Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Accipitriformes > Accipitridae > Neophron > Neophron percnopterus
 

Neophron percnopterus (Egyptian Vulture)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), also called the white scavenger vulture or pharaoh's chicken, is a small Old World vulture and the only member of the genus Neophron. It is widely distributed; the Egyptian vulture is found from southwestern Europe and northern Africa to India. The contrasting underwing pattern and wedge-shaped tail make it distinctive in flight as it soars in thermals during the warmer parts of the day. Egyptian vultures feed mainly on carrion but are opportunistic and will prey on small mammals, birds, and reptiles. They also feed on the eggs of other birds, breaking larger ones by tossing a large pebble onto them. The use of tools is rare in birds and apart from the use of a pebble as a hammer, Egyptian vultures also use twigs to roll up wool for use in thei
View Wikipedia Record: Neophron percnopterus

Infraspecies

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Neophron percnopterus

EDGE Analysis

This white vulture is highly distinctive, with a bright yellow bill and face. It is thought to be intelligent, having exhibited the use of tools to crack open large eggs and gather materials to line its nest. As a scavenger its diet is varied and includes carrion, tortoises, organic waste and even mammalian faeces. The species plays a hugely important role in the ecosystem, disposing of carcasses quickly and thus stopping the spread of disease. Despite its huge range, populations of Egyptian Vulture are declining across the globe. This is due to an array of threats like poisoning, poaching, electrocution and human disturbance.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
37
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
83
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 27.7121
EDGE Score: 5.43676
View EDGE Record: Neophron percnopterus

