpopo, South Africa  
West Caprivi Game Reserve Game Park VI 1448182 Namibia  
Western Balkan 362801 Bulgaria  
Wolong Nature Reserve V 826140 Sichuan, China  
Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve V 567531 Yunnan, China  
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Chokpak Pass Kazakhstan A4iv
Delta of the River Don Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1iv, B2
Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache France A4iv, B1iv, B2, C5, C6
Serra do Pico da Antónia Cape Verde A1, A2  
Tarifa Spain A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, A4iv, B1i, B1iii, B1iv, B2, C1, C2, C4

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No
Philippines Philippines No
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Apodemus flavicollis (Yellow-necked mouse)[6]
Apodemus sylvaticus (Old World wood and field mouse)[6]
Arvicola terrestris (European water vole)[6]
Clethrionomys glareolus (Bank vole)[6]
Lepus europaeus (European Hare)[6]
Microtus agrestis (field vole)[6]
Microtus arvalis (common vole)[6]
Sorex araneus (Eurasian shrew)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)5
Aquila heliaca (Asian Imperial Eagle)1
Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron)4
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)2
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)7
Athene noctua (Little Owl)2
Bubo bubo (Eurasian Eagle-Owl)1
Ciconia ciconia (White Stork)5
Circus aeruginosus (Western Marsh Harrier)3
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)1
Circus pygargus (Montagu's Harrier)1
Coronella austriaca (Smooth Snake)1
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)5
Falco tinnunculus (Eurasian Kestrel)4
Felis silvestris (Wildcat)6
Genetta genetta (Common Genet)1
Glaucidium passerinum (Eurasian Pygmy Owl)1
Gypaetus barbatus (Bearded Vulture)1
Hemorrhois hippocrepis (Horseshoe Snake)1
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)4
Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)2
Lynx lynx (Eurasian Lynx)1
Martes foina (Beech Marten)1
Martes martes (European Pine Marten)2
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)1
Milvus milvus (Red Kite)4
Mustela erminea (Ermine)7
Mustela nivalis (Least Weasel)5
Mustela putorius (European Polecat)2
Natrix natrix (European Grass Snake)1
Rhinechis scalaris (Ladder Snakes)1
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)6
Strix uralensis (Ural Owl)3
Surnia ulula (Northern Hawk-Owl)1
Sus scrofa (wild boar)1
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)4
Vipera latastei (Lataste’s Viper)1
Vulpes corsac (Corsac Fox)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)7
Zamenis longissimus (Aesculapean Snake)5

Predators

Bubo bubo (Eurasian Eagle-Owl)[7]
Ornithomya avicularia[6]
Protocalliphora azurea[6]

