Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Accipitriformes > Accipitridae > Milvus > Milvus milvus

Milvus milvus (Red Kite)

Wikipedia Abstract

The red kite (Milvus milvus) is a medium-large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards, and harriers. The species is currently endemic to the Western Palearctic region in Europe and northwest Africa, though formerly also occurred just outside in northern Iran. It is resident in the milder parts of its range in western Europe and northwest Africa, but birds from northeastern and central Europe winter further south and west, reaching south to Turkey. Vagrants have reached north to Finland and south to Israel, Libya and Gambia.
View Wikipedia Record: Milvus milvus


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.63474
EDGE Score: 2.95852


Adult Weight [1]  2.38 lbs (1.08 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  63 grams
Male Weight [6]  2.09 lbs (947 g)
Female Maturity [1]  3 years
Male Maturity [1]  3 years
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Vertebrates)
Diet - Endothermic [3]  30 %
Diet - Scavenger [3]  70 %
Forages - Ground [3]  100 %
Clutch Size [5]  2
Clutches / Year [4]  1
Incubation [4]  31 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  38 years
Speed [7]  26.84 MPH (12 m/s)
Wing Span [7]  5.4 feet (1.66 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cape Verde Islands dry forests Cape Verde Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests    
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe Morocco Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sao Tome, Principe and Annobon moist lowland forests São Tomé and Príncipe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
ARRIBES DEL DUERO 264506 Spain  
Aigüestortes 138461 Spain  
Alt Pallars 190550 Spain  
Arrière côte de Dijon et de Beaune 149897 France  
BRENNE 144090 France  
Bassigny 194044 France  
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Beskid Niski 375518 Poland  
Bory Dolnoslaskie 425252 Poland  
Bory Tucholskie 797004 Poland  
Camargue 546256 France  
Cap Gris-Nez 138933 France    
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Castro Verde 210891 Portugal  
Comprensorio Tolfetano-Cerite-Manziate 166977 Italy  
Costa Sudoeste 183883 Portugal  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve 1433211 Romania
Dolina Baryczy 137185 Poland  
Dolina Biebrzy 299507 Poland  
Dolina Dolnej Odry 152337 Poland  
Dolina Srodkowej Warty 141108 Poland  
Emine 164580 Bulgaria  
Encinares del río Alberche y río Cofio 205483 Spain  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Gorges de la Loire 145350 France  
Haut Val d'Allier 145560 France  
Hevesi-sík 191445 Hungary  
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Kamchiyska Mountain 219637 Bulgaria  
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Krivoklatsko Protected Landscape Area V 155267 Czech Republic  
Laborecká vrchovina 266172 Slovakia  
Lasy Puszczy nad Drawa 470190 Poland  
Les Cévennes 227446 France  
Les Ecrins 227201 France  
MARAIS POITEVIN 168088 France  
MONTES DE TOLEDO 538722 Spain  
Marchesato e Fiume Neto 173480 Italy  
Massiccio del Monte Pollino e Monte Alpi 217581 Italy  
Massifs forestiers et vallées du châtillonnais 145666 France  
Montesinho/Nogueira 266900 Portugal  
Monti Ausoni e Aurunci 154013 Italy  
Monti Nebrodi 173651 Italy  
Monti Sicani, Rocca Busambra e Bosco della Ficuzza 144567 Italy  
Mourão/Moura/Barrancos 209832 Portugal  
Ostoja Biebrzanska 366973 Poland  
Ostoja Drawska 380310 Poland  
Ostoja Inska 216738 Poland  
Ostoja Knyszynska 336272 Poland  
Ostoja Warminska 350930 Poland  
Ostoja nad Barycza 202692 Poland  
PAYS DE SAULT 176678 France  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Picentini 157557 Italy  
Plateau ardennais 186972 France  
Pollino e Orsomarso 232637 Italy  
Prepirineu Central català 141034 Spain  
Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau 207644 Bulgaria  
Puszcza Augustowska 332055 Poland  
Puszcza Bialowieska 156041 Poland  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Puszcza Knyszynska 344935 Poland  
Puszcza Napiwodzko-Ramucka 288136 Poland  
Puszcza Notecka 440480 Poland  
Puszcza Piska 427004 Poland  
Puszcza nad Gwda 191949 Poland  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
SIERRA DE GREDOS 213494 Spain  
SIERRA DE SAN PEDRO 284250 Spain  
SIERRA MORENA 331883 Spain  
SIERRA NORTE 438558 Spain  
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Sochi National Park 478735 Krasnodar, Russia
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
The W Region National Park II 549843 Niger  
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Uckermärkische Seenlandschaft 152532 Germany  
Uroczyska Puszczy Drawskiej 183887 Poland  
VALLE DEL TIÉTAR 159079 Spain  


Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
'Grosses Moos' plain and Niederried reservoir Switzerland A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Altopiano di Campeda Italy A1, B2, C1, C2, C6
Arraiolos Portugal B1i, B1ii, B2, C6
Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle Spain B1i, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Bassigny France B3, C6
Bay of Skälderviken Sweden A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B1iv, B2, B3, C3, C4, C5, C6
Castro Verde plains Portugal A1, A3, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Côa valley Portugal B2, C6
Col de Lizarrieta France A4i, B1i, B1iv, C2, C3, C5, C6  
Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers: Tvrdonicko Czech Republic B2, B3, C6
Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa Italy B2, C6
Drawa River Site Poland C1, C6
Elenydd: Mallaen United Kingdom B3, C6
Etangs d'Argonne France B2, C6
Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine France C6
Forêt de Chaux France B2, C6
Forêt de Haguenau France B3, C2, C6
Forêt domaniale de la Harth France B2, B3, C6
Forest at Drawa River Poland C1, C2, C6
Gorges de la Dordogne France B1iv, B2, C5, C6
Gorges de la Sioule France B2, B3, C6
Gorges de la Truyère France B2, B3, C6
Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges Spain B1i, B2, B3, C2, C6
Guara mountain range Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, B3, C2, C6
Haut Val d'Allier France B2, B3, C6
Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers France A4iv, B1iv, C5, C6
Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles France B2, C6
Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin. France B2, C2, C6
Haute Soule : Massif Forestier, Gorges d'Holzarte et d'Olhadubi France C6
Hautes Fagnes/Eifel Belgium A4i, B1i, B1iv, C2, C5, C6
Insko Site Poland C1, C2, C6
Jura mountains of Baselland: Solothurn Switzerland B2, B3
Kullaberg Sweden B1ii, B3, C3, C6
La Brévine and Les Ponts-de-Martel Switzerland B2, B3
Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux France A4i, A4iii, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6
Lower Odra river valley Poland C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Lowlands of Zurich and lower valley of the river Thur Switzerland B2, B3
Madonie Italy A1, C1, C6
Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains Italy B2, B3, C2, C6
Manferrara forest Italy B2, C6
Marchesato and River Neto Italy B1iii, B2, C2, C3, C6
Matese Italy B2, B3, C6
Middle Odra River Valley Poland C1, C6
Montagne de la Serre France B1i, B1iv, C2, C5, C6
Montesinho and Nogueira mountains Portugal B2, B3, C6
Mount Cervati Italy B2, C6
Nebrodi Italy B2, C6
Nemanski forest Russia (European) B3
North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire Spain A1, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6  
North-east Scania coastline and archipelago Sweden A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Northern slope of Guadarrama mountain range Spain A1, A4ii, B1iii, B2, C1, C2, C6
Notec Forest Poland C1, C6
Odra riverine forests Poland C1, C3, C6
Picentini mountains Italy C6
Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano Spain A1, A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1iii, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Plaine du Forez France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Plateau Ardennais France B3, C6
Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux France B1i, B1iv, B2, C2, C5, C6
Pollino Italy B2, C6
Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros Spain A1, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca Spain B1i, B2, C2, C6
Region of Junglinster Luxembourg B2, C6
Region of Mompach, Manternach, Bech and Osweiler Luxembourg B2, C6
River Biferno Italy B2, C6
River Cega-Tierra de Pinares-Cantalejo Spain B2, B3, C6
River Moros Spain B2, B3, C6
Roncesvalles-Irati-Abodi mountain range Spain A4i, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2, C2, C5, C6
Sabôr and Maçãs Portugal B2, B3, C6
San Juan de la Peña-Oroel crag Spain B2, B3, C6
Santo Domingo-Riglos-Gratal Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, B3, C2, C6
Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões Portugal A1, B2, C1, C6
Serra do Pico da Antónia Cape Verde A1, A2  
Sinémurienne Belgium C6
Sologne Bourbonnaise France A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6
Szczecin lagoon Poland C1, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Tierra de Campiñas steppes Spain A1, A4ii, B1i, B1iii, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Tierra de Campos steppes Spain A1, A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1iii, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Tolfa hills Italy B2, B3, C6
Tramuntana mountains Spain A1, A4ii, B1i, B1iii, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6  
Tuchola Forest Poland C1, C2, C6
Upper River Tejo Portugal A4i, B1i, B2, C6
Upper Valley of the Our Luxembourg C6
Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze France B1i, B1iv, C2, C5, C6
Vallée de l'Aisne France A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4, C6
Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire France B2, B3, C6
Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux France A4i, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, C2, C5
Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye France B2, B3, C6
Vallée du Régino France B2, B3, C2, C6  
Valley of the Attert Luxembourg B2, C6
Valley of the Trëtterbaach Luxembourg C6
Valley of the Woltz Luxembourg C6
Vila Fernando Portugal A1, B2, C1, C6
Witnica-Debno Site Poland C1, C6
Wkrzanska Forest Poland C1, C6  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Prey / Diet

