Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Charadriidae > Pluvialis > Pluvialis squatarola
 

Pluvialis squatarola (Grey Plover; Black-bellied Plover)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), known as the black-bellied plover in North America, is a medium-sized plover breeding in Arctic regions. It is a long-distance migrant, with a nearly worldwide coastal distribution when not breeding.
View Wikipedia Record: Pluvialis squatarola

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
24
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
41
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 18.366
EDGE Score: 2.96352

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  224 grams
Birth Weight [1]  21 grams
Female Maturity [1]  2 years
Male Maturity [1]  2 years
Breeding Habitat [2]  Arctic tundra, Arctic coastal
Wintering Geography [2]  Widespread Coastal
Wintering Habitat [2]  Beaches and estuaries
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  70 %
Diet - Plants [3]  20 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  10 %
Forages - Ground [3]  100 %
Clutch Size [4]  4
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  840,000
Incubation [1]  27 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  24 years
Migration [5]  Intercontinental
Speed [6]  40.04 MPH (17.9 m/s)
Wing Span [7]  30 inches (.77 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Alta Paraná Atlantic forests Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves Brazil, Columbia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela Neotropic Mangroves  
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Andaman Islands rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Araucaria moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Araya and Paria xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Arnhem Land tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Atacama desert Chile Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic Coast restingas Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Atlantic coastal desert Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bahamoan-Antillean mangroves Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Mangroves      
Bahia coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Banda Sea Islands moist deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Belizean pine forests Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Biak-Numfoor rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Brigalow tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Buru rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Caatinga Brazil Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cape Verde Islands dry forests Cape Verde Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests    
Cape York Peninsula tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Caribbean shrublands France, United Kingdom, Dominica, St. Lucia, Netherlands Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands      
Carnarvon xeric shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Carolines tropical moist forests Micronesia Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Carpentaria tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Cayos Miskitos-San Andrés and Providencia moist forests Colombia, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central African mangroves Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Mangroves    
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chilean matorral Chile Neotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Clipperton Island shrub and grasslands France Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Coolgardie woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East African mangroves Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia Afrotropic Mangroves
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Australian temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Java-Bali rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Eastern Micronesia tropical moist forests United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Ecuadorian dry forests Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Enriquillo wetlands Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Esperance mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Eyre and York mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Galápagos Islands scrubland mosaic Ecuador Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Greater Negros-Panay rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Guayaquil flooded grasslands Ecuador Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Guianan Freshwater swamp forests Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan moist forests Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean mangroves Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire Afrotropic Mangroves
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Halmahera rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hawaii tropical dry forests United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests  
Hawaii tropical low shrublands United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Hawaii tropical moist forests United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Helanshan montane conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Hispaniolan dry forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan moist forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan pine forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Hobyo grasslands and shrublands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Humid Pampas Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Huon Peninsula montane rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Islas Revillagigedo dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican dry forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican moist forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jarrah-Karri forest and shrublands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kaokoveld desert Namibia, Angola Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kimberly tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Knysna-Amatole montane forests South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
La Costa xeric shrublands Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lara-Falcón dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Leeward Islands moist forests St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua & Barbuda Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lesser Antillean dry forests Grenada, St. Lucia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Lesser Sundas deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests  
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Luzon rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Madagascar dry deciduous forests Madagascar Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Madagascar lowland forests Madagascar Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Madagascar mangroves Madagascar Afrotropic Mangroves
Madagascar spiny thickets Madagascar Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Madagascar succulent woodlands Madagascar Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maldives-Lakshadweep-Chagos Archipelago tropical moist forests Maldives Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maracaibo dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Marajó varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Marianas tropical dry forests Micronesia Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests    
