Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Accipitriformes > Accipitridae > Buteo > Buteo polyosoma
 

Buteo polyosoma (Variable Hawk)

Wikipedia Abstract

The variable hawk (Geranoaetus polyosoma) is a polymorphic species of bird of prey in the Accipitridae family. It is widespread and often common in open habitats in western and southern South America, including the Falkland Islands. Its taxonomy is disputed, with some splitting it into the widespread red-backed hawk (G. polyosoma) and the Puna hawk or Gurney's hawk (G. poecilochrous) of the central and north Andean highlands, but the differences between the two are unclear. Most recent authorities have supported the lumping together of the two hawks although the issue still is controversial. On the contrary, the rare taxon from the Juan Fernández Islands is relatively distinctive, and possibly worthy of species recognition as the Juan Fernández hawk (B. exsul). In this article and most cur
View Wikipedia Record: Buteo polyosoma

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
6
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
22
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.21995
EDGE Score: 1.82776

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  2.09 lbs (950 g)
Male Weight [4]  1.53 lbs (696 g)
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Vertebrates)
Diet - Endothermic [2]  100 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Clutch Size [3]  2
Wing Span [1]  4.1 feet (1.24 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Atacama desert Chile Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bolivian montane dry forests Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Bolivian Yungas Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Andean dry puna Argentina, Bolivia, Chile Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central Andean puna Argentina, Bolivia, Peru Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central Andean wet puna Peru, Bolivia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Chilean matorral Chile Neotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Cordillera Central páramo Ecuador, Peru Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Dry Chaco Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Cordillera real montane forests Ecuador, Colombia, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ecuadorian dry forests Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Espinal Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
High Monte Argentina Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Humid Chaco Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Humid Pampas Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Low Monte Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Magdalena Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Magellanic subpolar forests Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Andean páramo Ecuador, Colombia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northwestern Andean montane forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Paraná flooded savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Patagonian steppe Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Peruvian Yungas Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sechura desert Peru Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southern Andean steppe Argentina, Chile Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Andean Yungas Bolivia, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tumbes-Piura dry forests Ecuador, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Uruguayan savanna Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Valdivian temperate forests Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Ecuador moist forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bosques Petrificados Monumental Natural National Monument III 151218 Santa Cruz, Argentina  
El Rey National Park II 110298 Salta, Argentina
La Reserva de la Planada   Colombia      
Lago Puelo National Park II 47607 Chubut, Argentina
Laguna Blanca National Park II 19735 Neuquen, Argentina  
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Las Palmas Cloud Forest Reserve   Ecuador      
Los Alerces National Park II 463045 Chubut, Argentina  
Los Glaciares National Park II 1329020 Santa Cruz, Argentina
Madidi National Park II 3194501 Bolivia  
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
Otishi National Park 760925 Peru  
Parque Nacional Torres del Paine National Park II 542393 Magallanes, Chile  
Perito Moreno National Park II 234320 Santa Cruz, Argentina  
Podocarpus National Park II 364096 Ecuador  
Reserva Biologica de la Cordillera de Sama Biological Reserve IV 265144 Bolivia  
Reserva de Huascarán National Park II 844711 Ancash, Peru  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Pozuelos Biosphere Reserve 988422 Argentina  
Reserva de la Biosfera San Guillermo Biosphere Reserve 2446343 Argentina  
Reserva Ecologica de Ñacuñan Ecological Reserve Ia   Argentina  
Reserva Nacional de Fauna Ulla Ulla National Fauna Reserve 559837 Bolivia  
Reserva Nacional Lauca National Park II 349990 Chile  
Santuario de la Naturaleza Pumalín Sanctuary 713364 Chile
Tierra Del Fuego National Park II 172861 Argentina

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests Chile No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Abrocoma bennettii (Chinchilla-rat)[5]
Abrothrix olivaceus (Manso grass mouse)[5]
Chloephaga picta (Upland Goose)[6]
Ctenomys australis (southern tuco-tuco)[7]
Ctenomys talarum (Tuco-tuco)[7]
Marmosa elegans (mouse opossum)[5]
Microcavia australis (southern mountain cavy)[8]
Mus musculus (house mouse)[6]
Octodon degus (Degus)[5]
Oryctolagus cuniculus (European Rabbit)[5]
Pachyptila belcheri (Slender-billed Prion)[6]
Phyllotis darwini (Darwin's leaf-eared mouse)[5]
Rattus rattus (black rat)[6]
Sturnella loyca (Long-tailed Meadowlark)[6]
Thylamys elegans (Elegant Fat-tailed Mouse Opossum)[9]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)3
Athene cunicularia (Burrowing Owl)5
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)5
Buteo ventralis (Rufous-tailed Hawk)1
Caracara plancus (Southern Crested Caracara)4
Eira barbara (Tayra)1
Elanus leucurus (White-tailed Kite)3
Epicrates cenchria (Rainbow Boa)1
Falco sparverius (American Kestrel)1
Galictis cuja (Lesser Grison)6
Geranoaetus melanoleucus (Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle)5
Leopardus guigna (Kodkod)3
Lycalopex fulvipes (Darwin's Fox)1
Lycalopex gymnocercus (Pampas Fox)1
Milvago chimango (Chimango Caracara)1
Parabuteo unicinctus (Harris's Hawk)5
Phalcoboenus australis (Striated Caracara)2
Philodryas chamissonis (Chilean Green Racer)3
Strix rufipes (Rufous-legged Owl)2
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)8

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Disney's Animal Kingdom
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Airespolyosoma
Parque Zoologico Huachipa
The Hawk Conservancy
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb

Range Map

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1On the allometry of wings, Enrique Morgado, Bruno Günther and Urcesino Gonzalez, Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 60: 71-79, 1987
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
4Cabot J and de Vries T (2003) Buteo polyosoma and Buteo poecilochrous are two distinct species. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 123:190-207
5Predation upon small mammals in shrublands and grasslands of southern South America: ecological correlates and presumable consequences, Fabian M. Jaksic, Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 59: 209-221 (1986)
6Population growth and density, diet and breeding success of striated caracaras Phalcoboenus australis on New Island, Falkland Islands, Paulo Catry, Miguel Lecoq, Ian J. Strange, Polar Biology Volume 31, Number 10, 1167-1174
7Ctenomys talarum, Enrique R. Justo, Luciano J. M. De Santis, and Marta S. Kin, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 730, pp. 1–5 (2003)
8Microcavia australis, Marcelo F. Tognelli, Claudia M. Campos, and Ricardo A. Ojeda, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 648, pp. 1–4 (2001)
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access