Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Scolopacidae > Numenius > Numenius arquata
 

Numenius arquata (Eurasian Curlew)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) is a wader in the large family Scolopacidae. It is one of the most widespread of the curlews, breeding across temperate Europe and Asia. In Europe, this species is often referred to just as the "curlew", and in Scotland known as the "whaup" in Scots. The familiar call is a loud curloo-oo.
View Wikipedia Record: Numenius arquata

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
9
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
39
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 7.82033
EDGE Score: 2.87021

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  1.77 lbs (805 g)
Birth Weight [2]  76 grams
Female Weight [1]  1.92 lbs (869 g)
Male Weight [1]  1.64 lbs (742 g)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  17.1 %
Female Maturity [4]  2 years
Male Maturity [4]  2 years
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  30 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  40 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  30 %
Forages - Ground [3]  80 %
Forages - Water Surface [3]  20 %
Clutch Size [6]  4
Clutches / Year [5]  1
Incubation [5]  28 days
Maximum Longevity [4]  32 years
Speed [7]  36.46 MPH (16.3 m/s)
Wing Span [7]  38 inches (.97 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Andaman Islands rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic coastal desert Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central African mangroves Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Mangroves    
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East African mangroves Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia Afrotropic Mangroves
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Gobi desert steppe China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Java-Bali rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane moorlands Ethiopia Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Faroe Islands boreal grasslands Denmark Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Gobi Lakes Valley desert steppe Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Granitic Seychelles forests Seychelles Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Greater Negros-Panay rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean mangroves Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire Afrotropic Mangroves
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Halmahera rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Helanshan montane conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hobyo grasslands and shrublands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna Mali Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kaokoveld desert Namibia, Angola Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains alpine meadow Mongolia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains conifer forests Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Knysna-Amatole montane forests South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lesser Sundas deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests  
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Luzon rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Madagascar dry deciduous forests Madagascar Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Madagascar mangroves Madagascar Afrotropic Mangroves
Madagascar spiny thickets Madagascar Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Madagascar succulent woodlands Madagascar Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mascarene forests France, Mauritius Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mentawai Islands rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Mindanao-Eastern Visayas rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mindoro rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Namib desert Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests Japan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Nicobar Islands rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Palawan rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Red River freshwater swamp forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sao Tome, Principe and Annobon moist lowland forests São Tomé and Príncipe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Socotra Island xeric shrublands Yemen Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Africa mangroves South Africa, Mozambique Afrotropic Mangroves
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Vietnam lowland dry forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sulu Archipelago rain forests Philippines Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumba deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sunda Shelf mangroves Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Sundaland heath forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans mangroves Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Timor and Wetar deciduous forests East Timor, Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Western Java rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yarlung Tsangpo arid steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Altaisky Zapovednik Ia 2177587 Altai, Russia
Amudarya Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 152861 Lebap, Turkmenistan  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
BRENNE 144090 France  
Baie du Mont Saint Michel 117800 France  
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Bamingui-Bangoran Conservation Area National Park II 2783298 Central African Republic  
Banc d'Arguin National Park II 2949017 Mauritania
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Bashkiria National Park 205592 Bashkortostan, Russia
Bashkirsky State Nature Reserve 274648 Bashkortostan, Russia
Bassigny 194044 France  
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berbak National Park II 423927 Sumatra, Indonesia
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
CABO DE GATA-NIJAR 122347 Spain  
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Camargue 546256 France  
Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve 123722 Viet Nam  
Cap Gris-Nez 138933 France    
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
Croajingolong National Park II 217067 Victoria, Australia
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve 1433211 Romania
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Dolina Biebrzy 299507 Poland  
Dolina Dolnego Bugu 183624 Poland  
Dolina Noteci 124867 Poland  
Dolina Srodkowej Warty 141108 Poland  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Gorges de la Loire 145350 France  
Haut Val d'Allier 145560 France  
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
IJsselmeer 279946 Netherlands    
Katavi National Park II 1054210 Tanzania
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kenozersky National Park 345115 Arkhangelsk, Russia
Khakassia State Nature Reserve 661168 Khakassia, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kuznetsk Alatau State Nature Reserve 1020298 Kemerovo, Russia
Laguna di Venezia 136417 Italy  
Lahemaa 183898 Estonia  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
MARAIS POITEVIN 168088 France  
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania
Marais Breton, baie de Bourgneuf, île de Noirmoutier et forêt de Monts 137949 France  
Marchesato e Fiume Neto 173480 Italy  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Meschera National Park 293457 Vladimir, Russia
Meshchersky National Park 254553 Ryazan, Russia
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Noordzeekustzone 305536 Netherlands    
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Ostoja Warminska 350930 Poland  
Ostoja nad Barycza 202692 Poland  
Ouessant-Molène 190983 France  
PERTUIS CHARENTAIS - ROCHEBONNE 2024431 France  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Pinezhsky State Nature Reserve 127314 Arkhangelsk, Russia
Puszcza Biala 207024 Poland  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Puszcza Sandomierska 319052 Poland  
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Ria de Aveiro 127029 Portugal  
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Saaristomeri 147873 Finland    
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Sebezhsky National Park 123605 Pskov, Russia
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Smolenskoe Poozerie National Park 361359 Smolensk, Russia
Socotra Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 6626477 Yemen  
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Sunderban National Park 261613 India  
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Ugra National Park 243703 Kaluga, Russia
Ujung Kulon National Park II 313466 Java, Indonesia    
Unteres Elbtal 131510 Germany  
Väinamere 670389 Estonia  
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Waddenzee 672193 Netherlands    
Way Kambas National Park II 306926 Sumatra, Indonesia
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    
Zatoka Pucka 154269 Poland    

