Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Gruiformes > Gruidae > Grus > Grus leucogeranus

Grus leucogeranus (Siberian Crane; Siberian White Crane)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Siberian crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus), also known as the Siberian white crane or the snow crane, is a bird of the family Gruidae, the cranes. They are distinctive among the cranes, adults are nearly all snowy white, except for their black primary feathers that are visible in flight and with two breeding populations in the Arctic tundra of western and eastern Russia. The eastern populations migrate during winter to China while the western population winters in Iran and formerly, in India and Nepal. Among the cranes, they make the longest distance migrations. Their populations, particularly those in the western range, have declined drastically in the 20th century due to hunting along their migration routes and habitat degradation. The world population was estimated in 2010 at about
View Wikipedia Record: Grus leucogeranus

Endangered Species

Status: Critically Endangered
View IUCN Record: Grus leucogeranus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 9.90328
EDGE Score: 5.16165


Adult Weight [1]  13.08 lbs (5.93 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  197 grams
Male Weight [7]  14.08 lbs (6.39 kg)
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Endothermic [3]  10 %
Diet - Fish [3]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  10 %
Diet - Plants [3]  50 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  10 %
Diet - Vertibrates [3]  10 %
Forages - Ground [3]  50 %
Forages - Water Surface [3]  50 %
Clutch Size [5]  2
Incubation [4]  29 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  36 years
Migration [6]  Intracontinental
Wing Span [4]  7.2 feet (2.2 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northeast Siberian coastal tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Anhui Shengjin Lake National Nature Reserve 82385 Anhui, China      
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Dagestan State Nature Reserve 47101 Dagestan, Russia
Daursky Biosphere Reserve 113150 Chita, Russia
Keoladeo (Bharatpur) National Park II 7668 Rajasthan, India  
Khankaisky State Nature Reserve 97085 Primorsky Krai, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kronotsky Biosphere Reserve 2822275 Kamchatka Krai , Russia
Malaya Sozva Zapovednik Ia 557376 Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia
Norsky State Nature Reserve 521807 Amur, Russia
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Ust-Lensky State Nature Reserve 3541020 Sakha, Russia
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Ab-i-Istada Afghanistan A1, A4i, A4iii
Abyy lowland Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Amankaragay Forest Kazakhstan A1, A3
Angara river source Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Argun' river Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Arkhara lowlands (including Khinganskiy Nature Reserve) Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Atyazh lakes Russia (Central Asian) A1, A4i
Beidaihe China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Buir Lake Mongolia A1, A4i, A4iii
Dalai Nur Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4i
Dongting Hu wetlands China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Fereidoonkenar marshes Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2  
Genhe China (mainland) A1, A3
Holqin Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4i
Huihe Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Huzhong Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A3
Irgiz-Turgay Lakes Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4i
Kattakurgan Reservoir Uzbekistan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Kava valley Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande India A1, A4iii
Keremesit-Sundrun lowland Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Kolyma delta Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Kolyma-Alazeya lowland Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4iii
Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4i
Mangui China (mainland) A1, A3
Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Mongol Daguur Mongolia A1, A3, A4i
Naurzum State Nature Reserve Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Ogii Lake Mongolia A1, A4i, A4iii
Onon-Balj Mongolia A1, A4i
Pech and Waygal valleys Afghanistan A1, A2, A3, A4i
Poyang Hu wetlands China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Qihulin He Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1
Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1
Salang Kotal Afghanistan A1, A3, A4i
San-Yuryakh Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Sankebay Lakes Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Sarykopa Lake System Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Telmen Lake Mongolia A1, A3, A4i
Torey lakes (including Daursky Nature Reserve) Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Tounsor Hollow Lakes Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Tumuji Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1
Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers Mongolia A1, A4i
Wolong Hu (Xi Paozi) China (mainland) A1, A4iii
Xianghai Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Yalu Jiang Estuary China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Yancheng Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4i
Zhalong Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii

Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) Sites

Name  Location   Map   Climate   Land Use 
Poyang Hu wetlands China

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No

Prey / Diet

Amana edulis[4]
Potentilla limprichtii[4]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Al Bustan Zoological Center
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Cologne Zoo
International Crane Foundation
Kaliningrad Zoo
Moscow Zoological Park
Novosibirsk Zoological Park
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Podkrusnohorsky Zoopark Chomutov
Saitama Children's Zoo
Tallinn Zoo
Tama Zoological Park
Zoo New England, Franklin Park Zoo
Zoologicka zahrada Ostrava

Range Map



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
7Johnsgard, PA 1983. Cranes of the World. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Ramsar Sites Information Service
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
AZE sites provided by Alliance for Zero Extinction (2010). 2010 AZE Update.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access