Abax pilleri[8]
Arvicola amphibius (European water vole)[8]
Bufo bufo (Common European toad)[8]
Chorthippus biguttulus (Bow-winged Grasshopper)[8]
Lepus europaeus (European Hare)[8]
Myodes glareolus (Bank vole)[8]
Rana temporaria (European frog)[8]
Sorex araneus (Eurasian shrew)[8]
Talpa europaea (European Mole)[8]
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)[9]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrocephalus palustris (Marsh Warbler)1
Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)2
Aeshna cyanea (Southern Hawker Dragonfly)1
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)1
Anax imperator (Emperor Dragonfly )2
Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit)1
Anthus spinoletta (Water Pipit)1
Anthus trivialis (Tree Pipit)2
Aquila heliaca (Eastern Imperial Eagle)1
Aquila pomarina (Lesser Spotted Eagle)1
Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron)4
Argiope bruennichi (Bruennich's garden spider)1
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)1
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)4
Athene noctua (Little Owl)3
Botaurus stellaris (Eurasian Bittern)1
Bubo bubo (Eurasian Eagle-Owl)1
Bufo bufo (Common European toad)1
Buteo buteo (Common Buzzard)4
Charadrius dubius (Little Ringed Plover)1
Ciconia ciconia (White Stork)7
Ciconia nigra (Black Stork)2
Circus aeruginosus (Western Marsh Harrier)2
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)5
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)1
Dolomedes fimbriatus (Raft Spider)1
Dytiscus marginalis (Predaceous diving beetle)2
Erinaceus europaeus (western European hedgehog)1
Falco subbuteo (Northern Hobby)1
Falco tinnunculus (Eurasian Kestrel)2
Felis silvestris (Wildcat)3
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)1
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)1
Glaucidium passerinum (Eurasian Pygmy Owl)1
Gypaetus barbatus (Bearded Vulture)1
Ichthyosaura alpestris (Alpine Newt)1
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)2
Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)4
Lissotriton helveticus (Palmate Newt)1
Locustella naevia (Common Grasshopper Warbler)2
Lucilia bufonivora (Toadfly)1
Lynx lynx (Eurasian Lynx)1
Martes foina (Beech Marten)1
Martes martes (European Pine Marten)3
Meles meles (European Badger)1
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)6
Motacilla flava (Western Yellow Wagtail)1
Mustela erminea (Ermine)4
Mustela nivalis (Least Weasel)2
Mustela putorius (European Polecat)5
Natrix natrix (European Grass Snake)2
Natrix tessellata (Dice Snake)1
Nepa cinerea (Water Scorpion)2
Nucifraga caryocatactes (Spotted Nutcracker)1
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)1
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)1
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)1
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)1
Rhagio lineola (Small Fleck-winged Snipe Fly)1
Rhagio scolopaceus (Downlooker Snipe Fly)1
Rhagio tringarius (Marsh Snipe Fly)1
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)5
Strix uralensis (Ural Owl)2
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)1
Surnia ulula (Northern Hawk-Owl)1
Sus scrofa (wild boar)2
Sylvia curruca (Lesser Whitethroat)1
Thereva nobilitata (Common Stiletto)1
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)3
Vanellus vanellus (Northern Lapwing)2
Vulpes corsac (Corsac Fox)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)6
Zamenis longissimus (Aesculapean Snake)4


Fagus sylvatica (European beech)[8]


Parasitized by 
Baruscapillaria falconis <Unverified Name>[10]
Centrorhynchus buteonis[10]
Centrorhynchus globocaudatus[10]
Ceratophyllus rossittensis rossittensis[11]
Porrocaecum angusticolle <Unverified Name>[10]
Porrocaecum depressum <Unverified Name>[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Bird Park Marlow
Cologne Zoo
Grand Parc Du Puy Du Fou
International Centre for Birds of Prey
Leeds Castle Enterprises Ltd.
National SEA LIFE Centre
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniu
Parc Animalier de Sainte Croix
Parc des Oiseaux
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Parc Zoologique de la Barben
Parc Zoologique de Paris (MNHN)
The Hawk Conservancy
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munster
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendael
World Owl Trust
Zoo de La Fleche
Zoo Parc de Beauvalmilvus
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoologicka zahrada Liberec
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbHmilvus
Zoologischer Garten Schmiding

Range Map



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4British Trust for Ornithology
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Cramp, S.; Simmons, K.E.L.; Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa Vols 1-9. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
7Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
8Ecology of Commanster
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
11International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access