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Ad-Doha Nature Reserve Kuwait B1i, B3
Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság Hungary A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Ameland: Duinen-Oerd Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Arquipélago dos Bijagós Guinea-Bissau A4i, A4iii
Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay United Kingdom A4iii, B2, C4, C6
Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Baie de Vilaine France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4
Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin France A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4
Balgzand Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Ballymacoda Ireland B1i, B2, C3
Banc d'Arguin National Park Mauritania A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Barr al Hikman Oman A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Blackwater estuary Ireland B1i, B2, C3
Burry Inlet United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4
Cap Gris-nez France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4  
Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares Spain B2, C7  
Cádiz bay Spain A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Chichester and Langstone Harbours United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary Spain A1, A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1ii, B2, C1, C2, C3  
Cork Harbour Ireland A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Dadynskiye lakes Russia (European) A1, A3, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Danube Delta Romania C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Dat Mui Vietnam A1, A4i
Dee Estuary United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Domaine d'Orx France A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Dongjin estuary South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Dublin Bay Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Duddon Estuary United Kingdom A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Dundalk Bay Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4
Dvuob'ye Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Engelsmanplaat Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4  
Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4  
Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Firth of Forth United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Frisian Wadden Sea coast Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta Bangladesh A1, A4i, A4iii
Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands Italy A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Geum-gang river and estuary South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Grado and Marano lagoon Italy A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Griend Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Groningen Wadden Sea coast Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Hortobágy and Tisza-to Hungary A1, A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1iii, B2
Humber Estuary United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Inner Clonakilty Bay Ireland B1i, B2, C3
Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon Spain A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf Italy B1i, B2, C2, C3, C6
Jizan Bay Saudi Arabia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Khawr Abdallah Iraq B1i, B2, B3
Khor al Beideh United Arab Emirates A4i, B1i, B3  
Khor Dubai United Arab Emirates A4i, A4iii, B1i  
Khor Jask Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Khouran Straits Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Kneiss Tunisia A3, A4i, A4iii
Lough Foyle Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4  
Lough Foyle and River Foyle United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Mangyeong estuary South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Masirah island Oman A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3
Matang coast Malaysia A1, A4i
Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria Austria C7
Medway Estuary and Marshes United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Mersey Estuary United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Mid-Essex Coast United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Midi: Al-Luhayyah Yemen A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Moray Basin, Firths and Bays United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Morecambe Bay United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Nakdong-gang estuary South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Namyang Bay South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
North Mainland Coast United Kingdom C7  
North-central Selangor coast Malaysia A1, A4i
Olango Island Philippines A1, A4i, A4iii
Oosterschelde Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Polisto-Lovatskaya mire system Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Poole Harbour United Kingdom A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Ribble and Alt Estuaries United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Rogatoe Lake Uzbekistan A1, A4i, A4iii
Rottumeroog Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6    
Rottumerplaat Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, C3, C4, C6    
Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Rud-i-Jagin and Rud-i-Gabrik deltas Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, B1i, B2, B3
Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas Iran, Islamic Republic of A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Sadong-Saribas coast Malaysia A1, A3, A4i  
Santoña marshes Spain B1i, B2, C2, C3  
Schiermonnikoog Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Severn Estuary United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Shannon and Fergus Estuaries Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4
Solent Marshes and Southampton Water United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Stour and Orwell Estuaries United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4
Strangford Lough and islands United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Sulaibikhat Bay Kuwait A4i, B1i, B3
Tacumshin lake Ireland B1i, B2, C7
Tarut Bay Saudi Arabia A4i, A4iii, B1i, B3    
Taw and Torridge Estuary United Kingdom C7
Terschelling: De Boschplaat Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6  
The Cull and Killag Ireland A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C3
The Swale United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C3, C4, C6
The Wash United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Upper Solway Flats and Marshes United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon Italy B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Venice lagoon Italy A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Vlieland Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Wadden Sea Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4  
Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Wenzhou Wan China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Westerschelde and Saeftinghe Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Wexford Harbour and Slobs Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4
Wigtown Bay United Kingdom A4i, B1i, B2, C3
Xuan Thuy Vietnam A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Yubu-do island South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Zaonezh'ye Russia (European) A4i, B1i, B2

