Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Galliformes > Odontophoridae > Colinus > Colinus virginianus
 

Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The Northern Bobwhite, Virginia Quail or (in its home range) Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus) is a ground-dwelling bird native to the United States, Mexico, and the Caribbean. It is a member of the group of species known as New World quails (Odontophoridae). They were initially placed with the Old World quails in the pheasant family, but are not particularly closely related. The name "bobwhite" derives from its characteristic whistling call.
View Wikipedia Record: Colinus virginianus

Infraspecies

Colinus virginianus aridus (Jaumave bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus atriceps (Black-headed bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus coyolcos (Coyolcos bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus cubanensis (Cuban bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus floridanus (Florida bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus godmani (Godman's bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus graysoni (Grayson's bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus harrisoni (Bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus insignis (Guatemalan bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus insulanus (Key West bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus maculatus (Mottled bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus minor (Least bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus nigripectus (Puebla bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus pectoralis (Black-breasted bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus ridgwayi (Masked Bobwhite) (Attributes)
Colinus virginianus salvini (Salvin's bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus taylori (Plains bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus texanus (Texas bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus thayeri (Thayer's bobwhite)
Colinus virginianus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
5
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
32
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.67794
EDGE Score: 2.42973

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  194 grams
Birth Weight [2]  8.9 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Clutch Size [4]  8
Clutches / Year [1]  2
Diet [3]  Herbivore
Incubation [1]  23 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  6 years
Wing Span [5]  14 inches (.345 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central American montane forests Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American pine-oak forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chiapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chimalapas montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East Central Texas forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Enriquillo wetlands Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hispaniolan dry forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan moist forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan pine forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ozark Mountain forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Piney Woods forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Puerto Rican dry forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Puerto Rican moist forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Amistad National Recreation Area   Texas, United States
Antietam National Battlefield III 3263 Maryland, United States
Arkansas Post National Memorial National Monument V 424 Arkansas, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Buffalo National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 59947 Arkansas, United States
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Capulin Volcano National Monument V 796 New Mexico, United States
Carl Sandburg Home National Hist. Site National Historic Site III 271 North Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Chickasaw National Recreation Area V 7025 Oklahoma, United States
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Congaree Swamp National Park II 6095 South Carolina, United States
Crosswinds Marsh Nature Preserve 1050 Michigan, United States
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge Ia   Idaho, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
Effigy Mounds National Monument V 1296 Iowa, United States
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Fort Caroline National Memorial III 137 Florida, United States
Fort Matanzas National Monument III 269 Florida, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
George WA Carver National Monument V 210 Missouri, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Grandfather Mountain State Park   North Carolina, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Gulf Islands National Park National Park Reserve II 8785 British Columbia, Canada
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Homestead National Monument of America V 850 Nebraska, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Hot Springs National Park II 5740 Arkansas, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Kellogg Biological Station LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Michigan, United States
Konza Prairie Biosphere Reserve 8617 Kansas, United States  
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Meredith National Recreation Area V   Texas, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Little St. Simons Island   Georgia, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Manassas National Battlefield Park III 5132 Virginia, United States
Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve VI 814711 Chiapas, Mexico  
Moores Creek National Battlefield III 100 North Carolina, United States
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Mount Mitchell State Park   North Carolina, United States
National Capital Region - East National Park   District of Columbia, United States
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Ocmulgee National Monument V 693 Georgia, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Pipestone National Monument V 326 Minnesota, United States
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Cielo Biosphere Reserve 353161 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve VI 955579 Queretaro, Mexico  
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Saint Croix International Historic Site   Maine, United States
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Scotts Bluff National Monument V 3185 Nebraska, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shortgrass Steppe LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Colorado, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Stones River National Battlefield III 518 Tennessee, United States
Tennessee River Gorge   Tennessee, United States
Thomas Stone National Historic Site   Maryland, United States
Tuabaquey - Limones Ecological Reserve II 4859 Cuba  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Vicksburg National Military Park V 1651 Mississippi, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Wilson's Creek National Battlefield V   Missouri, United States