Providers

Shelter 
Picea abies (Norway spruce)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anomotaenia mollis <Unverified Name>[8]
Ascaridia galli[8]
Baruscapillaria cylindrica <Unverified Name>[8]
Baruscapillaria falconis <Unverified Name>[8]
Brachylaima fuscatus[8]
Capillaria contorta <Unverified Name>[8]
Capillaria dispar <Unverified Name>[8]
Capillaria falconis <Unverified Name>[8]
Capillaria suppereri <Unverified Name>[8]
Capillaria tenuissima <Unverified Name>[8]
Centrorhynchus aluconis[8]
Centrorhynchus amphibius[8]
Centrorhynchus buteonis[8]
Centrorhynchus conspectus[8]
Centrorhynchus elongatus[8]
Centrorhynchus globocaudatus[8]
Centrorhynchus magnus[8]
Ceratophyllus fringillae[9]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[9]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus[9]
Cladotaenia cylindracea <Unverified Name>[8]
Cladotaenia globifera[8]
Ctenocephalides canis (Dog flea)[9]
Ctenophthalmus teres[9]
Cyathostoma lari <Unverified Name>[8]
Echinochasmus euryporus <Unverified Name>[8]
Echinoparyphium agnatum <Unverified Name>[8]
Echinoparyphium recurvatum[8]
Echinostoma revolutum[8]
Eucoleus dispar <Unverified Name>[8]
Habronema mansioni <Unverified Name>[8]
Ichthyocotylurus platycephalus[8]
Icosiella neglecta <Unverified Name>[8]
Mesostephanus milvi[8]
Metorchis crassiusculus <Unverified Name>[8]
Microtetrameres cloacitectus <Unverified Name>[8]
Monilifer spinulosus <Unverified Name>[8]
Nematostrigea serpens[8]
Neodiplostomum acutum <Unverified Name>[8]
Neodiplostomum attenuatum <Unverified Name>[8]
Neodiplostomum krausei <Unverified Name>[8]
Neodiplostomum pseudattenuatum <Unverified Name>[8]
Neodiplostomum spathoides <Unverified Name>[8]
Neodiplostomum spathula <Unverified Name>[8]
Nosopsyllus fasciatus (northern rat flea)[9]
Nosopsyllus laeviceps laeviceps[9]
Paracoenogonimus ovatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Pharyngostomum cordatum <Unverified Name>[8]
Philophthalmus lucipetus[8]
Physaloptera alata <Unverified Name>[8]
Plagiorhynchus odhneri <Unverified Name>[8]
Porrocaecum angusticolle <Unverified Name>[8]
Porrocaecum depressum <Unverified Name>[8]
Porrorchis elongatus[8]
Procyrnea leptoptera <Unverified Name>[8]
Procyrnea spinosa <Unverified Name>[8]
Pseudostrigea buteonis <Unverified Name>[8]
Scaphanocephalus adamsi <Unverified Name>[8]
Spirocerca lupi[8]
Strigea elongata <Unverified Name>[8]
Strigea falconis[8]
Synhimantus laticeps <Unverified Name>[8]
Synhimantus robertdollfusi <Unverified Name>[8]
Thominx contorta <Unverified Name>[8]
Thominx dispar <Unverified Name>[8]
Trichinella pseudospiralis[8]
Trichinella spiralis (pork worm)[8]
Tylodelphys excavata <Unverified Name>[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Al Ain Zoo
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Badoca Safari Park
 buteo
Banham Zoo Ltd.
Bird Park Marlow
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanat
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Gardenbuteo
Bursa Zoo (Bursa Hayvanat Bahcesi)
Colchester Zoo
Dierenpark 'De Vleut' (Zoo Best)
Dierenpark de Oliemeulen (Zoo Tilburg)
Domaine Zoologique de Pescheray
Giza Zoological Garden
Grand Parc Du Puy Du Fou
International Centre for Birds of Prey
Johannesburg Zoological Gardens
Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden
Kaliningrad Zoo
Kazan Zoological & Botanical Garden
Kharkiv Zoo
Kishinev Zoopark
Kittenberger Zoo
Le Pal, Parc Animalier
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodzbuteo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Mokopane Biodiversity Conservation Centre
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Moscow Zoological Park
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africa
National SEA LIFE Centre
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
Novosibirsk Zoological Park
Ogrod Zoologiczny im. Stefana Milera
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniu
 vulpinus
Paradise Park Wildlife Sanctuary
Parc des Oiseaux
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sad
Planete Sauvage
Reaseheath College Animal Centre
Riga Zoo
Saitama Children's Zoojaponicus
Shepreth Wildlife Park
Silesian Zoological Garden
Stichting Nederlands Opvang Papegaaien
Tallinn Zoo
The Raptor Foundation
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardensbuteo
Thoiry Zoological Parkvulpinus
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnbergbuteo
Trotter's World of Animals
Ueno Zoological Gardensjaponicus
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
World Owl Trust
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zivalski vrt Ljubljana
Zoo de la Bourbansais
Zoo Parc de Beauval
 vulpinus
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaiabuteo
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Ganvulpinus
Zoologicka zahrada Liberec
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbH
 buteo
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg

Distribution

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by Xeno-canto under a Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 2.5 License Author: Patrik Åberg

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 2011-09-22, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Cramp, S.; Simmons, K.E.L.; Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa Vols 1-9. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 6Ecology of Commanster 7Contribution to the study of the diet of four owl species (Aves, Strigiformes) from mainland and island areas of Greece, Haralambos Alivizatos, Vassilis Goutner and Stamatis Zogaris, Belg. J. Zool., 135 (2) : 109-118 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 9International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Important Bird Areas provided by BirdLife International (2010) Important Bird Areas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2010
Images provided by Google Image Search
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2