Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Gruiformes > Gruidae > Grus > Grus americana

Grus americana (Whooping Crane)

Language: Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The whooping crane (Grus americana), the tallest North American bird, is an endangered crane species named for its whooping sound. In 2003, there were about 153 pairs of whooping cranes. Along with the sandhill crane, it is one of only two crane species found in North America. The whooping crane's lifespan is estimated to be 22 to 24 years in the wild. After being pushed to the brink of extinction by unregulated hunting and loss of habitat to just 21 wild and two captive whooping cranes by 1941, conservation efforts have led to a limited recovery. As of February 2015, the total population was 603 including 161 captive birds.
View Wikipedia Record: Grus americana

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Grus americana

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.36206
EDGE Score: 4.07578


Adult Weight [1]  16.53 lbs (7.50 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  150 grams
Female Maturity [1]  4 years
Male Maturity [1]  4 years
Breeding Habitat [2]  Boreal forests
Wintering Geography [2]  Southeastern U.S.
Wintering Habitat [2]  Coastal saltmarshes, Freshwater marshes
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore, Frugivore, Granivore
Diet - Ectothermic [3]  20 %
Diet - Endothermic [3]  20 %
Diet - Fish [3]  20 %
Diet - Fruit [3]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  20 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  10 %
Forages - Ground [3]  50 %
Forages - Water Surface [3]  50 %
Clutch Size [4]  2
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  280
Incubation [1]  31 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  40 years
Migration [5]  Intracontinental
Wing Span [6]  7.1 feet (2.15 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Bandelier National Monument V 8107 New Mexico, United States
Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park II 12551 Colorado, United States
Curecanti National Recreation Area V 31032 Colorado, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Fossil Butte National Monument III 8423 Wyoming, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Buffer Lake Canada A1, A4i
Jasper-Pulaski Fish and Wildlife Area and surrounding areas USA A1, A4i
Last Mountain Lake National Wildlife Area Canada A1, A4i, A4iii
Luck Lake Canada A1, A4i, A4iii
Midnight Lake Canada A1, A4i
Quill Lakes Canada A1, A4i, A4iii
Radisson Lake Canada A1, A4i, A4iii
Rowe Sanctuary USA A1, A4i
Whooping Crane Nesting Area and Summer Range Canada A1, A4i

Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) Sites

Name  Location   Map   Climate   Land Use 
Aransas National Wildlife Refuge United States
Whooping Crane Summer Range Canada


Parasitized by 
Ascaridia pterophora <Unverified Name>[7]
Brachylaima fuscatus[7]
Capillaria fulicae <Unverified Name>[7]
Centrorhynchus kuntzi[7]
Chandleronema longigutturata <Unverified Name>[7]
Contracaecum multipapillatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyathostoma variegatum <Unverified Name>[7]
Cyclustera ibisae <Unverified Name>[7]
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[7]
Eucoleus obtusiuscula <Unverified Name>[7]
Hadjelia neglecta <Unverified Name>[7]
Hystrichis tricolor <Unverified Name>[7]
Ibirhynchus dimorpha[7]
Lyperorchis lyperorchis <Unverified Name>[7]
Polycyclorchis eudocimi[7]
Polymorphus trochus[7]
Stomylotrema vicarium <Unverified Name>[7]
Strigea gruis <Unverified Name>[7]
Tanaisia atra <Unverified Name>[7]
Tetrameres williamsi <Unverified Name>[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Audubon Zoo
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park
Freeport-McMoran Audubon SpecSurvl Ctr
Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park
International Crane Foundation
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquar
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo

Range Map

North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
6del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
AZE sites provided by Alliance for Zero Extinction (2010). 2010 AZE Update.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access