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No
Philippines Philippines No
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Wallacea East Timor, Indonesia No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Arenicola marina (arénicole)[8]
Carcinus maenas (green crab)[9]
Cerastoderma edule (Common cockle)[8]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[8]
Hydrothassa marginella <Unverified Name>[10]
Limecola balthica (Baltic macoma)[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Actitis hypoleucos (Common Sandpiper)1
Anguilla anguilla (River eel)1
Calidris canutus (Red Knot)2
Calidris pusilla (Semipalmated Sandpiper)1
Carcinus maenas (green crab)1
Chen canagica (Emperor Goose)1
Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Common Black-headed Gull)3
Ciliata mustela (Rockling)1
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)2
Ctenolabrus rupestris (Rock cook)1
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)1
Gadus morhua (rock cod)2
Gallinago gallinago (Common Snipe)1
Gobius niger (Black goby)1
Haematopus ostralegus (Eurasian Oystercatcher)4
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)3
Larus canus (Mew Gull)2
Leucophaeus atricilla (Laughing Gull)1
Limosa lapponica (Bar-tailed Godwit)3
Limosa limosa (Black-tailed Godwit)2
Melanitta nigra (Black Scoter)2
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)2
Mullus barbatus (red mullet)1
Mullus surmuletus (Red mullet)2
Myoxocephalus scorpius (Short-spined sea scorpion)2
Neogobius melanostomus (Round goby)1
Octopus vulgaris (common octopus)1
Platalea leucorodia (Eurasian Spoonbill)1
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)4
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)4
Pomadasys incisus (Bastard grunt)1
Pomatoschistus microps (Common goby)2
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)1
Raja montagui (Homelyn ray)1
Rutilus rutilus (Roach)1
Scolopax rusticola (Eurasian Woodcock)1
Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)3
Tadorna tadorna (Common Shelduck)2
Tringa ochropus (Green Sandpiper)1
Trisopterus capelanus (Poor cod)1

Predators

Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)[11]

