Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Scolopacidae > Numenius > Numenius americanus
 

Numenius americanus (Long-billed Curlew)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus) is a large North American shorebird of the family Scolopacidae. This species was also called "sicklebird" and the "candlestick bird". The species is native to central and western North America. In the winter, the species migrates southwards, as well as towards the coastline.
View Wikipedia Record: Numenius americanus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
14
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
34
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 11.5921
EDGE Score: 2.53307

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  32 grams
Birth Weight [2]  73 grams
Clutch Size [4]  4
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Incubation [3]  29 days
Migration [5]  Intracontinental
Wing Span [3]  11 inches (.282 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Mexican matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Edwards Plateau savanna United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Meseta Central matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Texas blackland prairies United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Agate Fossil Beds National Monument V 4731 Nebraska, United States
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Amistad National Recreation Area   Texas, United States
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Cabrillo National Monument V 149 California, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Carrizo Plain Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7550 California, United States  
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary   California, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Corcovado National Park 115845 Costa Rica  
Cosumnes River Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 2138 California, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Creighton Ranch Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3275 California, United States  
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Curecanti National Recreation Area V 31032 Colorado, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge Ia   Idaho, United States
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
Elkhorn Slough Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 964 California, United States  
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Gray Lodge State Wildlife Area State Wildlife Management Area IV 8471 California, United States
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Jepson Prairie Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 1553 California, United States
Jornada Biosphere Reserve Ib 30913 New Mexico, United States
Joshua Tree National Park II 305076 California, United States
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Meredith National Recreation Area V   Texas, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lanphere-Christensen Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 471 California, United States  
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
Little St. Simons Island   Georgia, United States
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Nipomo Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3725 California, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Paine Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 2965 California, United States    
Petrified Forest National Park II 44522 Arizona, United States
Philip L. Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center 6101 California, United States
Pipe Spring National Monument V 41 Arizona, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Shortgrass Steppe LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Colorado, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Vina Plains Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 2056 California, United States
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Imperial Valley USA A1, A4i
Nicoya Gulf mangroves and coastal areas Costa Rica A1, A4i, A4iii
Tárcoles, Carara and La Cangreja Costa Rica A1, A2

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Prey / Diet

Clevelandia ios (Arrow goby)[6]
Cryptomya californica (california softshell clam)[7]
Gemma gemma (amethyst gemclam)[7]
Hemigrapsus oregonensis (yellow shore crab)[6]
Pachygrapsus crassipes (striped shore crab)[6]
Uca crenulata (Mexican fiddler)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Calidris canutus (Red Knot)1
Clinocottus analis (Woolly sculpin)1
Egretta thula (Snowy Egret)3
Gillichthys mirabilis (Longjaw mudsucker)3
Larus canus (Mew Gull)2
Larus occidentalis (Western Gull)2
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)2
Limnodromus griseus (Short-billed Dowitcher)2
Limosa fedoa (Marbled Godwit)2
Numenius phaeopus (Whimbrel)2
Nycticorax nycticorax (Black-crowned Night-Heron)2
Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii (Cutthroat trout)1
Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (Spotted sand bass)2
Pluvialis squatarola (Grey Plover)2
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)2
Triakis semifasciata (Leopard shark)1
Tringa melanoleuca (Greater Yellowlegs)1
Tringa semipalmata (Willet)5

Predators

Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)[8]
Buteo swainsoni (Swainson's Hawk)[8]
Canis latrans (Coyote)[8]
Taxidea taxus (American Badger)[8]
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)[8]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ancyracanthopsis winegardi <Unverified Name>[9]
Brachylaima fuscatus[9]
Cyclocoelum obscurum[9]
Dictymetra numenii[9]
Dictymetra nymphaea[9]
Dictymetra paranumenii[9]
Dictymetra radiaspinosa[9]
Mediorhynchus robustus[9]
Ophryocotyle insignis[9]
Pectinospirura argentata <Unverified Name>[9]
Physocephalus sexalatus[9]
Schistorophus skrjabini <Unverified Name>[9]
Sciadiocara cucullatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Sciadiocara umbellifera <Unverified Name>[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Monterey Bay Aquarium
Tracy Aviary

Range Map

North America;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 2011-09-22, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Dunning, JB, Jr. 1984. Body weights of 686 species of North American birds. Western Bird Banding Association Monograph Number 1. Eldon, Cave Creek, Arizona, USA 2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 3PECIES ASSESSMENT FOR LONG-BILLED CURLEW (NUMENIUS AMERICANUS) IN WYOMING, DARBY N. DARK-SMILEY AND DOUGLAS A. KEINATH, United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, January 2004 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 6Lafferty, K. D., R. F. Hechinger, J. C. Shaw, K. L. Whitney and A. M. Kuris (in press) Food webs and parasites in a salt marsh ecosystem. In Disease ecology: community structure and pathogen dynamics (eds S. Collinge and C. Ray). Oxford University Press, Oxford. 7FEEDING BEHAVIOR AND DIET OF THE LONG-BILLED CURLEW AND WILLET, LYNNE E. STENZEL, HARRIET R. HUBER, AND GARY W. PAGE, THE WILSON BULLETIN - Vol. 88, No. 2, June 1976 8SPECIES ASSESSMENT FOR LONG-BILLED CURLEW (NUMENIUS AMERICANUS) IN WYOMING, DARBY N. DARK-SMILEY and DOUGLAS A. KEINATH, Wyoming Natural Diversity Database 2000 9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Important Bird Areas provided by BirdLife International (2010) Important Bird Areas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2010
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011