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Grus canadensis (Sandhill Crane)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) is a species of large crane of North America and extreme northeastern Siberia. The common name of this bird refers to habitat like that at the Platte River, on the edge of Nebraska's Sandhills on the American Plains. This is the most important stopover area for the nominotypical subspecies, the lesser sandhill crane (Grus canadensis canadensis), with up to 450,000 of these birds migrating through annually. The scientific name is from Latin; grus is "crane", and canadensis is "Canadian".
View Wikipedia Record: Grus canadensis

Infraspecies

Grus canadensis canadensis (Lesser Sandhill Crane) (Attributes)
Grus canadensis nesiotes (Cuba Sandhill Crane)
Grus canadensis pratensis (Florida sandhill crane) (Attributes)
Grus canadensis pulla (Mississippi Sandhill Crane)
Grus canadensis rowani (Sandhill Crane) (Attributes)
Grus canadensis tabida (Greater sandhill crane)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
11
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
30
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 9.03817
EDGE Score: 2.30639

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  8.58 lbs (3.89 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  114 grams
Female Maturity [1]  3 years
Male Maturity [1]  3 years
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Endothermic [2]  20 %
Diet - Fruit [2]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  20 %
Diet - Plants [2]  30 %
Diet - Seeds [2]  10 %
Forages - Ground [2]  50 %
Forages - Water Surface [2]  50 %
Clutch Size [3]  2
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Incubation [1]  29 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  31 years
Wing Span [4]  6.9 feet (2.1 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Baffin coastal tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeast Siberian coastal tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Apostle Islands National Lakeshore II 36006 Wisconsin, United States
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Aulavik National Park II 3021211 Northwest Territories, Canada
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve VI 358906 Mexico    
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park II 12551 Colorado, United States
Buenavista Wetland Reserve 778949 Cuba    
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve 864738 British Columbia, Canada  
Colorado National Monument III 20420 Colorado, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Curecanti National Recreation Area V 31032 Colorado, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Greenwater Provincial Park II 11019 Ontario, Canada
Guadalupe Mountains National Park II 46114 Texas, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge IV 21369 Wisconsin, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Jornada Biosphere Reserve Ib 30913 New Mexico, United States
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
University of MI Biosphere Reserve 10003 Michigan, United States  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Beaverhill Lake Canada A1, A4i, A4iii
Ciénaga de Zapata Cuba A1, A2, A3, A4i
Cienaga de Lanier y Sur de la Isla de la Juventud Cuba A1, A2, A3, A4i  
Douglas Lake Plateau Canada A4i
Galloway and Miry Bay Canada A4i, A4iii
Gran Humedal del Norte de Ciego de Ávila Cuba A1, A2, A3, A4i, B4i, B4ii  
Jasper-Pulaski Fish and Wildlife Area and surrounding areas USA A1, A4i
Kanchalan river basin Russia (Asian) A3, A4i
Kolyma delta Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Last Mountain Lake National Wildlife Area Canada A1, A4i, A4iii
Lower Anadyr lowlands Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Luck Lake Canada A1, A4i, A4iii
Meechkyn spit and adjacent plain Russia (Asian) A3, A4i
North, Middle and East Caicos Ramsar Site Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) A1, A2, A4i, A4iii, B4i  
Queen Maud Gulf Canada A4i, A4iii
Quill Lakes Canada A1, A4i, A4iii
Rowe Sanctuary USA A1, A4i
Upper Tanana River Valley USA A4i

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Predators

Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[5]
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)[5]
Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)[5]
Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Brachylaima fuscatus[6]
Cardiofilaria pavlovskyi <Unverified Name>[6]
Cyathostoma variegatum <Unverified Name>[6]
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[6]
Orchipedum jolliei <Unverified Name>[6]
Stomylotrema vicarium <Unverified Name>[6]
Strigea gruis <Unverified Name>[6]
Syngamus trachea (gapeworm)[6]
Tanaisia fedtschenkoi[6]
Tetrameres grusi <Unverified Name>[6]
Trichostrongylus cramae <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Abilene Zoological Gardens
Alexandria Zoological Park
Assiniboine Park Zoopratensis
 tabida
Bay Beach Wildlife Sanctuary
 tabida
Birmingham Zoopratensis
Blackbrook Zoological Parkpratensis
 tabida
Bramble Park Zoopratensis
Brandywine Zoo
 pratensis
Brevard Zoopratensis
Buttonwood Park Zoopratensis
Caldwell Zoo
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park
 pratensis
Cape May County Park Zoopratensis
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Gardenpratensis
Connecticut's Beardsley Zootabida
Dakota Zoo
David Traylor Zoo of Emporiatabida
El Paso Zoo
Ellen Trout Zoopratensis
Exmoor Zoological Park
Fort Worth Zoological Park
Freeport-McMoran Audubon SpecSurvl Ctr
 pratensis
 pulla
Great Plains Zoopratensis
Greater Vancouver Zoo
 pratensis
Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park
 pratensis
International Crane Foundation
 pratensis
 tabida
Jackson Zoological Parkpratensis
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardenspratensis
Knoxville Zoological Gardenspratensis
Leningrad Zoo - St. Petersburgtabida
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquariumpratensis
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Montgomery Zoo
Moonridge Animal Park
NEW Zoo
Oatland Island Wildlife Centerpratensis
Oklahoma City Zoological Parkpratensis
Olmense Zoo
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
 canadensis
 pratensis
Palm Beach Zoo at Dreher Parkpratensis
Parc Paradisio S.A.
 pratensis
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
 pratensis
Pensthorpe Conservation Trust Limited
Pocatello Zoo
Queens Zoopratensis
Salisbury Zoological Parkpratensis
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquar
Sea World Orlandopratensis
Sedgwick County Zoopratensis
Slimbridge New Grounds W&WTrusttabida
Stichting Landgoed Hoenderdaell
Stichting Nederlands Opvang Papegaaien
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoopratensis
Texas Zoorowani
Tracy Aviarytabida
Turtle Back Zootabida
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
Washington Park Zoological Gardens
 tabida
White Oak Conservation Centerpratensis
 pulla
Willow Park Zootabida
Zoo Duisburg AG
Zoo Hannover GmbH
Zoo of Acadiana
Zoo Sauvage de St-Félicienpratensis

Range Map

Middle America; North America; Oceania; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
4Spring Bay Important Bird Area Conservation Plan, William G. Wilson and Edward D. Cheskey, Spring Bay Important Bird Area Steering Committee, July 2001
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access