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mentawai Islands rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mindanao-Eastern Visayas rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Miskito pine forests Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mount Lofty woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Namib desert Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests Japan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Naracoorte woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
New Britain-New Ireland lowland rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Nicobar Islands rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian coastal tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern Brazil restingas Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Northern New Guinea lowland rain and freshwater swamp forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern New Guinea montane rain forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northwestern Hawaii scrub United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands    
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Novosibirsk Islands arctic desert Russia Palearctic Tundra
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Nullarbor Plains xeric shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Orinoco Delta swamp forests Venezuela, Guyana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Orinoco wetlands Venezuela Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Palau tropical moist forests Palau Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Palawan rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Paraguana xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Paraná flooded savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pernambuco coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pilbara shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Puerto Rican dry forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Puerto Rican moist forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Queensland tropical rain forests Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sao Tome, Principe and Annobon moist lowland forests São Tomé and Príncipe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Sechura desert Peru Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Seram rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Serra do Mar coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South American Pacific mangroves Colombia, Panama, Ecuador Neotropic Mangroves    
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Australia temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southeastern Papuan rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Africa mangroves South Africa, Mozambique Afrotropic Mangroves
Southern Atlantic mangroves Brazil Neotropic Mangroves  
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Australia savanna Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Australia woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sulawesi lowland rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sulu Archipelago rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumba deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sunda Shelf mangroves Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Sundaland heath forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans mangroves Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Swan Coastal Plain Scrub and Woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tasmanian Central Highland forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tasmanian temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tasmanian temperate rain forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Timor and Wetar deciduous forests East Timor, Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tirari-Sturt stony desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tocantins/Pindare moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Trinidad and Tobago moist forests Trinidad and Tobago Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tumbes-Piura dry forests Ecuador, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Uruguayan savanna Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Valdivian temperate forests Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Vogelkop montane rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Vogelkop-Aru lowland rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Ecuador moist forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Western Java rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Windward Islands moist forests Martinique, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wrangel Island arctic desert Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Yap tropical dry forests Micronesia Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests  
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Abrolhos Marine National Park 225607 Bahia, Brazil      
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Archipelago de Colon Biosphere Reserve 34336011 Galapagos Islands, Ecuador  
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Aulavik National Park II 3021211 Northwest Territories, Canada
Banc d'Arguin National Park II 2949017 Mauritania
Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve VI 358906 Mexico    
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Bañados del Este Wetland Reserve 986054 Uruguay  
Berbak National Park II 423927 Sumatra, Indonesia
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Buenavista Wetland Reserve 778949 Cuba    
Camargue 546256 France  
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Chausey 203679 France  
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Fitzgerald River National Park II 732417 Western Australia, Australia
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Guadeloupe Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 172250 Guadeloupe  
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Kevo 176448 Finland  
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Kura kurgu 476839 Estonia  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
La Amistad International Park National Park II 541617 Panama, Costa Rica  
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
MARAIS POITEVIN 168088 France  
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Ia 233540 Tasmania, Australia  
Marchesato e Fiume Neto 173480 Italy  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noordzeekustzone 305536 Netherlands    
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ouessant-Molène 190983 France  
Parque Atlantico Mar Chiquita Nature Reserve VI 706059 Cordoba, Argentina  
Parque Nacional Henri Pittier National Park 218030 Venezuela  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Yasuni Biosphere Reserve 4156313 Ecuador  
Reserva del Noroeste Biosphere Reserve 571807 Peru  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Santuario de la Naturaleza Pumalín Sanctuary 713364 Chile
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Seaflower Marine Protected Area 15125514 Colombia      
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (incl. Tayrona NP) National Park II 1031303 Colombia  
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Socotra Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 6626477 Yemen  
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Sunderban National Park 261613 India  
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve VI 688326 Cambodia  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Väinamere 670389 Estonia  
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Waddenzee 672193 Netherlands    
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Way Kambas National Park II 306926 Sumatra, Indonesia
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Zempléni-hegység a Szerencsi-dombsággal és a Hernád-völggyel 284651 Hungary  