Providers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Cryptocotyle lingua[11]
Deropristis inflata[11]
Himasthla elongata[11]
Monorchis parvus[11]
Mytilicola intestinalis[11]
Paramonostomum chabaudi[11]
Podocotyle atomon[11]
Profilicollis botulus[11]
Sacculina carcini[11]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ancyracanthopsis petrovi <Unverified Name>[12]
Anomotaenia nymphaea <Unverified Name>[12]
Aploparaksis filum[12]
Arhythmorhynchus frassoni[12]
Bilharziella polonica[12]
Cotylurus cornutus <Unverified Name>[12]
Cryptocotyle jejuna[11]
Cryptocotyle lingua[11]
Cyclocoelum brasilianum <Unverified Name>[12]
Cyclocoelum obscurum[12]
Dilepis limosa <Unverified Name>[12]
Diplostomum kronschnepi <Unverified Name>[12]
Echinochasmus coaxatus <Unverified Name>[12]
Echinoparyphium mordwilkoi <Unverified Name>[12]
Echinoparyphium recurvatum[12]
Echinostoma miyagawai[12]
Echinostoma revolutum[12]
Echinostoma uralensis <Unverified Name>[12]
Fengcotyle hoeppliana <Unverified Name>[12]
Gymnophalloides macomae[11]
Gymnophallus charadrii[12]
Gymnophallus choledochus[11]
Gymnophallus somateriae[11]
Himasthla alincia[12]
Himasthla continua[11]
Himasthla elongata[11]
Himasthla leptosoma[12]
Himasthla militaris[12]
Himasthla numenii <Unverified Name>[12]
Himasthla rhigedana[12]
Hymenolepis brachyphallos <Unverified Name>[12]
Kowalewskiella cingulifera <Unverified Name>[12]
Leipoanema buckleyi <Unverified Name>[12]
Leucochloridium actitis <Unverified Name>[12]
Levinseniella brachysoma[11]
Levinseniella propinqua[12]
Maritrema subdolum[12]
Microphalloides diovarium <Unverified Name>[12]
Microphallus hoffmanni[12]
Microphallus pygmaeus[11]
Multivitellus coralius <Unverified Name>[12]
Neopygorchis exvitellina <Unverified Name>[12]
Ophthalmotrema numenii <Unverified Name>[12]
Pachytrema calculus[12]
Parorchis acanthus[12]
Parorchis gedoelsti <Unverified Name>[12]
Parvatrema minutum[11]
Philophthalmus numenii <Unverified Name>[12]
Pittacium pittacium[12]
Plagiorchis brauni <Unverified Name>[12]
Plagiorchis cirratus <Unverified Name>[12]
Plagiorchis laricola[12]
Plagiorchis multiglandularis <Unverified Name>[12]
Plagiorchis nanus[12]
Plagiorchis schuchovi <Unverified Name>[12]
Plagiorchis triangularis <Unverified Name>[12]
Platynotrema dogieli <Unverified Name>[12]
Porrocaecum semiteres <Unverified Name>[12]
Prosthogonimus anatinus <Unverified Name>[12]
Prosthogonimus cuneatus[12]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[12]
Psilostomum brevicolle[11]
Schistogonimus rarus <Unverified Name>[12]
Tanaisia fedtschenkoi[12]
Viktorocara charadrii <Unverified Name>[12]
Wardium recurvirostrae[12]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Colchester Zoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodz
Moscow Zoological Park
Novosibirsk Zoological Park
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Rotterdam Zoo
Tama Zoological Park
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternario
Zoo Dresden GmbH
Zoo Duisburg AG
Zoologischer Garten Frankfurt

Range Map

Bassegi Zapovednik; Croajingolong; North America; Oceania;

Audio

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Provided by Xeno-canto under a Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 2.5 License Author: Patrik Åberg

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Cramp, S.; Simmons, K.E.L.; Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa Vols 1-9. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
5British Trust for Ornithology
6Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
7Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
8Energy flow of a boreal intertidal ecosystem, the Sylt-Rømø Bight, Dan Baird, Harald Asmus, Ragnhild Asmus, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 279: 45–61, 2004
9del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
10Ecology of Commanster
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2