Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Falconiformes > Falconidae > Falco > Falco tinnunculus
 

Falco tinnunculus (Eurasian Kestrel; Common Kestrel)

Wikipedia Abstract

The common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is a bird of prey species belonging to the kestrel group of the falcon family Falconidae. It is also known as the European kestrel, Eurasian kestrel, or Old World kestrel. In Britain, where no other kestrel species occurs, it is generally just called "the kestrel".
View Wikipedia Record: Falco tinnunculus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
19
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.39326
EDGE Score: 1.68515

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  184 grams
Birth Weight [2]  21 grams
Female Weight [1]  201 grams
Male Weight [1]  167 grams
Weight Dimorphism [1]  20.4 %
Female Maturity [4]  1 year
Male Maturity [4]  1 year
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates)
Diet - Endothermic [3]  90 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  10 %
Forages - Mid-High [3]  10 %
Forages - Understory [3]  10 %
Forages - Ground [3]  80 %
Clutch Size [6]  4
Clutches / Year [5]  1
Incubation [5]  28 days
Maximum Longevity [4]  24 years
Speed [7]  22.59 MPH (10.1 m/s)
Wing Span [7]  29 inches (.73 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Al Hajar montane woodlands Oman Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi,Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan montane forest-grassland mosaic Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo montane rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cameroonian Highlands forests Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central African mangroves Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Mangroves    
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian southern desert Turkmenistan stretching, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Persian desert basins Iran, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East Afghan montane conifer forests Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East African halophytics Tanzania Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East African mangroves Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia Afrotropic Mangroves
East African montane forests Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East African montane moorlands Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Saharan montane xeric woodlands Chad, Sudan Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Gobi desert steppe China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Zimbabwe montane forest-grassland mosaic Zimbabwe, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Eritrean coastal desert Eritrea Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane moorlands Ethiopia Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Etosha Pan halophytics Namibia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Ghorat-Hazarajat alpine meadow Afghanistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean mangroves Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire Afrotropic Mangroves
Guinean montane forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Helanshan montane conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Hindu Kush alpine meadow Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Honshu alpine conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Irrawaddy dry forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy freshwater swamp forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kaokoveld desert Namibia, Angola Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Knysna-Amatole montane forests South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kopet Dag semi-desert Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kuh Rud and Eastern Iran montane woodlands Iran Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lake Chad flooded savanna Nigeria, Chad, Niger Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luzon montane rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luzon rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luzon tropical pine forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Madeira evergreen forests Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mandara Plateau mosaic Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mindanao montane rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mindanao-Eastern Visayas rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Namib desert Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Niger Delta swamp forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nigerian lowland forests Nigeria, Benin Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests India, Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests China, India, Bhutan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northwestern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows China, Pakistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Palawan rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Paropamisus xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qaidam Basin semi-desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qilian Mountains subalpine meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Red River freshwater swamp forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Rwenzori-Virunga montane moorlands Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Saharan halophytics Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Socotra Island xeric shrublands Yemen Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Malawi montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa mangroves South Africa, Mozambique Afrotropic Mangroves
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Vietnam lowland dry forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka montane rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sulaiman Range alpine meadows Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans mangroves Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Thar desert India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands Chad, Libya Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
West Saharan montane xeric woodlands Algeria, Niger, Mali, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Western Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Zambezian grasslands Angola, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Yarlung Tsangpo arid steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian Cryptosepalum dry forests Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian halophytics Mozambique, Botswana Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Addo Elephant National Park II 348463 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Ailaoshan Nature Reserve V 332544 Yunnan, China  
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve V 462837 Yunnan, China  
Banc d'Arguin National Park II 2949017 Mauritania
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Bogdhad Mountain Biosphere Reserve 318000 China  
Camargue 546256 France  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve 1433211 Romania
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Desert National Park II 672840 Rajasthan, India  
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Great Gobi National Park Ia 13211440 Mongolia  
Harrat al-Harrah Special Nature Reserve IV 3358899 Saudi Arabia  
KALDOAIVIN ERÄMAA 868904 Finland  
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Kamchiyska Mountain 219637 Bulgaria  
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Kaplankyr Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 1293994 Turkmenistan  
Katavi National Park II 1054210 Tanzania
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve II 256073 Western Cape, South Africa  
Kora National Park II 409762 Kenya
Kotlenska Mountain 245286 Bulgaria  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LEMMENJOEN KANSALLISPUISTO 706697 Finland  
LOS ALCORNOCALES 414561 Spain  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Les Cévennes 227446 France  
Les Ecrins 227201 France  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Ludogorie 225827 Bulgaria  
MONFRAGÜE Y LAS DEHESAS DEL ENTORNO 287016 Spain  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Nam Ha National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 539941 Laos  
Nechisar National Park II 256137 Ethiopia  
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
Om Koi Wildlife Sanctuary IV 299357 Thailand  
POMOKAIRA 228222 Finland  
Parc National de Waza National Park II 349858 Cameroon  
Parc National de la Comoe National Park II 2902593 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 227671 Thailand  
Pu Mat National Park IV 239739 Viet Nam  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Nevada Biosphere Reserve 424147 Spain  
Reserve de la Biosphere de la Pendjari Biosphere Reserve 217453 Benin  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Richtersveld National Park II 399195 Northern Cape, South Africa
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Rupi Bhaba Sanctuary IV 211985 Himachal Pradesh, India  
SIERRA DE ARACENA Y PICOS DE AROCHE 461592 Spain  
SIERRA NEVADA 424554 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
Sakar 310629 Bulgaria  
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Socotra Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 6626477 Yemen  
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Sredna Gora 244788 Bulgaria  
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Sunderban National Park 261613 India  
The W Region National Park II 549843 Niger  
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Thung Salaeng Luang National Park II 315222 Thailand
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
UK-PUISTO-SOMPIO-KEMIHAARA 765461 Finland  
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Vindelfjällen 1370631 Sweden  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Waterberg Biosphere Reserve 1024427 Limpopo, South Africa  
West Caprivi Game Reserve Game Park VI 1448182 Namibia  
Western Balkan 362801 Bulgaria  
Wolong Nature Reserve V 826140 Sichuan, China  
Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve V 567531 Yunnan, China  
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    
Zempléni-hegység a Szerencsi-dombsággal és a Hernád-völggyel 284651 Hungary  