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Alejandro de Humboldt Cuba A1, A2, A3
Alturas de Banao Cuba A1, A3
Aux Diablotins Haiti A1, A2
Chinook Fish and Wildlife Area and Chinook Mine USA A1
Ciénaga de Zapata Cuba A1, A2, A3, A4i
Cienaga de Lanier y Sur de la Isla de la Juventud Cuba A1, A2, A3, A4i  
Delta del Cauto Cuba A1, A3, A4i, A4iii, B4i
Delta del Mayarí Cuba A1, A3, B4i
Desembarco del Granma Cuba A1, A2, A3
Fort Chaffee USA A1
Gibara Cuba A1, A2, A3  
Goose Pond/Beehunter Marsh Fish and Wildlife Area USA A1
Gran Humedal del Norte de Ciego de Ávila Cuba A1, A2, A3, A4i, B4i, B4ii  
Hatibonico: Baitiquirí: Imías Cuba A1, A2, A3  
Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río Cuba A1, A4i, A4iii, B4i
Humedal Sur de Sancti Spiritus Cuba A1, A4i, A4iii
La Mensura Cuba A1, A2, A3
Limones-Tuabaquey Cuba A1, A3
Lower Rappahannock River USA A1
Lynnville-Squaw Creek Mine Complex USA A1
Río Máximo Cuba A1, A2, A3, A4i, A4iii, B4i  
Siboney: Juticí Cuba A1, A2, A3, A4iv
Sierra del Chorrillo Cuba A1, A2, A3
Sierra del Rosario Cuba A1, A2, A3
Topes de Collantes Cuba A1, A3

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Prey / Diet

Acer saccharinum (silver maple)[6]
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[6]
Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug)[6]
Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam)[6]
Cicindela sexguttata (Six-spotted Tiger Beetle)[6]
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)[6]
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)[6]
Hibiscus moscheutos (crimsoneyed rosemallow)[6]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[6]
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)[6]
Lithobius forficatus (Brown centipede)[6]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[6]
Micrathena gracilis (Spined micrathena)[6]
Phidippus audax (Daring Jumping Spider)[6]
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)[6]
Pterostichus melanarius (Common black ground beetle)[6]
Quercus phellos (Willow Oak)[6]
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)[6]
Rosa virginiana (Virginia Rose)[6]
Scaphiopus hurterii (Hurter's Spadefoot)[7]
Symplocarpus foetidus (Skunk Cabbage)[6]
Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)[6]
Tenodera aridifolia (Chinese mantid)[6]
Triatoma sanguisuga (Eastern blood-sucking cone)[6]
Viola pedata (birdfoot violet)[6]
Zizania aquatica (annual wildrice)[6]
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Common Ragweed)[6]
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)[6]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[6]
Digitaria ischaemum (small crabgrass)[6]
Impatiens capensis (jewelweed)[6]
Lindera benzoin (northern spicebush)[6]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[6]
Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine)[6]
Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine)[6]
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)[6]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[6]
Robinia pseudoacacia (Post locust)[6]
Rubus laciniatus (Cutleaf Evergreen Blackberry)[6]
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)7
Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)11
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)7
Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)5
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)6
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)11
Apis mellifera (honey bee)11
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)7
Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug)2
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)11
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)10
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)3
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)2
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)11
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)2
Carduelis flammea (Common Redpoll)2
Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch)12
Castor canadensis (american beaver)11
Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)4
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)6
Cryptotis parva (North American Least Shrew)9
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)8
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)3
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)5
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)4
Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)5
Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)4
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)2
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)5
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)2
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Greenhouse thrip)2
Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog)2
Lithobates sphenocephalus sphenocephalus (Florida Leopard Frog)6
Lithobates sylvaticus (Wood Frog)11
Marmota flaviventris (yellow-bellied marmot)2
Marmota monax (woodchuck)4
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)27
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)6
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)10
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)12
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)10
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)7
Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt)3
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)19
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)2
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)2
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)15
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)7
Plestiodon fasciatus (Five-lined Skink)9
Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)5
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)10
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)12
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)6
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)5
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)5
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)4
Scalopus aquaticus (Eastern Mole)7
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)14
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)3
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)15
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)11
Streptopelia turtur (European Turtle-Dove)2
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)7
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)15
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)13
Terrapene carolina (Florida Box Turtle)3
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)3
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)8
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)16
Urocitellus columbianus (Columbian ground squirrel)2
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)6
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)11
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)10

Predators

Accipiter gundlachi (Gundlach's Hawk)[8]
Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)[6]
Agkistrodon contortrix (Southern Copperhead)[6]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[6]
Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))[9]
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)[6]
Falco femoralis (Aplomado Falcon)[10]
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)[6]
Lampropeltis calligaster (Prairie Kingsnake)[11]
Mustela frenata (Long-tailed Weasel)[12]
Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi (Black pine snake)[13]
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)[6]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[6]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[6]

