Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Falconiformes > Falconidae > Falco > Falco columbarius
 

Falco columbarius (Merlin)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Merlin (Falco columbarius) is a small species of falcon from the Northern Hemisphere. A bird of prey once known colloquially as a pigeon hawk in North America, the Merlin breeds in the northern Holarctic; some migrate to subtropical and northern tropical regions in winter.
View Wikipedia Record: Falco columbarius

Infraspecies

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  195 grams
Birth Weight [2]  13 grams
Female Maturity [2]  1 year
Male Maturity [2]  1 year
Clutch Size [3]  4
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Incubation [2]  30 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  13 years
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Wing Span [4]  24 inches (.6 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Aleutian Islands tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves Brazil, Columbia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela Neotropic Mangroves  
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Apure-Villavicencio dry forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Araya and Paria xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bahamoan-Antillean mangroves Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Mangroves      
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Balsas dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Belizean pine forests Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Caribbean shrublands France, United Kingdom, Dominica, St. Lucia, Netherlands Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands      
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Catatumbo moist forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central American montane forests Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American pine-oak forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chiapas Depression dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chiapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chimalapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Cordillera de Merida páramo Venezuela Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Cordillera La Costa montane forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cordillera Oriental montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Afghan montane conifer forests Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Cordillera real montane forests Ecuador, Colombia, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Eastern Panamanian montane forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ecuadorian dry forests Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Enriquillo wetlands Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Faroe Islands boreal grasslands Denmark Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Gobi Lakes Valley desert steppe Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Basin montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Guayaquil flooded grasslands Ecuador Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Hispaniolan dry forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan moist forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan pine forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Honshu alpine conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican dry forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican moist forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains alpine meadow Mongolia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains conifer forests Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
La Costa xeric shrublands Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lara-Falcón dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Leeward Islands moist forests St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua & Barbuda Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lesser Antillean dry forests Grenada, St. Lucia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Magdalena Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Maracaibo dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Miskito pine forests Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mojave desert United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Motagua Valley thornscrub Guatemala Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests China, India, Bhutan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Andean páramo Ecuador, Colombia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northwestern Andean montane forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows China, Pakistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Orinoco Delta swamp forests Venezuela, Guyana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Orinoco wetlands Venezuela Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Paraguana xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Patía Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Puerto Rican dry forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Puerto Rican moist forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qaidam Basin semi-desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qilian Mountains subalpine meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queen Charlotte Islands Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sakhalin Island taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Santa Marta montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Santa Marta páramo Colombia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Mexico Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sinú Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South American Pacific mangroves Colombia, Panama, Ecuador Neotropic Mangroves    
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sulaiman Range alpine meadows Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Talamancan montane forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tehuacán Valley matorral Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Trinidad and Tobago moist forests Trinidad and Tobago Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tumbes-Piura dry forests Ecuador, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Venezuelan Andes montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western Ecuador moist forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Windward Islands moist forests Martinique, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Yarlung Tsangpo arid steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Archipiélago Los Roques National Park 409203 Venezuela    
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve VI 358906 Mexico    
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Buenavista Wetland Reserve 778949 Cuba    
Camargue 546256 France  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Great Gobi National Park Ia 13211440 Mongolia  
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Harrat al-Harrah Special Nature Reserve IV 3358899 Saudi Arabia  
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
KALDOAIVIN ERÄMAA 868904 Finland  
Kaplankyr Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 1293994 Turkmenistan  
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
KÄSIVARREN ERÄMAA 654562 Finland  
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LEMMENJOEN KANSALLISPUISTO 706697 Finland  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Orumieh National Park 1113473 Iran  
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lasy Puszczy nad Drawa 470190 Poland  
MONTES DE TOLEDO 538722 Spain  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Ostoja Drawska 380310 Poland  
Ostoja Warminska 350930 Poland  
Padjelanta 493958 Sweden  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
PÖYRISJÄRVEN ERÄMAA 362835 Finland  
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
SIERRAS DE DEMANDA, URBIÓN, CEBOLLERA Y CAMEROS 342683 Spain  
Sakar 310629 Bulgaria  
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Seaflower Marine Protected Area 15125514 Colombia      
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (incl. Tayrona NP) National Park II 1031303 Colombia  
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sjaunja 695284 Sweden  
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
TIERRA DE CAMPIÑAS 344575 Spain  
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
UK-PUISTO-SOMPIO-KEMIHAARA 765461 Finland  
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Vindelfjällen 1370631 Sweden  
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Vålådalen 299933 Sweden  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
West Estonian Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 3854844 Estonia  
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Map   Climate   Land Use 
Airds Moss and Muirkirk Uplands United Kingdom B2, C6
Berwyn United Kingdom B2, C6
Bowland Fells United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C3, C4, C6
Cairngorms United Kingdom A1, B2, C1, C2, C6
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands United Kingdom B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Castro Verde plains Portugal A1, A3, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Connemara Bogs (south-east), including Roundstone Bog Ireland A4iii, C4, C6
Danube Delta Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Dealurile Târnavelor: Valea Nirajului Romania C1, C6
Dobrogei gorge Romania C1, C2, C6
Kogălniceanu: Gura Ialomiţei Romania C1, C6
Lake Ånnsjön-Storlien Sweden A1, A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Lewis Peatlands United Kingdom B1i, B2, B3, C3, C6  
Loch Shin and Nearby Lochs United Kingdom A1, B1i, B2, C1, C3, C6
Mândra wetlands Romania C1, C6
Măcin: Niculiţel Romania C1, C2, C5, C6
North Pennine Moors United Kingdom B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
North Yorkshire Moors United Kingdom C6
Ornkey Mainland Moors United Kingdom B2, C6  
Peak District Moors United Kingdom B1i, B3, C3, C6
Prut river flood-plain: Vlădeşti: Frumuşiţa Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Râului Negru valley Romania C1, C6
Ronas Hill: North Roe and Tingon United Kingdom A4ii, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6  
Sjaunja Sweden A1, A3, B2, C1, C6
South Pennine Moors United Kingdom B3, C6
Stepa Saraiu: Horea Romania C1, C6
Tadoussac Canada A4i, A4iii
West Inverness-shire Lochs United Kingdom C6
Wicklow Mountains Ireland B2, C6
Yorkshire Dale Moorlands United Kingdom B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)[5]
Ammodramus bairdii (Baird's Sparrow)[6]
Amphispiza belli (Sage Sparrow)[7]
Anthus pratensis (Meadow Pipit)[5]
Anthus spinoletta (Water Pipit)[8]
Calidris alba (Sanderling)[8]
Calidris alpina (Dunlin)[8]
Calidris mauri (Western Sandpiper)[8]
Calidris minutilla (Least Sandpiper)[8]
Carduelis cannabina (Common Linnet)[5]
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)[5]
Carduelis chloris (European Greenfinch)[5]
Carduelis flammea (Common Redpoll)[9]
Carduelis spinus (Eurasian Siskin)[5]
Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush)[9]
Charadrius alexandrinus (Snowy Plover)[10]
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Hawfinch)[5]
Delichon urbicum (Common house-martin and northern house-martin)[5]
Dendroica coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler)[8]
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)[5]
Fringilla montifringilla (Brambling)[5]
Gallinago gallinago (Common Snipe)[5]
Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)[5]
Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)[9]
Lasiurus borealis (red bat)[11]
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)[5]
Passerculus sandwichensis (Savannah Sparrow)[8]
Phylloscopus borealis (Arctic Warbler)[9]
Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak)[9]
Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee)[12]
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Eurasian Bullfinch)[5]
Saxicola rubetra (Whinchat)[5]
Saxicola rubicola[5]
Spermophilus saturatus (Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel)[13]
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)[5]
Tachycineta bicolor (Tree Swallow)[9]
Vanellus vanellus (Northern Lapwing)[5]
Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow)[9]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)3
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)1
Accipiter nisus (Eurasian Sparrowhawk)1
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)8
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)3
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)13
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)3
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)2
Canis latrans (Coyote)1
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)10
Circus pygargus (Montagu's Harrier)1
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)1
Corvus cornix (Hooded crow)1
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)1
Didelphis marsupialis (Common Opossum)1
Elaphe longissima (Aesculapean Snake)1
Falco cherrug (Saker Falcon)1
Falco longipennis (Australian Hobby)1
Falco mexicanus (Prairie Falcon)1
Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)2
Falco sparverius (American Kestrel)2
Falco subbuteo (Northern Hobby)3
Geococcyx californianus (Greater Roadrunner)1
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)1
Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)5
Lanius ludovicianus (Loggerhead Shrike)1
Lynx rufus (Bobcat)1
Martes americana (American Marten)1
Martes foina (Beech Marten)1
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)1
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)13
Mustela erminea (Ermine)1
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)1
Mustela putorius (European Polecat)1
Spermophilus richardsonii (Richardson's ground squirrel)1
Spermophilus tridecemlineatus (thirteen-lined ground squirrel)1
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)10
Strix varia (Barred Owl)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)2