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Augstmatthorn Switzerland A3, B2, B3
Central Balkan Bulgaria A1, A3, B2, B3, C1, C6
Coast between Marina di Camerota and Policastro Bussentino Italy B2, C6
Cuchillete de Buenavista-gully of La Torre-Los Alares Spain A1, A2, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex Romania A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1iii, B2, B3
Danube loess bluffs Serbia A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Dobrostan Bulgaria A1, A3, B2, B3, C1, C6
Famara sandy plain Spain B2, B3, C2, C6  
Gran Sasso and Laga mountains Italy A3, B2, C1, C6
Haría-Tabayesco Spain B2, C6    
Jura mountains of Baselland: Solothurn Switzerland B2, B3
Karlukovski Karst Bulgaria B2, C6
Kočevsko-Kolpa Slovenia B2, B3
Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region) Czech Republic B2, B3, C6
Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains) Czech Republic A1, B2, B3, C1, C6
La Dehesa grasslands Spain B2, C7  
Lake Ånnsjön-Storlien Sweden A1, A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C6
North, east and south Kithira island Greece A1, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, B1iv, B2, B3, C1, C2, C5, C6
Peninsula of Jandía Spain A1, B2, B3, C1, C6
Pirin Bulgaria A3, B2, B3, C6
Plaine du Forez France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Pre-alpine region of Gurnigel Switzerland A3, B1iv, B2, B3
Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut Switzerland A3, B2, B3
Pre-alpine region of Schwyz Switzerland A3, B2, B3
Río Cabras gully Spain A1, B2, C1
River Drava Slovenia A4i, B1i, B2, B3
River Mura Slovenia B2, B3
Samars'kyj forest Ukraine A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Subotica lakes and sandy terrain Serbia A1, A4iii, B2, B3
Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula Ukraine B1i, B2
Tolfa hills Italy B2, B3, C6
Triglav National Park Slovenia A3, B2, B3
Upper Toggenburg and Säntis Switzerland A3, B2, B3
Vrachanski Balkan Bulgaria A1, B2, C1, C6
Western Balkan Bulgaria A1, A3, B2, B3, C1, C6

