Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Accipitriformes > Accipitridae > Haliaeetus > Haliaeetus albicilla
 

Haliaeetus albicilla (White-tailed Eagle)

Wikipedia Abstract

White-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) are also known as sea eagle, erne (sometimes ern, ørn), gray sea eagle, and white-tailed sea-eagle — is a large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which includes other raptors such as hawks, kites, and harriers. It is considered a close cousin of the bald eagle and occupies the same ecological niche, but in Eurasia. The genus name Haliaeetus is New Latin for "sea-eagle", from Ancient Greek hali-, "sea-" and aetos, "eagle". The specific albicilla, "white-tailed", is from New Latin albi-, "white" and cilla, "tail".
View Wikipedia Record: Haliaeetus albicilla

Infraspecies

Haliaeetus albicilla albicilla (Eurasian white-tailed sea eagle)
Haliaeetus albicilla groenlandicus (Greenland white-tailed sea eagle)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
8
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
26
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 7.19671
EDGE Score: 2.10373

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  10.57 lbs (4.79 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  142 grams
Female Weight [1]  12.28 lbs (5.57 kg)
Male Weight [1]  8.85 lbs (4.01 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  38.8 %
Female Maturity [4]  4 years
Male Maturity [4]  4 years
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Endothermic [3]  30 %
Diet - Fish [3]  40 %
Diet - Scavenger [3]  30 %
Forages - Aerial [3]  10 %
Forages - Mid-High [3]  20 %
Forages - Ground [3]  20 %
Forages - Water Surface [3]  50 %
Clutch Size [5]  2
Clutches / Year [6]  1
Incubation [4]  41 days
Maximum Longevity [4]  42 years
Speed [7]  30.42 MPH (13.6 m/s)
Wing Span [7]  7.2 feet (2.18 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian southern desert Turkmenistan stretching, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Persian desert basins Iran, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Honshu alpine conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka-Kurile taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sakhalin Island taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Altaisky Zapovednik Ia 2177587 Altai, Russia
Azas Zapovednik Ia 742280 Tuva, Russia
Baikal State Nature Reserve 409513 Buryatia, Russia
Baikalo-Lensky Zapovednik Ia 1630896 Irkutsk, Russia
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Bashkirsky State Nature Reserve 274648 Bashkortostan, Russia
Beskid Niski 375518 Poland  
Bolonsky State Nature Reserve 256001 Khabarovsk, Russia
Bory Dolnoslaskie 425252 Poland  
Bory Tucholskie 797004 Poland  
Botchinsky State Nature Reserve 660710 Khabarovsk, Russia
Bureinsky State Nature Reserve 885626 Khabarovsk, Russia
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Camargue 546256 France  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Chernye Zemly State Nature Reserve 301224 Kalmykia, Russia
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve 1433211 Romania
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Dolina Biebrzy 299507 Poland  
Dzhugdzhursky State Nature Reserve 2124998 Khabarovsk, Russia
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Great Arctic State Nature Preserve 10302372 Taimyr, Russia
Great Gobi National Park Ia 13211440 Mongolia  
Gydansky State Nature Reserve 2170015 Yamalo-Nenets, Russia
Hortobágy 298489 Hungary  
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kenozersky National Park 345115 Arkhangelsk, Russia
Khakassia State Nature Reserve 661168 Khakassia, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Komandorsk Biosphere Reserve 9016082 Kamchatka Krai , Russia    
Koryak State Nature Reserve 808420 Kamchatka Krai, Russia
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Kronotsky Biosphere Reserve 2822275 Kamchatka Krai , Russia
Kura kurgu 476839 Estonia  
Kuznetsk Alatau State Nature Reserve 1020298 Kemerovo, Russia
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
Lake Orumieh National Park 1113473 Iran  
Lapland State Nature Reserve 688028 Murmansk, Russia
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lasy Puszczy nad Drawa 470190 Poland  
Lazovsky Zapovednik Ia 299030 Primorsky Krai, Russia
Magadan State Nature Reserve 2183959 Magadan, Russia
Malaya Sozva Zapovednik Ia 557376 Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia
Meschera National Park 293457 Vladimir, Russia
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Nenetsk State Nature Reserve 774428 Nenets, Russia
Norsky State Nature Reserve 521807 Amur, Russia
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
Olekminsky State Nature Reserve 2093249 Sakha, Russia
Ostoja Augustowska 264573 Poland  
Ostoja Biebrzanska 366973 Poland  
Ostoja Drawska 380310 Poland  
Ostoja Knyszynska 336272 Poland  
Ostoja Warminska 350930 Poland  
Paanajärvi National Park 258158 Karelia, Russia
Pechery-Ilych State Nature Reserve 1782371 Komi, Russia
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Puszcza Augustowska 332055 Poland  
Puszcza Knyszynska 344935 Poland  
Puszcza Napiwodzko-Ramucka 288136 Poland  
Puszcza Notecka 440480 Poland  
Puszcza Piska 427004 Poland  
Puszcza Sandomierska 319052 Poland  
Putoransky State Nature Reserve 4663499 Evenki, Taimyr, Russia
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Roztocze 255762 Poland  
Russkiy Sever National Park 411183 Vologda, Russia
Sakar 310629 Bulgaria  
Samarskaya Luka National Park 314283 Samara, Russia
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Reserve 991950 Primorsky Krai, Russia
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Smolenskoe Poozerie National Park 361359 Smolensk, Russia
Sochi National Park 478735 Krasnodar, Russia
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Trans-Baikal National Park 660209 Buryatia, Russia
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Tunguska State Nature Reserve 732826 Evenki, Russia
Tunkinsky National Park 2924892 Buryatia, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Ust-Lensky State Nature Reserve 3541020 Sakha, Russia
Verkhne-Tazovsky State Nature Reserve 1564938 Yamalo-Nenets, Russia
Visherskii State Nature Reserve 596018 Perm, Russia
Vitimskii State Nature Reserve 1445618 Irkutsk, Russia
Vodlozersky National Park 1157293 Karelia, Arkhangelsk, Russia    
Väinamere 670389 Estonia  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Waddenzee 672193 Netherlands    
West Estonian Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 3854844 Estonia  
Wrangel Island State Nature Reserve 5499701 Chukotka, Russia    
Yugansky State Nature Reserve 1602814 Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia
Yugyd Islands National Park 4674495 Komi, Russia
Yuzhno-Uralsky State Nature Reserve 624742 Chelyabinsk, Bashkortostan, Russia
Zempléni-hegység a Szerencsi-dombsággal és a Hernád-völggyel 284651 Hungary  