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  4.59 lbs (2.08 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  94 grams
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Endothermic [3]  20 %
Diet - Fish [3]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  10 %
Diet - Scavenger [3]  60 %
Forages - Ground [3]  100 %
Clutch Size [5]  2
Incubation [4]  42 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  37 years
Speed [6]  28.19 MPH (12.6 m/s)
Wing Span [6]  5.4 feet (1.65 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Al Hajar montane woodlands Oman Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cape Verde Islands dry forests Cape Verde Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests    
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian southern desert Turkmenistan stretching, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Persian desert basins Iran, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Afghan montane conifer forests Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Ghorat-Hazarajat alpine meadow Afghanistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Hindu Kush alpine meadow Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Kopet Dag semi-desert Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kuh Rud and Eastern Iran montane woodlands Iran Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows China, Pakistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Paropamisus xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Socotra Island xeric shrublands Yemen Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sulaiman Range alpine meadows Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Thar desert India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands Chad, Libya Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
West Saharan montane xeric woodlands Algeria, Niger, Mali, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
ANTICHASIA ORI KAI METEORA 178032 Greece  
ARRIBES DEL DUERO 264506 Spain  
Aigüestortes 138461 Spain  
Alto Turia y Sierra del Negrete 247883 Spain  
Amudarya Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 152861 Lebap, Turkmenistan  
Augrabies Falls National Park II 137301 Northern Cape, South Africa
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Camargue 546256 France  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Comprensorio Tolfetano-Cerite-Manziate 166977 Italy  
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
Costa Sudoeste 183883 Portugal  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Desert National Park II 672840 Rajasthan, India  
ETHNIKO THALASSIO PARKO ALONNISOU - VOREION SPORADON, ANATOLIKI SKOPELOS 615652 Greece      
Elbrus National Park 249626 Kabardino-Balkar, Russia    
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
FUENTES CARRIONAS Y FUENTE COBRE-MONTAÑA PALENTINA 193184 Spain  
Farasan Islands Special Nature Reserve 177805 Saudi Arabia      
Golestan National Park II 216487 Iran  
HOCES DEL ALTO EBRO Y RUDRÓN 127403 Spain  
KENTRIKI RODOPI KAI KOILADA NESTOU 261804 Greece  
KENTRIKO ZAGORI KAI ANATOLIKO TMIMA OROUS MITSIKELI 131974 Greece  
Kamchiyska Mountain 219637 Bulgaria  
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Kaplankyr Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 1293994 Turkmenistan  
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kora National Park II 409762 Kenya
Kotlenska Mountain 245286 Bulgaria  
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
L'Alt Maestrat, Tinença de Benifassà, Turmell i Vallivana 238416 Spain  
LA NAVA-CAMPOS NORTE 135750 Spain  
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LEFKA ORI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 131864 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
LLANOS DE ALCANTARA Y BROZAS 126519 Spain  
LLANOS DE CÁCERES Y SIERRA DE FUENTES 173027 Spain  
LOS ALCORNOCALES 414561 Spain  
Lake Orumieh National Park 1113473 Iran  
Las Sierras de Cazorla y Segura Biosphere Reserve 469500 Spain  
Les Cévennes 227446 France  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
MONFRAGÜE Y LAS DEHESAS DEL ENTORNO 287016 Spain  
MONTES DE TOLEDO 538722 Spain  
Marakele National Park II 163507 Limpopo, South Africa
Marchesato e Fiume Neto 173480 Italy  
Massiccio del Monte Pollino e Monte Alpi 217581 Italy  
Monti Nebrodi 173651 Italy  
Monti Sicani, Rocca Busambra e Bosco della Ficuzza 144567 Italy  
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Mourão/Moura/Barrancos 209832 Portugal  
Murgia Alta 311059 Italy  
Nanda Devi National Park II 161583 Uttaranchal, India  
Nechisar National Park II 256137 Ethiopia  
OROS PAIKO, STENA APSALOU KAI MOGLENITSAS 227258 Greece  
OROS VORAS 196334 Greece  
PAYS DE SAULT 176678 France  
PICOS DE EUROPA EN CASTILLA Y LEÓN 250408 Spain  
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Pamir-i-Buzurg Wildlife Sanctuary Wildlife Reserve IV 199583 Afghanistan  
Penyagolosa 131527 Spain  
Picentini 157557 Italy  
Pollino e Orsomarso 232637 Italy  
Prepirineu Central català 141034 Spain  
Promontorio del Gargano 173003 Italy    
Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau 207644 Bulgaria  
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Reserva de Grazalema Nature Park V 126034 Spain  
Reserva de Ordesa-Vinamala Biosphere Reserve 127002 Spain  
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
RÍO GUADALOPE - MAESTRAZGO 133800 Spain  
SIERRA DE ARACENA Y PICOS DE AROCHE 461592 Spain  
SIERRA DE AYLLON 225747 Spain  
SIERRA DE GRAZALEMA 131980 Spain  
SIERRA DE GREDOS 213494 Spain  
SIERRA DE GUADARRAMA 170724 Spain  
SIERRA DE HORNACHUELOS 148342 Spain  
SIERRA DE LA DEMANDA 125797 Spain  
SIERRA DE LAS VILLUERCAS Y VALLE DEL GUADARRANQUE 188630 Spain  
SIERRA DE SAN PEDRO 284250 Spain  
SIERRA MORENA 331883 Spain  
SIERRA Y CAÑONES DE GUARA 201020 Spain  
SIERRAS DE ANDÚJAR 185122 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
SIERRAS DE DEMANDA, URBIÓN, CEBOLLERA Y CAMEROS 342683 Spain  
Sakar 310629 Bulgaria  
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Serrà d'Espadà 161443 Spain  
Sistema Prelitoral meridional 127704 Spain  
Socotra Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 6626477 Yemen  
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
TIERRA DE CAMPIÑAS 344575 Spain  
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
The W Region National Park II 549843 Niger  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Ustyurtskiy Reserve State Nature Reserve Ia 567745 Kazakhstan  
VALLE DE SAN EMILIANO 137756 Spain  
Vale do Guadiana 189151 Portugal  
Western Balkan 362801 Bulgaria  

