Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Scolopacidae > Limnodromus > Limnodromus griseus
 

Limnodromus griseus (Short-billed Dowitcher)

Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Short-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus) like its congener the Long-billed Dowitcher, is a medium-sized, stocky, long-billed shorebird in the family Scolopacidae. It is an inhabitant of North America, Middle America, and northern South America. It is strongly migratory; it completely vacates in breeding areas during the snow-bound months. This species favors a variety of habitats including tundra in the north to ponds and mudflats in the south.
View Wikipedia Record: Limnodromus griseus

Infraspecies

Limnodromus griseus caurinus (Short-billed dowitcher)
Limnodromus griseus griseus (Short-billed dowitcher)
Limnodromus griseus hendersoni (Short-billed Dowitcher) (Attributes)

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  105 grams
Birth Weight [1]  12 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Clutch Size [2]  4
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Incubation [1]  21 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  13 years
Migration [3]  Intercontinental

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves Brazil, Columbia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela Neotropic Mangroves  
Araya and Paria xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic Coast restingas Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bahamoan-Antillean mangroves Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Mangroves      
Bahia coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Belizean pine forests Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Caatinga Brazil Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Caribbean shrublands France, United Kingdom, Dominica, St. Lucia, Netherlands Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands      
Catatumbo moist forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cayos Miskitos-San Andrés and Providencia moist forests Colombia, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Central American Atlantic moist forests Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Andean puna Argentina, Bolivia, Peru Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Enriquillo wetlands Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Galápagos Islands scrubland mosaic Ecuador Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Guianan Freshwater swamp forests Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan moist forests Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hispaniolan dry forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan moist forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan pine forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican dry forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican moist forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
La Costa xeric shrublands Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lara-Falcón dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Leeward Islands moist forests St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua & Barbuda Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lesser Antillean dry forests Grenada, St. Lucia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maracaibo dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Marajó varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Miskito pine forests Honduras, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northeastern Brazil restingas Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Orinoco Delta swamp forests Venezuela, Guyana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Panamanian dry forests Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Paraguana xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pernambuco coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Puerto Rican dry forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Puerto Rican moist forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sechura desert Peru Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Serra do Mar coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South American Pacific mangroves Colombia, Panama, Ecuador Neotropic Mangroves    
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Atlantic mangroves Brazil Neotropic Mangroves  
Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tocantins/Pindare moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Trinidad and Tobago moist forests Trinidad and Tobago Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Ecuador moist forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands  
Windward Islands moist forests Martinique, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Archipiélago Los Roques National Park 409203 Venezuela    
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Biscayne National Park II 11085 Florida, United States
Blackbeard Island National Wildlife Refuge IV 4842 Georgia, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve 864738 British Columbia, Canada  
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Cosumnes River Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 2138 California, United States
Creighton Ranch Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3275 California, United States  
Crosswinds Marsh Nature Preserve 1050 Michigan, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Effigy Mounds National Monument V 1296 Iowa, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Elkhorn Slough Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 964 California, United States  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Gray Lodge State Wildlife Area State Wildlife Management Area IV 8471 California, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge IV 21369 Wisconsin, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kejimkujik Seaside Adjunct National Park II 4970 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Mead National Recreation Area V 670229 Arizona, Nevada, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve State Sustainable Development Reserve VI 3260792 Amazonas, Brazil  
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Morrocoy National Park 63672 Venezuela  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Nipomo Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3725 California, United States
Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge IV 38256 Florida, United States
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Paine Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 2965 California, United States      
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de Mapimi Biosphere Reserve VI 849819 Chihuahua, Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Saba Marine Park National Marine Park II 5573 Netherlands Antilles  
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
San Juan Island National Historical Park III 1674 Washington, United States
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (incl. Tayrona NP) National Park II 1031303 Colombia  
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Virgin Islands Biosphere Reserve 15148 Virgin Islands, United States  
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Map   Climate   Land Use 
Amana French Guiana A2, A4i, A4iii  
Barrier Island and Lagoon System USA A1, A4i    
Bigi Pan Suriname A2, A4i, A4iii  
Delta del Cauto Cuba A1, A3, A4i, A4iii, B4i
Eastern Cape Sable Island Canada A4i, A4iii  
Grand Turk Salinas and Shores Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) A4i, B4i    
Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río Cuba A1, A4i, A4iii, B4i
Humedal Sur de Sancti Spiritus Cuba A1, A4i, A4iii
Jobos Bay Puerto Rico (to USA) A1, A2, A4iii, B4i
Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest Canada A4i, A4iii  
Littoral French Guiana A2, A4i, A4iii    
Marais de Gros-Cacouna Canada A4i, A4iii
Marais de Pointe-au-Père Canada A4i, A4iii
Nicoya Gulf mangroves and coastal areas Costa Rica A1, A4i, A4iii
North, Middle and East Caicos Ramsar Site Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) A1, A2, A4i, A4iii, B4i  
Northern Commewijne/ Marowijne Suriname A2, A4i, A4iii  
Northern Coronie Suriname A2, A4i, A4iii  
Northern Saramacca Suriname A2, A4i, A4iii  
Oak Hammock Marsh WMA Canada A4i, A4iii
Parita Bay Panama A4i, A4iii
Plaine Kaw et Pointe Béhague French Guiana A2, A4i, A4iii  
Punta Patiño Nature Reserve and Wetlands Panama A1, A4i
Reentrâncias Maranhenses / Paraenses Brazil A2, A4i, A4iii
Salton Sea USA A4i
Sierpe Wetlands and Osa Peninsula Costa Rica A1, A2, A3, A4i
Southern Bight, Minas Basin Canada A4i, A4iii
Upper Bay of Panamá Panama A4i, A4iii
West Coast Mudflats Trinidad and Tobago A4i, A4iii, B4i