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Abbas-abad dam Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Akhtubinsk wetland Russia (European) A1, A4iii, B2
Alam-Pedja Estonia A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2, C6
Alluvial forests from Podravska Slatina to Vuka Croatia A1, B2
Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube Croatia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava Croatia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Anzali Mordab complex Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Arreskov Sø Denmark C6
Čyrvony Bor Belarus B2
Balta Mică a Brăilei Romania C1, C2, C4, C6
Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2  
Barlinek Forest Poland C1, C6
Barthes de l'Adour France B2, C6
Barycz river valley Poland C1, C3, C4, C6
Bay of Svensksundsviken Sweden A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C3
Bel'skaya flood-plain Russia (European) A1, B1i, B2
Belene Islands Complex Bulgaria A1, A4i, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C6
Birskaya flood-plain of river Belaya Russia (European) A1, B2
Björn archipelago Sweden A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6  
Bogdinsko-Baskunchakski Russia (European) A1, A3, B2
Bosutska forest Serbia A1, B1i, B2, B3
Braţul Borcea Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Bråviken: Hävringe Sweden A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Bulgarski Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Calafat: Ciuperceni: Dunăre Romania C1, C2, C4, C6
Chardara Reservoir Kazakhstan A1, A4i, A4iii
Cheremshanski Bay of Kuybyshev Reservoir Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Coastal areas of eastern Öland island Sweden A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Confluenţa Jiu: Dunăre Romania C1, C2, C4, C6
Curonian (Courish) Bay Russia (European) A1, B1i
Danube Delta Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Delta of the River Don Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1iv, B2
Delta of the Swina river Poland C1, C2, C3, C6  
Dniprovs'ko-Teterivs'ke Game Reserve Ukraine A1, B2
Dono-Archedinskiye sands Russia (European) A1, B2
Drawa River Site Poland C1, C6
Dunăre: Ostroave Romania C1, C2, C6
Färnebofjärden Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C6
Flood-plain of Khoper river near Lake Il'men' Russia (European) A1
Forest at Drawa River Poland C1, C2, C6
Forest at Gwda River Poland C1, C6
Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys Ukraine A1, B2, B3
Froan Norway A1, A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3  
Gemenc Hungary A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Goleniow Forest Poland C1, C6
Gornje Podunavlje Serbia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Gräsö archipelago Sweden A1, A4i, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C6  
Gruia: Gârla Mare Romania C1, C2, C3, C6
Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A3, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Haur Al Rayan and Umm Osbah Iraq A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Haur Al Sa'adiyah Iraq A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Havmyran Norway A1
Holmöarna archipelago Sweden A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C2, C3, C6
Hortobágy and Tisza-to Hungary A1, A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1iii, B2
Hostrup Sø, Assenholm Mose and Felsted Vestermark Denmark C6
Ikkattoq fjord and islands Greenland (to Denmark) B1i, B2
Ilawa Forest Poland C1, C6
Inner Somogy Hungary A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Insko Site Poland C1, C2, C6
Irbe strait Estonia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Ivailovgrad Reservoir Bulgaria C6
Ivinski flood-plain (Verkhnesvirskoye reservoir) Russia (European) A1
Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys Israel A1, A4i, A4iii, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3
Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Kozats'ki islands) Ukraine A1, A4iii, B1i, B2
Kalimok Complex Bulgaria A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Kamchia Complex Bulgaria A1, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3, C1, C2, C5, C6
Kamsko-Yayvenski wetland Russia (European) A1, B2
Kandalaksha Bay Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2
Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve Ukraine A1, B1i
Karakulinskaya flood-plain Russia (European) A1
Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays Ukraine A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Kazachka Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i
Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes Finland A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2, C3
Khoper Nature Reserve Russia (European) A1
Khvalynski National Park Russia (European) A1, B2
Kis-Sárrét Hungary A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Kizlyar Bay Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Koviljski rit Serbia B2
Kumikushski wetland Russia (European) A1, A3, A4iii
Kyivs'ke reservoir Ukraine A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Lakat Island Bulgaria A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2, C6
Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Lake Åsnen Sweden A1, A4i, B1i, B2, C1, C3, C6
Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Lake Hallbosjön Sweden B1i, C2, C3