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Abu Zad Syria A1, A2, B2, B3
Aden Yemen A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Akhmet-Skala ridge Russia (European) A1, B2
Aktau cliff faces Kazakhstan A1, A4ii
Al-Habrow al-Arabi Saudi Arabia A3, B2, B3
Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, B2, B3
Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares Spain A1, A4i, B1i, B1iii, B2, C1, C2, C6
Alcarama mountain and Alhama river Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Antikhassia mountains and Meteora Greece B2, B3, C2, C6
Arda Bridge Bulgaria A1, A3, B2, C1, C6
Area of Oriokastro, Lake Delvinaki, Meropis forest, Gormou valley and Mounts Kasidiaris and Douskon Greece B2, B3, C6
Areta, Archuba and Zariquieta mountain ranges Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Arlanza Valley-Peñas de Cervera Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle Spain B1i, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Babia-Somiedo Spain A3, B1iii, B2, B3, C2, C6
Badhyz Turkmenistan A1, A3
Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Bakhma, Dukan and Darbandikhan dams Iraq A4iii, B2, B3
Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube Russia (European) A1, B2
Bardenas Reales Spain A3, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Basgurly-Zhazgurly Depression Kazakhstan A1
Bashkyzylsay Unit of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve Uzbekistan A1, A3
Bazarduyzi and Shalbuzdag alpine mountains Russia (European) A1, A2, A3, B2
Belagua-Ansó-Hecho Spain B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Benavi Iraq A1, B2, B3
Big Pamir Afghanistan A1, A3
Boumort mountains Spain B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Buinakskaya depression Russia (European) A1, B2
Bujeo, Ojén, del Niño and Blanquilla mountain ranges Spain A4ii, A4iv, B1iii, B1iv, B2, C2, C5, C6
Bukantau Mountain Range Uzbekistan A1
Byala Reka Bulgaria A1, A3, B2, C1, C6
Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range Spain A1, A4iv, B1iii, B1iv, B2, C1, C2, C5, C6
Cazorla and Segura mountain ranges Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Central part of Zagori and Mount Mitsikeli Greece B2, B3, C6
Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains Spain B2, C6  
Ceuta Spain A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iv, B1i, B1iii, B1iv, C1, C2, C3, C5
Chaîne des Alpilles France B2, B3, C6
Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands Israel A4i, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3
Côa valley Portugal B2, C6
Coast of Esquinzo-Puertito de Los Molinos Spain B2, C6  
Cuchillete de Buenavista-gully of La Torre-Los Alares Spain A1, A2, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Cuenca mountain ranges Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Dadias-Dereiou-Aisimis forest Greece A1, A3, B2, C1, C6
Dana: Feinan Jordan A1, A2, A3, B1iv, B2, B3
Demir Kapija Gorge Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of A1, B2
Dobrostan Bulgaria A1, A3, B2, B3, C1, C6
Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa Italy B2, C6
Dori Serguza Iraq A1, B2, B3
Dos Ríos and Orba mountain ranges Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Dsegh Armenia A1, A2, B2
Dzhum-Dzhum Uzbekistan A1, A3
Fahl Island Oman B2  
Famara crag Spain B2, C2, C6  
Farasan Islands Saudi Arabia A1, A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3    
Filiouri river valley and east Rodopi mountains Greece A1, B2, B3, C1, C6
Garashor Turkmenistan A1, A3
Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands Italy A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Gorayk Armenia A1, B2
Gorges du Gardon France A1, B2, B3, C1, C6
Guara mountain range Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, B3, C2, C6
Gully of Ajuí-Betancuria Spain A1, A2, B2, B3, C1, C6
Gunibskoye plateau Russia (European) A1
Hajhir mountains, Socotra Yemen A1, A2, A3, B2, B3  
Hari Rud valley Afghanistan A1
Haute Cize : Pic d'Errozate et Forêt d'Orion France B2, C6
Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin. France B2, C2, C6
Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau France B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Ibb: Dhi Sufal Yemen A1, A2, A3, B2, B3
Izki mountains Spain B3, C2, C6
Jabal Abdul Aziz Syria B2
Jabal Aja and Northern Ha'il Saudi Arabia A1, A4i, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3
Jabal al Akhdar Oman A1, B2, B3
Jabal al-Bilas Syria B2, B3
Jabal al-Lawz Saudi Arabia B2, B3
Jalalabad valley Afghanistan A1
Jebel Hafit United Arab Emirates B2, B3
Jermook Armenia A1, B2, B3
Jerusalem wilderness Palestinian Authority Territories A4i, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3
Jordan Valley Jordan A4i, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3
Judean desert Israel A1, A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Kamchiyska Mountain Bulgaria A1, A4iv, B1iv, B2, B3, C1, C5, C6
Kayakentski reserve Russia (European) A1
Kezenoi-Am lake Russia (European) A1, A3
Khawr ad Dahariz Oman A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Khosrov Reserve Armenia A1, A3, B2
Khouran Straits Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Kizilcahamam forests Turkey A1, B2
Korchai area Azerbaijan A1, B2
Kozhuf mountain and Boshava river Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of B2