Providers

Shelter 
Picea mariana (Black spruce)[9]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Eucoleus dispar <Unverified Name>[14]
Porrocaecum depressum <Unverified Name>[14]
Synhimantus laticeps <Unverified Name>[14]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Banham Zoo Ltd.
Bay Beach Wildlife Sanctuary
 columbarius
Bermuda Aquarium Museum and Zoo
Central Park Zoo
Grand Parc Du Puy Du Fou
Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park
International Centre for Birds of Prey
Leeds Castle Enterprises Ltd.
Leningrad Zoo - St. Petersburg
National SEA LIFE Centre
NY State Zoo at Thompson Park
Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Park
Staten Island Zoo
The Hawk Conservancy
Utah's Hogle Zoo
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr

Range Map

Link to Map
Africa; Caribbean; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); Middle America; North America; Patfa Valley dry forests; Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 22-Sep-2011, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series, Alaska Department of Fish and Game 5Ecology of Commanster 6SPECIES ASSESSMENT FOR BAIRD’S SPARROW (AMMODRAMUS BAIRDII) IN WYOMING, ROBERT LUCE AND DOUG KEINATH, United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, December 2003 7SPECIES ASSESSMENT FOR SAGE SPARROW (AMPHISPIZA BELLI) IN WYOMING, PAULA L. HANSLEY AND DR. GARY P. BEAUVAIS, United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, September 2004 8Raptor Predation on Wintering Shorebirds, G. Page and D. F. Whitacre, The Condor, Vol. 77, No. 1 (Spring, 1975), pp. 73-83 9Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection 10Snowy Plover (Kentish Plover) Charadrius alexandrinus, K. Boula, 1996, U.S. Forest Service 11Lasiurus borealis, Karl A. Shump Jr. and Ann U. Shump, Mammalian Species No. 183, pp. 1-6 (1982) 12Exploring the Denali Food Web, ParkWise, National Park Service 13Spermophilus saturatus, Stephan C. Trombulak, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 322, pp. 1-4 (1988) 14Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Important Bird Areas provided by BirdLife International (2010) Important Bird Areas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2010
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011