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Akanda Gabon A1, A2, A3, A4i, A4iii
Amana French Guiana A2, A4i, A4iii  
Ameland: Duinen-Oerd Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Arquipélago dos Bijagós Guinea-Bissau A4i, A4iii
Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake) South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Île Rouge Canada A4i
Bahía de Samborombón y Punta Rasa Argentina A1, A4i, A4iii
Baie d'Ad Dakhla Morocco A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4
Banc d'Arguin National Park Mauritania A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Barr al Hikman Oman A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Barre de Portneuf Canada A4i, A4iii
Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Bazaruto Archipelago Mozambique A4i, A4iii
Beaverhill Lake Canada A1, A4i, A4iii
Benfleet and Southend Marshes United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4
Big Piskwanish Point Canada A4iii  
Boundary Bay: Roberts Bank: Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary) Canada A4i, A4iii
Cap Gris-nez France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4  
Chichester and Langstone Harbours United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Dee Estuary United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Delta du Saloum Senegal A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Dongjin estuary South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Eastern Lake St. Clair Canada A4i, A4iii
Engelsmanplaat Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4  
Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Fanø Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Foxe Basin Islands Canada A4i, A4iii
Frisian Wadden Sea coast Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Geum-gang river and estuary South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Griend Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Groningen Wadden Sea coast Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Hamford Water United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Humber Estuary United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Ilha de Bolama: Rio Grande de Buba Guinea-Bissau A4i, A4iii
Inner Ariake bay Japan A1, A4i
Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area Hong Kong A1, A4i, A4iii
Inner Tokyo bay Japan A4i, A4iii
Jizan Bay Saudi Arabia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Jobos Bay Puerto Rico (to USA) A1, A2, A4iii, B4i
Khor Dubai United Arab Emirates A4i, A4iii, B1i  
Kneiss Tunisia A3, A4i, A4iii
Lagune de Khnifiss Morocco A1, A4i, A4iii  
Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest Canada A4i, A4iii  
Laizhou Wan China (mainland) A4i, A4iii
Littoral French Guiana A2, A4i, A4iii    
Lower Yuribey Russia (Central Asian) A3, A4i, A4iii
Mangyeong estuary South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Marais de Gros-Cacouna Canada A4i, A4iii
Marais de Pointe-au-Père Canada A4i, A4iii
Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Masirah island Oman A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3
Medway Estuary and Marshes United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Merja Zerga Morocco A1, A4i, A4iii
Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Mid-Essex Coast United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Morecambe Bay United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Nakdong-gang estuary South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Namyang Bay South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Nicoya Gulf mangroves and coastal areas Costa Rica A1, A4i, A4iii
North, Middle and East Caicos Ramsar Site Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) A1, A2, A4i, A4iii, B4i  
Oosterschelde Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Plaine Kaw et Pointe Béhague French Guiana A2, A4i, A4iii  
Portsmouth Harbour United Kingdom C7
Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon) Portugal A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Ribble and Alt Estuaries United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary Guinea-Bissau A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo Guinea-Bissau A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Rottumeroog Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6    
Rottumerplaat Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4, C6    
Schiermonnikoog Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Sebkhet Dreïaa Tunisia A4i
Seskar island Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i  
Sierra Leone River Estuary Sierra Leone A4i, A4iii
Southern Bight, Minas Basin Canada A4i, A4iii
Stour and Orwell Estuaries United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4
Suroeste Puerto Rico (to USA) A1, A2, A4i, A4iii, B4i
Syvash Bay Ukraine A1, A3, A4i, A4iii, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3
Tarut Bay Saudi Arabia A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3    
Tejo estuary Portugal A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Terschelling: De Boschplaat Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Teshekpuk Lake and East Dease Inlet USA A4i  
The Swale United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C3, C4, C6
The Wash United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Tubli Bay Bahrain A4i, B1i  
Upper and Middle Yuribey Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Upper Bay of Panamá Panama A4i, A4iii
Vadehavet (Wadden Sea) Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Wadden Sea Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4  
Walvis Bay Namibia A1, A4i, A4iii
West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands South Africa A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Westerschelde and Saeftinghe Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Wexford Harbour and Slobs Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4
Yawri Bay Sierra Leone A4i, A4iii
Yubu-do island South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests Chile No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
East Melanesian Islands Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Japan Japan No
Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No
Philippines Philippines No
Polynesia-Micronesia Fiji, Micronesia, Polynesia, Samoa, Tonga, United States No
Southwest Australia Australia No
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No
Wallacea East Timor, Indonesia No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Alderia modesta (modest alderia)[8]
Anisogammarus confervicolus[9]
Arenicola marina (arénicole)[8]
Capitella capitata (Threadworm)[9]
Cerastoderma edule (Common cockle)[8]
Cerithideopsis californica (California hornsnail)[9]
Clevelandia ios (Arrow goby)[9]
Corophium volutator (mud shrimp)[8]
Hediste diversicolor (veelkleurige zeeduizendpoot)[8]
Hemigrapsus oregonensis (yellow shore crab)[9]
Hypereteone lighti[9]
Limecola balthica (Baltic macoma)[8]
Macoma nasuta (bent-nose macoma)[9]
Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel)[9]
Peringia ulvae (Laver spire shell)[8]
Uca uruguayensis[10]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Anas acuta (Northern Pintail)1
Anas crecca carolinensis (American green-winged teal)1
Aphanius fasciatus (South European Toothcarp)1
Arenaria interpres (Ruddy Turnstone)1
Bucephala albeola (Bufflehead)3
Calidris alba (Sanderling)1
Calidris alpina (Dunlin)1
Calidris mauri (Western Sandpiper)4
Calidris minutilla (Least Sandpiper)2
Calliactis parasitica (Hermit anemone)1
Charadrius semipalmatus (Semipalmated Plover)3
Egretta thula (Snowy Egret)1
Gillichthys mirabilis (Longjaw mudsucker)2
Larus canus (Mew Gull)2
Larus occidentalis (Western Gull)2
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)3
Limnodromus griseus (Short-billed Dowitcher)5
Limosa fedoa (Marbled Godwit)4
Lipophrys pholis (Shanny)1
Melanitta perspicillata (Surf Scoter)1
Neogobius melanostomus (Round goby)1
Numenius americanus (Long-billed Curlew)2
Numenius phaeopus (Whimbrel)1
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)2
Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (Spotted sand bass)1
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)1
Pluvialis dominica (American Golden-Plover)1
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)1
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)1
Triakis semifasciata (Leopard shark)1
Tringa melanoleuca (Greater Yellowlegs)1
Tringa semipalmata (Willet)6