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No
Philippines Philippines No
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Emblem of

Belgium

Prey / Diet

Lavia frons (yellow-winged bat)[8]
Microtus agrestis (field vole)[9]
Microtus arvalis (common vole)[9]
Myodes glareolus (Bank vole)[9]
Phodopus campbelli (Campbell's hamster)[10]
Pipistrellus pipistrellus (common pipistrelle)[9]
Schistocerca gregaria (desert locust)[11]
Sorex araneus (Eurasian shrew)[12]
Sorex minutus (Eurasian Pygmy Shrew)[12]
Spermophilus xanthoprymnus (Asia Minor ground squirrel)[13]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Accipiter nisus (Eurasian Sparrowhawk)1
Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)4
Alectoris barbara (Barbary Partridge)1
Ammoperdix heyi (Sand Partridge)1
Anthus campestris (Tawny Pipit)1
Aquila nipalensis (Steppe Eagle)2
Aquila pomarina (Lesser Spotted Eagle)1
Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron)4
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)2
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)5
Athene noctua (Little Owl)4
Bubo africanus (Spotted Eagle-Owl)1
Bubo bubo (Eurasian Eagle-Owl)2
Bubulcus ibis (Cattle Egret)1
Buteo buteo (Common Buzzard)4
Buteo rufinus (Long-legged Buzzard)1
Ciconia ciconia (White Stork)4
Circus aeruginosus (Western Marsh Harrier)2
Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)1
Circus macrourus (Pallid Harrier)1
Circus pygargus (Montagu's Harrier)2
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)2
Corvus rhipidurus (Fan-tailed Raven)1
Corvus ruficollis (Brown-necked Raven)1
Dendroaspis angusticeps (Green Mamba)1
Falco cherrug (Saker Falcon)1
Falco naumanni (Lesser Kestrel)2
Falco pelegrinoides (Barbary Falcon)1
Falco vespertinus (Red-footed Falcon)1
Felis silvestris (Wildcat)2
Gelochelidon nilotica (Gull-billed Tern)1
Geronticus eremita (Northern Bald Ibis)1
Glaucidium passerinum (Eurasian Pygmy Owl)2
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)1
Hypocolius ampelinus (Hypocolius)1
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)2
Lanius excubitor (Northern Shrike)4
Macheiramphus alcinus (Bat Hawk)1
Martes foina (Beech Marten)1
Martes martes (European Pine Marten)1
Merops nubicus (Northern Carmine Bee-eater)1
Merops orientalis (Green Bee-eater)1
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)2
Milvus milvus (Red Kite)2
Monticola solitarius (Blue Rock Thrush)1
Motacilla alba (White Wagtail)1
Mustela erminea (Ermine)3
Mustela nivalis (Least Weasel)3
Mustela putorius (European Polecat)1
Oenanthe deserti (Desert Wheatear)1
Oenanthe isabellina (Isabelline Wheatear)1
Oenanthe leucopyga (White-crowned Wheatear)1
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)1
Pycnonotus xanthopygos (White-spectacled Bulbul)1
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)4
Strix uralensis (Ural Owl)3
Surnia ulula (Northern Hawk-Owl)2
Sus scrofa (wild boar)1
Toxicodryas blandingii (Blandings Tree Snake)1
Turdoides squamiceps (Arabian Babbler)1
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)3
Upupa epops (Eurasian Hoopoe)1
Vulpes corsac (Corsac Fox)1
Vulpes rueppellii (Rüppell's Fox)1
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)4
Zamenis longissimus (Aesculapean Snake)4

Predators

Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)[14]