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Acteocina inculta (rude barrel-bubble)[4]
Anisogammarus confervicolus[4]
Capitella capitata (Threadworm)[4]
Cerithidea californica (California hornsnail)[4]
Clevelandia ios (Arrow goby)[4]
Crassostrea virginica (American cupped oyster)[5]
Cyathura carinata (lijnpissebed)[5]
Gemma gemma (amethyst gemclam)[5]
Macoma nasuta (bent-nose macoma)[4]
Mercenaria mercenaria (northern quahog)[5]
Mytilus edulis (Blue mussel)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Anas acuta (Northern Pintail)1
Bucephala albeola (Bufflehead)3
Bucephala islandica (Barrow's Goldeneye)1
Calidris alba (Sanderling)1
Calidris alpina (Dunlin)1
Calidris canutus (Red Knot)2
Calidris maritima (Purple Sandpiper)1
Calidris mauri (Western Sandpiper)4
Calidris minutilla (Least Sandpiper)2
Caretta caretta (Loggerhead)2
Charadrius semipalmatus (Semipalmated Plover)2
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)1
Cymatogaster aggregata (Shiner)1
Gillichthys mirabilis (Longjaw mudsucker)1
Haematopus bachmani (Black Oystercatcher)1
Lepidochelys kempii (Atlantic Ridley, Kemp’s Ridley Seaturtle)2
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)2
Limosa fedoa (Marbled Godwit)3
Melanitta fusca deglandi (American white-winged scoter)1
Numenius americanus (Long-billed Curlew)2
Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii (Cutthroat trout)2
Pluvialis squatarola (Grey Plover)5
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (rough flounder)1
Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)1
Tautoga onitis (Tautog)1
Tautogolabrus adspersus (Sea perch)1
Tringa melanoleuca (Greater Yellowlegs)1
Tringa semipalmata (Willet)5

Predators

Circus cyaneus (Northern Harrier)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aploparaksis occidentalis <Unverified Name>[6]
Aploparaksis rissae[6]
Arhythmorhynchus petrochenkoi[6]
Cyclocoelum obscurum[6]
Himasthla limnodromi <Unverified Name>[6]
Hymenolepis capellae <Unverified Name>[6]
Hymenolepis deblocki <Unverified Name>[6]
Hymenolepis limnodromi <Unverified Name>[6]
Maritrema gratiosum[6]
Parorchis acanthus[6]
Shipleya inermis <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Biodome de Montreal
Monterey Bay Aquarium

Range Map

Link to Map
North America;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 22-Sep-2011, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 4Lafferty, K. D., R. F. Hechinger, J. C. Shaw, K. L. Whitney and A. M. Kuris (in press) Food webs and parasites in a salt marsh ecosystem. In Disease ecology: community structure and pathogen dynamics (eds S. Collinge and C. Ray). Oxford University Press, Oxford. 5Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Crosswinds Marsh, Wayne County, Michigan
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Important Bird Areas provided by BirdLife International (2010) Important Bird Areas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2010
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Range map provided by Ridgely, R. S., T. F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D. K. McNicol, D. W. Mehlman, B. E. Young, and J. R. Zook. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011