Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Galliformes > Phasianidae > Bonasa > Bonasa umbellus
 

Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse)

Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) is a medium-sized grouse occurring in forests from the Appalachian Mountains across Canada to Alaska. It is non-migratory.The ruffed grouse is sometimes incorrectly referred to as a "partridge", an unrelated phasianid, and occasionally confused with the grey partridge, a bird of open areas rather than woodlands.The ruffed grouse is the state bird of Pennsylvania, USA.
View Wikipedia Record: Bonasa umbellus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
14
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
33
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 10.9995
EDGE Score: 2.48487

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  1.17 lbs (532 g)
Birth Weight [1]  12 grams
Male Weight [3]  1.25 lbs (566 g)
Female Maturity [1]  4 months
Male Maturity [1]  4 months
Clutch Size [2]  11
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Incubation [1]  24 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  11 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queen Charlotte Islands Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Apostle Islands National Lakeshore II 36006 Wisconsin, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Bonanza Creek LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Alaska, United States
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cascade Head Biosphere Reserve 17423 Oregon, United States
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Craters of the Moon National Monument V 690996 Idaho, United States
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Effigy Mounds National Monument V 1296 Iowa, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fort Necessity National Battlefield III 1019 Pennsylvania, United States
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Grand Portage National Monument V 144 Minnesota, United States
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Grandfather Mountain State Park   North Carolina, United States
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Greenwater Provincial Park II 11019 Ontario, Canada
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Hot Springs National Park II 5740 Arkansas, United States
Hubbard Brook Biosphere Reserve 7809 New Hampshire, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kejimkujik Seaside Adjunct National Park II 4970 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area II 606367 Washington, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Manassas National Battlefield Park III 5132 Virginia, United States
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Mount Revelstoke National Park Ia 18 British Columbia, Canada
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Oregon Caves National Monument V 456 Oregon, United States
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site III 139 New Hampshire, United States
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Tawas Point State Park 183 Michigan, United States
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
University of MI Biosphere Reserve 10003 Michigan, United States  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No

Emblem of

Pennsylvania

Prey / Diet

Betula papyrifera (mountain paper birch)[4]
Empetrum nigrum (black crowberry)[4]
Equisetum arvense (scouring rush)[4]
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)[4]
Rosa acicularis (prickly rose)[4]
Rubus idaeus (Raspberry)[4]
Shepherdia canadensis (russet buffalo-berry)[4]
Vaccinium uliginosum (bog blueberry)[4]
Vaccinium vitis-idaea (lingonberry)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)1
Alces alces (moose)6
Anthophora abrupta (miner bee)1
Apis mellifera (honey bee)1
Aplodontia rufa californica1
Bombus polaris (Bumblebee)3
Branta hutchinsii (Cackling Goose)1
Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur)1
Castor canadensis (american beaver)1
Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush)3
Cervus elaphus (wapiti or elk)2
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)3
Lagopus lagopus (Willow Ptarmigan)3
Lemmus sibiricus (brown lemming)2
Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare)4
Lepus othus (Alaskan Hare)1
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)1
Lygus rugulipennis1
Marmota caligata (hoary marmot)1
Martes americana (American Marten)5
Microtus townsendii (Townsend's vole)1
Microtus xanthognathus (taiga vole)1
Myodes rutilus (northern red-backed vole)5
Neotoma cinerea (bushy-tailed woodrat)1
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)1
Ochotona collaris (Collared Pika)3
Odocoileus hemionus (mule deer)1
Ovibos moschatus (muskox)1
Ovis dalli (Dall's sheep)1
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)1
Phenacomys intermedius (western heather vole)2
Phenacomys ungava (eastern heather vole)3
Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak)5
Poecile hudsonicus (Boreal Chickadee)3
Polygonia interrogationis (Questionmark anglewing)1
Tamias minimus (least chipmunk)1
Thomomys bottae (Botta's pocket gopher)1
Tympanuchus phasianellus (Sharp-tailed Grouse)1
Urocitellus parryii (Arctic ground squirrel)1
Ursus americanus (black bear)6
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)6
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1
Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow)1

Predators

Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)[5]
Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)[6]
Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[5]
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)[5]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[5]
Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk)[5]
Buteo platypterus (Broad-winged Hawk)[5]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[5]
Homo sapiens (man)[5]
Lynx canadensis (lynx)[4]
Megascops kennicottii macfarlanei (Western Screech-Owl)[7]
Strix nebulosa (Great Grey Owl)[4]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[5]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[4]

Providers

Shelter 
Alnus rubra (red alder)[4]
Salix alaxensis (feltleaf willow)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aproctella stoddardi <Unverified Name>[8]
Ascaridia bonasae <Unverified Name>[8]
Ascaridia galli[8]
Ceratophyllus diffinis[9]
Ceratophyllus garei[9]
Chandlerella chitwoodae <Unverified Name>[8]
Cheilospirura spinosa <Unverified Name>[8]
Echinolepis carioca[8]
Eucoleus annulatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Heterakis bonasae <Unverified Name>[8]
Hymenolepis carioca <Unverified Name>[8]
Hymenolepis microps <Unverified Name>[8]
Oxyspirura petrowi <Unverified Name>[8]
Splendidofilaria pectoralis <Unverified Name>[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Minnesota Zoological Garden

Range Map

Fathom Five National Marine Park; Mount Mitchell State Park; North America; Saint Croix International Historic Site; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by eNature via Myxer Author: Lang Elliot

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 3Rusch, DH, DeStefano, S., Reynolds, MC & Lauten, D. 2000: Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus). - In: Poole, A. & Gill, F. (Eds.); The Birds of North America, No 515. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 28 pp 4Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6Prey Abundance, Space Use, Demography, and Foraging Habitat of Northern Goshawks in Western Washington, Thomas David Bloxton, Jr., University of Washington 2002 7Davis, H., and RJ Cannings. 2008. Diet of Western Screech-Owls in the interior of British Columbia British Columbia Birds 18:19-22 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 9International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Tawas Point State Park Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2