Providers

Shelter 
Fagus sylvatica (European beech)[9]
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)[9]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Amalaraeus penicilliger pedias[15]
Anomotaenia mollis <Unverified Name>[16]
Baruscapillaria falconis <Unverified Name>[16]
Callopsylla gemina[15]
Centrorhynchus aluconis[16]
Centrorhynchus buteonis[16]
Centrorhynchus globocaudatus[16]
Ceratophyllus borealis[15]
Ceratophyllus columbae[15]
Ceratophyllus fringillae[15]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[15]
Ceratophyllus rossittensis rossittensis[15]
Ceratophyllus spinosus[15]
Ceratophyllus tribulis[15]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus alpestris[15]
Citellophilus sungaris sungaris[15]
Cladotaenia cylindracea <Unverified Name>[16]
Cladotaenia globifera[16]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes bosnicus[15]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes fennicus[15]
Ctenophthalmus secundus asiaticus[15]
Ctenophthalmus uncinatus uncinatus[15]
Cyathocotyle prussica <Unverified Name>[16]
Cyathostoma lari <Unverified Name>[16]
Cyrnea spinosa <Unverified Name>[16]
Diplotriaena falconis <Unverified Name>[16]
Echinoparyphium agnatum <Unverified Name>[16]
Eucoleus dispar <Unverified Name>[16]
Euparadistomum falconi <Unverified Name>[16]
Habronema spinosa <Unverified Name>[16]
Mediorhynchus micracanthus[16]
Megabothris rectangulatus[15]
Neodiplostomum spathoides <Unverified Name>[16]
Nosopsyllus fasciatus (northern rat flea)[15]
Nosopsyllus laeviceps laeviceps[15]
Nosopsyllus mokrzeckyi[15]
Paracladotaenia falcoris <Unverified Name>[16]
Physaloptera alata <Unverified Name>[16]
Plagiorchis elegans[16]
Platynosomum illiciens <Unverified Name>[16]
Porrocaecum angusticolle <Unverified Name>[16]
Porrocaecum depressum <Unverified Name>[16]
Porrocaecum spirale <Unverified Name>[16]
Serratospiculum turkestanicum <Unverified Name>[16]
Stenoponia tripectinata insperata[15]
Strigea elongata <Unverified Name>[16]
Strigea falconis[16]
Synhimantus laticeps <Unverified Name>[16]
Synhimantus robertdollfusi <Unverified Name>[16]
Xenopsylla cheopis (oriental rat flea)[15]
Xenopsylla conformis conformis[15]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Al Ain Zoo
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Artis Zoo
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Badoca Safari Park
Banham Zoo Ltd.
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Colchester Zoo
Cologne Zoo
Dierenpark 'De Vleut' (Zoo Best)tinnunculus
Dierenpark de Oliemeulen (Zoo Tilburg)
Grand Parc Du Puy Du Fou
Inokashira Park Zoo
International Centre for Birds of Prey
Kharkiv Zoo
Kishinev Zoopark
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodztinnunculus
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny, Plock
Mokopane Biodiversity Conservation Centre
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Moscow Zoological Park
National SEA LIFE Centre
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
Novosibirsk Zoological Park
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniu
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Parc des Oiseaux
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Parc Zoologique Fort Mardyck
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sad
Riga Zoo
Safaripark Beekse Bergen
 tinnunculus
Saitama Children's Zoointerstinctus
Tallinn Zoo
Tama Zoological Park
The Hawk Conservancy
The Raptor Foundation
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens
Thoiry Zoological Park
Thuringer Zoopark Erfurt
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
World Owl Trust
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zoo de la Bourbansais
Zoo de La Fleche
Zoo de Pont-Scorff
Zoo Dortmund
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaiatinnunculus
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan
Zoological Society of London
Zoologicka zahrada Bojnice
Zoologicka zahrada Liberec
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbH
 tinnunculus
ZOOMARINE - Mundo Aquatico S.A.

Range Map

Africa; Cape Peninsula National Park; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Oceania; Southern Asia; Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Cramp, S.; Simmons, K.E.L.; Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa Vols 1-9. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
5British Trust for Ornithology
6Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
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Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
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