Predators

Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)[8]

Providers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Cryptocotyle jejuna[8]
Cryptocotyle lingua[8]
Deropristis inflata[8]
Himasthla continua[8]
Himasthla elongata[8]
Levinseniella brachysoma[8]
Maritrema subdolum[8]
Monorchis parvus[8]
Mytilicola intestinalis[8]
Paramonostomum chabaudi[8]
Podocotyle atomon[8]
Profilicollis botulus[8]
Psilostomum brevicolle[8]
Renicola roscovita[8]
Sacculina carcini[8]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthoparyphium spinulosum <Unverified Name>[11]
Acanthoparyphium squatarolae <Unverified Name>[11]
Actornithophilus ochraceus[12]
Amoebotaenia brevis <Unverified Name>[11]
Ancyracanthopsis winegardi <Unverified Name>[11]
Anomotaenia ericetorum <Unverified Name>[11]
Aploparaksis diagonalis[11]
Baruscapillaria carbonis <Unverified Name>[11]
Capillaria limicolae <Unverified Name>[11]
Catatropis johnstoni[8]
Chevreuxia americana <Unverified Name>[11]
Cryptocotyle concava[11]
Desmidocercella numidica <Unverified Name>[11]
Echinoparyphium recurvatum[11]
Eucoleus obtusiuscula <Unverified Name>[11]
Galactosomum humbargari[8]
Gymnophallus choledochus[8]
Gymnophallus somateriae[8]
Gynaecotyla squatarolae <Unverified Name>[11]
Himasthla continua[8]
Himasthla elongata[8]
Himasthla rhigedana[8]
Hymenolepis clandestina <Unverified Name>[11]
Lacunovermis macomae[8]
Levinseniella brachysoma[11]
Liga brevis <Unverified Name>[11]
Maritrema oocysta[8]
Maritrema subdolum[8]
Megalophallus reamesi <Unverified Name>[11]
Mesostephanus appendiculatus[8]
Microphallus papillorobustus[11]
Microphallus pirum[8]
Microphallus pygmaeus[8]
Paramaritremopsis solielangi <Unverified Name>[11]
Parorchis acanthus[8]
Parvatrema affinis <Unverified Name>[11]
Parvatrema minutum[8]
Phocitremoides ovale[8]
Porrocaecum semiteres <Unverified Name>[11]
Proterogynotaenia texanum <Unverified Name>[11]
Proterogynotaenia variabilis[11]
Psilochasmus oxyurus[8]
Psilostomum brevicolle[8]
Pygidiopsoides spindalis[8]
Renicola roscovita[8]
Schistocephalus solidus[11]
Sciadiocara bihamata <Unverified Name>[11]
Sciadiocara umbellifera <Unverified Name>[11]
Skrjabinocerca prima <Unverified Name>[11]
Skrjabinoclava bartlettae <Unverified Name>[11]
Skrjabinoclava tupacincai <Unverified Name>[11]
Skrjabinoclava wilsoniae <Unverified Name>[11]
Spelophallus primas <Unverified Name>[11]
Spelotrema longicolle <Unverified Name>[11]
Stictodora hancocki[8]
Viktorocara capillaris <Unverified Name>[11]
Viktorocara limosae <Unverified Name>[11]
Wardium squatarola <Unverified Name>[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aquarium of the Pacific, Long Beach
Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park

Range Map

Cape Peninsula National Park; North America; Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
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