Lake Solgen Sweden A1, A4i, B1i, B3, C1, C2
Large liman Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i
Left bank of Siverskij Donets river near Pechenihi reservior Ukraine A1
Lillebælt Denmark A4iii, B1i, C3, C4, C6
Lisar Protected Area Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, B2, B3
Lithuanian part of the Curonian Spit Lithuania A1, A4i, B1i, B1iv
Lovunden Norway A1, A4iii, B1ii, B2  
Lower Odra river valley Poland C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Lower Sava river Croatia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Lower Silesia Forests Poland C1, C6
Lower Tisza Valley Hungary A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Luitemaa Estonia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Maribo lakes Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Migulinskiye sands Russia (European) A1, B2
Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island Estonia A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2, C6
Muddus Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C3, C6
Mures river lower flood-plain Romania C1, C2, C6
Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest Poland C1, C6
Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds Croatia A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian (Courish) Bay Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Nemunas delta regional Park Lithuania A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
North part of Volgogradski reservoir Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2
North-east Scania coastline and archipelago Sweden A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Notec Forest Poland C1, C6
Nove Mlyny middle reservoir Czech Republic A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C3, C4, C6
Obedska bara Serbia B1i, B2, B3
Odra riverine forests Poland C1, C3, C6
Ostrovnoi Reserve Russia (European) A1
Ostrovu Lung: Gostinu Romania C1, C2, C6
Oulu region wetlands Finland A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Pasleka river valley Poland C1, C6
Pálava Czech Republic A1, B2, B3, C1, C6
Pechoro-Ilychski Nature Reserve Russia (European) A1, B2
Pikhtovka fishponds Russia (European) A1
Pisz forest Poland C1, C6
Polesie Reserve Belarus A1, B2, B3
Ponoiskaya depression Russia (European) A1, A3, A4i, B1i, B2
Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands Finland A1, B1i, C1, C2
Rakhinski forest Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2
River Danube flood-plain Slovakia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
River Umeälven delta Sweden A1, A4i, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3
Ropotamo Complex Bulgaria A1, A4i, B1i, B1iii, B1iv, B2, C1, C2, C5, C6
Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Rybinsk reservoir Russia (European) A1, B1i, B2
Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve Ukraine A1, B2
Saltstraumen Norway A1
Samarskaya Luka Russia (European) A1, B3
Saraly Russia (European) A1
Sasyk lake Ukraine A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Sør-Fugløy Norway A1, A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3    
Schuch'i Gori area Russia (European) B2
Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Sialiec Belarus A1, B2, B3
Siz'menski flood-plain of Sheksna reservoir Russia (European) A1, B2
Sjaunja Sweden A1, A3, B2, C1, C6
Skogvoll (including Skarvklakken) Norway A1, B1i, B2  
Smøla archipelago Norway A1, A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2  
Sorbulak Lake System Kazakhstan A1, A4i, A4iii
South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2  
South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Srebarna Bulgaria A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Stanychno-Lugans'ke fish-farm Ukraine A1, B2
Strandstuguviken Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C6
Surski reservoir Russia (European) A1, B1i
Suskanski Bay of Kuybyshev Resrvoir Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i
Svenningen-Risvær Norway A1  
Szczecin lagoon Poland C1, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago Finland A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon Lithuania A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i    
Trebonsko (Trebon region) Czech Republic A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Tsimlyanskiye sands Russia (European) A1, B2
Tuchola Forest Poland C1, C2, C6
Väinameri Estonia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Veselovskoye reservoir Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Vicinity of the Vozhe lake and Charonda marshes Russia (European) A1, A3
Vistula Lagoon Poland C1, C3, C4, C6  
Vodlozero Russia (European) A1, B2
Vyhanaščanskija baloty Belarus A1, B2, B3
Watershed of Kazanka and Shoshma rivers Russia (European) A1, B1i
Western coast of Beloye lake Russia (European) A1
Western part of lake Mälaren Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C6
Witnica-Debno Site Poland C1, C6
Wkrzanska Forest Poland C1, C6  
Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays Ukraine A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Yugyd Va Russia (European) A1, A3, B1i, B2
Zavidovo Nature Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish-ponds Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Zhigulevsk Nature Reserve Russia (European) A1, B2, B3