Krumovitza Bulgaria A3, B2, C6
Kurdzhips river valley Russia (European) A1
La Losa-Orduña (Salvada mountain range) Spain B1iii, B2, C2, C6  
Lake Uromiyeh Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Lanzarote islets Spain A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B1iii, B2, B3, C2, C4, C6  
Las Villuercas mountain range Spain A1, B1i, B1iii, B2, C1, C2, C6
Leyre, Illón and San Miguel mountain ranges Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Lomovete Bulgaria B2, C6
Madonie Italy A1, C1, C6
Mafraq al-Mukha Yemen A1, B1iv, B2, B3
Mahzam and Lake Tharthar Iraq A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Marchesato and River Neto Italy B1iii, B2, C2, C3, C6
Masirah island Oman A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3
Massif du Petit Lubéron France B2, B3, C6
Meghri Armenia A1, A2, A3, B2, B3
Monfragüe Spain A1, A3, A4ii, B1i, B1iii, B2, C1, C2, C6
Montejo de la Vega-Riaza canyon Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Montsech and Montgai mountains Spain B2, C2, C6
Morella pass Spain B2, C6
Mount Aktau Uzbekistan A1
Mount Paramithias Greece B3, C6
Mounts Tsamanta, Filiaton, Pharmakovouni, and Megali Rahi Greece A1, B2, C1, C6
Mujib Jordan A1, A3, B1iv, B2, B3
Noravank Armenia A1, B2
North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire Spain A1, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6  
North-western steppe Afghanistan A1, A3
Nuratau Range Uzbekistan A1, A3, A4ii
Obarenes mountains Spain B2, C2, C6
Oña and Tesla mountain ranges Spain B2, C2, C6
Orota depression Russia (European) A1, B2
Outskirts of Kislovodsk Russia (European) A1, B2
Pènes du Moulle de Jaut France B2, C6
Petra Jordan A1, A2, B1iv, B2, B3
Pollino Italy B2, C6
Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão Portugal B2, C6
Pozo Negro mountain-Vigán Spain A1, B2, C1, C2, C6
Protected area of Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli forest Greece A1, A3, B1iii, B2, C1, C2, C6
Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau Bulgaria A1, A4iv, B1iv, B2, B3, C1, C5, C6
Pulatkhan Gorge Uzbekistan A1, A3
Quriyat: Daghmar Oman A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Ravine of Cherek-Balkarski river Russia (European) A1, B2
Ravine of Gundelen-Tyzyl river Russia (European) A1, B2
Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca Spain B1i, B2, C2, C6
Río Huebra-Arribes del Duero Spain A4ii, B1i, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
River Crna gorge Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of A1, B2
River Martín canyons and Arcos mountain range Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Rock of Gibraltar Gibraltar (to UK) A1, A4iv, B1iv, B2, C1, C5
Rud-i-Jagin and Rud-i-Gabrik deltas Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, B1i, B2, B3
Rum: Qa Hizma Jordan A3, B2, B3
Sabôr and Maçãs Portugal B2, B3, C6
San Pedro mountain range Spain A1, A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1iii, B2, C1, C2, C3, C6
Sant Gervás mountains Spain B2, C2, C6
Sariyar reservoir Turkey A4i, B1i, B2
Ser Amadiya Iraq A1, A3, B2, B3
Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões Portugal A1, B2, C1, C6
Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills Russia (European) A1, B2
Sicani mountains Italy A1, A4ii, B1iii, B2, C1, C2, C6
Skalisti ridge between Urup and Maly Zelenchuk rivers Russia (European) B2
Small Pamir Afghanistan A1, A3, A4i
Sources of Kuma river Russia (European) A1
Sources of the Podkumok river Russia (European) A1
South forest complex of Evros prefecture Greece A1, A3, B1iii, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
South-west coast of Portugal Portugal B1iii, C2, C3, C6
Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains Israel A1, A3, A4i, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3
Strandzha Bulgaria A4iv, B1iv, B2, B3, C5, C6
Studen Kladenets Bulgaria A3, B2, C6
Tadmur desert and mountains Syria A1, B2
Tarifa Spain A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, A4iv, B1i, B1iii, B1iv, B2, C1, C2, C4
Tashir Armenia A1, B1iv, B2
Tiermes-Caracena Spain B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Timfi (Gamila) and Smolikas mountains Greece A3, B2, C6
Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa Spain A1, A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1iii, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C6
Ubrique and Grazalema mountain ranges Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Umm al-Tuyyur Syria A3, B2
Upper Ebro and Rudrón canyons Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys Portugal B2, C2, C6
Upper River Tejo Portugal A4i, B1i, B2, C6
Upper sections of the rivers Tajo and Tajuña Spain A4ii, B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Valdegovía-Arcena mountain range Spain B1iii, B2, C2, C6
Valdurrios-Serreta Negra and Los Rincones mountain ranges Spain B2, C6
Valley of Bashlychai river Russia (European) A1
Valley of Gizel'don river Russia (European) A1
Valley of Khasaut river, mountains B.Bermamyt and M.Bermamyt Russia (European) A1, B2
Valley of Khodz' river Russia (European) B2
Valley of Urup river Russia (European) A1, B2
Wadi Rijaf Yemen B1iv, B2, B3
Wadi Turabah and Jabal Ibrahim Saudi Arabia A1, A2, A3, B2, B3
Zangezoor Armenia A1, A2, A3, B2
Zuvand upland Azerbaijan B2