Providers

Shelter 
Carex stricta (upright sedge)[6]
Crataegus viridis (desert hawthorn)[6]
Hamamelis virginiana (American witchhazel)[6]
Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (cinnamon fern)[6]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[6]
Phytolacca americana (common pokeweed)[6]
Pteridium aquilinum (northern bracken fern)[6]
Salix nigra (black willow)[6]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[6]
Smilax rotundifolia (Horse Brier)[6]
Symphyotrichum dumosum (Small White Aster)[6]
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)[6]
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Common Ragweed)[6]
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)[6]
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)[6]
Digitaria ischaemum (small crabgrass)[6]
Impatiens capensis (jewelweed)[6]
Lindera benzoin (northern spicebush)[6]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[6]
Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine)[6]
Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine)[6]
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)[6]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[6]
Robinia pseudoacacia (Post locust)[6]
Rubus laciniatus (Cutleaf Evergreen Blackberry)[6]
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aproctella stoddardi <Unverified Name>[14]
Ascaridia compar <Unverified Name>[14]
Ascaridia galli[14]
Brachylecithum nanum <Unverified Name>[14]
Capillaria obsignata <Unverified Name>[14]
Cheilospirura spinosa <Unverified Name>[14]
Cyrnea colini <Unverified Name>[14]
Diplotriaenoides minutus <Unverified Name>[14]
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[14]
Eucoleus annulatus <Unverified Name>[14]
Gongylonema ingluvicola <Unverified Name>[14]
Habronema bialatum <Unverified Name>[14]
Heterakis gallinarum[14]
Heterakis isolonche[14]
Heterakis vesicularis[14]
Hymenolepis carioca <Unverified Name>[14]
Mediorhynchus papillosus[14]
Oxyspirura matogrosensis <Unverified Name>[14]
Raillietina cesticillus[14]
Raillietina colinia <Unverified Name>[14]
Raillietina tetragona <Unverified Name>[14]
Rhabdometra odiosa <Unverified Name>[14]
Strongyloides avium <Unverified Name>[14]
Syngamus trachea (gapeworm)[14]
Tetrameres americana <Unverified Name>[14]
Tetrameres pattersoni <Unverified Name>[14]
Trichostrongylus cramae <Unverified Name>[14]
Trichostrongylus tenuis[14]
Zonorchis petiolatum[14]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museumridgwayi
Birmingham Zoo
Blackpool Zoo
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanat
Bronx Children's Zoo
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
 mexicanus
 virginianus
Cameron Park Zoo
Chahinkapa Zoo
Chicago Zoological Parkridgwayi
Christianshede Zoo
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Gardenridgwayi
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Cosley Zoo
Florida Aquarium
Hai Park Kiriat Motzkin
Kittenberger Zoo
Kyiv Zoological Park
Maryland Zoo in Baltimore
Minnesota Zoological Garden
Moscow Zoological Park
NC State Museum of Natural Sciences
NEW Zoo
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Queens Zoo
Saint Louis Zoological Park
South Carolina Aquariumvirginianus
Tiergarten Heidelbergvirginianus
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
Turtle Back Zoo
Utah's Hogle Zooridgwayi
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr
Virginia Living Museum
Wingham Wildlife Park
Zoobotanico de Jerez
Zoologico Nacional La Auroratexanus
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburgmexicanus

Range Map

Caribbean; Middle America; North America;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by Xeno-canto under a Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 2.5 License Author: Allen T. Chartier

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Banks R.C., 2005-06-08, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5EFFECTS OF BODY SIZE ON TAKE-OFF FLIGHT PERFORMANCE IN THE PHASIANIDAE (AVES), BRET W. TOBALSKE AND KENNETH P. DIAL, The Journal of Experimental Biology 203,3319–3332 (2000) 6Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 7Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177 8Gundlach's Hawk, BirdLife International (1992) Threatened Birds of the Americas. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. 9Diet of the Timber Rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus, Rulon W. Clark, Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 494-499, 2002 10THE DIET OF THE APLOMADO FALCON (FALCO FEMORALIS) IN EASTERN MEXICO, DEAN P. HECTOR, The Condor 87:336-342 11Resources of a Snake Community in Prairie-Woodland Habitat of Northeastern Kansas, Henry S. Fitch, U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildlife Research Report 13: 83-98 (1982) 12Mustela frenata, Steven R. Sheffield and Howard H. Thomas, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 570, pp. 1-9 (1997) 13PREY HANDLING AND DIET OF LOUISIANA PINE SNAKES (PITUOPHIS RUTHVENI) AND BLACK PINE SNAKES (P. MELANOLEUCUS LODINGI), WITH COM- PARISONS TO OTHER SELECTED COLUBRID SNAKES, D. Craig Rudolph, Shirley J. Burgdorf, Richard N. Conner, Christopher S. Collins, Daniel Saenz, Richard R. Schaefer, Toni Trees, C. Michael Duran, Marc Ealy, John G. Himes, Herpetological Natural History, 9(1), 2002, pages 57-62 14Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Chippewa Nature Center Crosswinds Marsh, Wayne County, Michigan Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Important Bird Areas provided by BirdLife International (2010) Important Bird Areas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2010
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2