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No

Prey / Diet

Cyclopterus lumpus (Lumpsucker)[8]
Esox lucius (Jack)[8]
Fulica atra (Eurasian Coot)[9]
Martes zibellina (Sable)[10]
Rangifer tarandus (caribou)[9]
Triglops pingelii (Ribbed sculpin)[9]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)1
Accipiter nisus (Eurasian Sparrowhawk)1
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)1
Bubo bubo (Eurasian Eagle-Owl)1
Canis lupus (Wolf)1
Chlidonias hybrida (Whiskered Tern)1
Ciconia nigra (Black Stork)1
Gulo gulo (Wolverine)1
Lynx lynx (Eurasian Lynx)1
Martes flavigula (Yellow-throated Marten)1
Mergellus albellus (Smew)1
Mergus squamatus (Scaly-sided Merganser)1
Panthera tigris (Tiger)1
Strix nebulosa (Great Grey Owl)1
Surnia ulula (Northern Hawk-Owl)1
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)1
Vulpes lagopus (Arctic Fox)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ascaris depressa <Unverified Name>[11]
Baruscapillaria falconis <Unverified Name>[11]
Capillaria falconis <Unverified Name>[11]
Centrorhynchus aluconis[11]
Ceratophyllus garei[12]
Ctenophthalmus uncinatus uncinatus[12]
Diplostomum variabile <Unverified Name>[11]
Holostomum macrocephalum <Unverified Name>[11]
Metagonimus yokogawai[11]
Neodiplostomum acutum <Unverified Name>[11]
Neodiplostomum microcotyle <Unverified Name>[11]
Neodiplostomum perlatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Neodiplostomum spathoides <Unverified Name>[11]
Neogogatea rauschi <Unverified Name>[11]
Nosopsyllus fasciatus (northern rat flea)[12]
Paracoenogonimus ovatus[11]
Philophthalmus lucipetus[11]
Strigea falconis[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Alexandria Zoological Park
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Bird Park Marlow
Blair Drummond Safari Park
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Burger's Zoo
City of Belfast Zoo
Dierenrijk Europa
Fota Wildlife Park
Grand Parc Du Puy Du Fou
International Centre for Birds of Prey
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Kaliningrad Zoo
Kazan Zoological & Botanical Garden
Kharkiv Zoo
Kishinev Zoopark
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Moscow Zoological Park
 albicilla
Municipal Independent Org. Roev Ruchei
National SEA LIFE Centre
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Councilalbicilla
Nordens Ark
Novosibirsk Zoological Park
Ogrod Zoologiczny im. Stefana Milera
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniu
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Ouwehand Zoo
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Podkrusnohorsky Zoopark Chomutov
Riga Zoo
Rostock Zoologischer Garten
Safaripark Beekse Bergen
Szeged Zoo
Tallinn Zoo
Tama Zoological Park
The Hawk Conservancyalbicilla
Ueno Zoological Gardensalbicilla
Welsh Mountain Zoo
Wilhelma Zoo
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan
Zoologicka zahrada Ostrava
Zoologicka zahrada Bojnice
Zoologicka Zahrada Jihlava
Zoologicka zahrada Liberec
 albicilla
Zoologischer Garten Schmiding

Range Map

Bassegi Zapovednik; North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Cramp, S.; Simmons, K.E.L.; Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa Vols 1-9. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6British Trust for Ornithology
7Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
8del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10Martes zibellina (Carnivora: Mustelidae), VLADIMIR G. MONAKHOV, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 43(876):75–86 (2011)
11Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
12International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access