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Capra hircus (domestic goat)[7]
Columba livia (Rock Pigeon)[7]
Oryctolagus cuniculus (European Rabbit)[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter trivirgatus (Crested Goshawk)1
Aquila adalberti (Spanish Imperial Eagle)1
Aquila fasciata (Bonelli's Eagle)1
Falco chicquera (Red-necked Falcon)1
Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)1
Gypaetus barbatus (Bearded Vulture)1
Hemorrhois hippocrepis (Horseshoe Snake)1
Hieraaetus pennatus (Booted Eagle)1
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)1
Lynx pardinus (Iberian Lynx)1
Zamenis scalaris (Ladder Snakes)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Microtetrameres aquila <Unverified Name>[8]
Neodiplostomum tityense <Unverified Name>[8]
Neophronia lucknowensis <Unverified Name>[8]
Philophthalmus indicus <Unverified Name>[8]
Procyrnea monoptera <Unverified Name>[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africa Alive!ginginianus
Al Ain Zoo
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Alpenzoo Innsbruck - Tirol
Artis Zoo
Bird Park Marlow
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanat
Bursa Zoo (Bursa Hayvanat Bahcesi)
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Cologne Zoo
 ginginianus
Dallas Zoo
Denver Zoological Gardens
Giza Zoological Garden
Grand Parc Du Puy Du Fou
 ginginianus
Haifa Zoo & Biological Institute
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Kaliningrad Zoo
 percnopterus
Kharkiv Zoo
Kishinev Zoopark
Kyiv Zoological Parkpercnopterus
Le Pal, Parc Animalierginginianus
Menagerie du Jardin des Plantespercnopterus
Mulhouse Zooginginianus
National SEA LIFE Centre
 ginginianus
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
Parc des Oiseauxpercnopterus
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Zoologic de Barcelonapercnopterus
Parc Zoologique de Champrépus
 percnopterus
Parco Natura Viva
 ginginianus
 percnopterus
Riga Zoo
 percnopterus
Rome Zoo-Fondazione Bioparco di Romaginginianus
Sakkarbaugh Zoo, Junagadh
San Diego Wild Animal Parkpercnopterus
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Silver Springs Park
Tallinn Zoopercnopterus
The Anne van Dyk Cheetah Centre
The Hawk Conservancy
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
 ginginianus
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontainepercnopterus
Zoo Hannover GmbHginginianus
Zoo Zürich
 percnopterus
Zoobotanico de Jerez
 percnopterus
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoologicka zahrada Ostrava
 percnopterus
Zoologicka Garden & Chateau Zlin-Lesna
Zoologicka zahrada Liberec
Zoologischer Garten Frankfurt
Zoologischer Garten Schmiding

Range Map

Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
7Conservation status and limiting factors in the endangered population of Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in the Canary Islands, José A. Donázar, César J. Palacios, Laura Gangoso, Olga Ceballos, María J. González and Fernando Hiraldo, Biological Conservation 107 (2002) 89–97
8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access