Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Scolopacidae > Eurynorhynchus > Eurynorhynchus pygmeus

Eurynorhynchus pygmeus (Spoon-billed Sandpiper; Spoonbill Sandpiper)

Wikipedia Abstract

The spoon-billed sandpiper (Calidris pygmaea) is a small wader which breeds in north-eastern Russia and winters in Southeast Asia.
View Wikipedia Record: Eurynorhynchus pygmeus

Endangered Species

Status: Critically Endangered
View IUCN Record: Eurynorhynchus pygmeus

EDGE Analysis

This little wading bird has an incredible and unique spatula-shaped bill. It is not closely related to the Spoonbills and unlike any other bird, emerges from the egg already possessing the spoon-shaped bill. The species has a vast range, breeding in Russia, migrating through14 different countries and wintering in China, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Unfortunately human activities affect the birds in all of these regions, the greatest threats being hunting and reclamation of intertidal mudflats for coastal development.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 19.7298
EDGE Score: 5.80416
View EDGE Record: Eurynorhynchus pygmeus


Adult Weight [1]  33 grams
Birth Weight [1]  8 grams
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Granivore
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  80 %
Diet - Seeds [2]  20 %
Forages - Ground [2]  50 %
Forages - Water Surface [2]  50 %
Clutch Size [3]  4
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Incubation [3]  21 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  16 years
Migration [4]  Intracontinental
Top 100 Endangered [5]  Yes
Wing Span [3]  14 inches (.35 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests Japan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Red River freshwater swamp forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Arao-higata National Wildlife Protection Area 1863 Kyushu, Japan      
Botchinsky State Nature Reserve 660710 Khabarovsk, Russia
Far East State Marine Reserve 158928 Primorsky Krai, Russia    
Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park II 39512 Thailand
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Kronotsky Biosphere Reserve 2822275 Kamchatka Krai , Russia
Kurilsky State Nature Reserve 161520 Sakhalin, Russia    
Lazovsky Zapovednik Ia 299030 Primorsky Krai, Russia
Poronaisky State Nature Reserve 140096 Sakhalin, Russia
Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Reserve 991950 Primorsky Krai, Russia
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Amur river mouth Russia (Asian) A1, A4i
Aniva bay Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii  
Ayeyarwaddy Delta Myanmar A1, A4i, A4iii
Ba Tri Vietnam A1, A4i
Chihben Wetlands Taiwan A1
Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Daedong Bay North Korea A1, A4i
Dipor Beel Bird Sanctuary India A1, A4iii
Dongjin estuary South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Dongting Hu wetlands China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta Bangladesh A1, A4i, A4iii
Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area Hong Kong A1, A4i, A4iii
Inner Gulf of Thailand Thailand A1, A4i, A4iii
Kangryong field North Korea A1
Kievka and Chernaya river basins Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Kunashir island Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4ii  
Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir) Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Lower Anadyr lowlands Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Lower Tumen river Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Mangyeong estuary South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Min Jiang Estuary China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Nakdong-gang estuary South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake) India A1, A4i, A4iii
Namyang Bay South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Nevskoye lake Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Nghia Hung Vietnam A1, A4i, A4iii
Nikolaya bay Russia (Asian) A1, A4iii
North-central Selangor coast Malaysia A1, A4i
North-East Conservation Area Singapore A1, A3, A4i
North-east Sakhalin lagoons Russia (Asian) A1, A4i
Patenga Beach Bangladesh A1, A4i
Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary India A1, A4i, A4iii
Schast'ya bay Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i  
Shantar islands Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve (National Park) India A1
Sunderbans (East, South, West Wildlife Sanctuaries) Bangladesh A1, A4iii
Thai Thuy Vietnam A1, A4i
Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island South Korea A1, A4i, A4iii
Tyk and Viakhtu bays Russia (Asian) A1, A4i
Ul'banskiy bay Russia (Asian) A1, A4iii
Vankarem lowlands and Kolyuchin bay Russia (Asian) A1, A2, A3, A4i  
Xuan Thuy Vietnam A1, A3, A4i, A4iii

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No

Range Map

North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
4Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
5Baillie, J.E.M. & Butcher, E. R. (2012) Priceless or Worthless? The world’s most threatened species. Zoological Society of London, United Kingdom.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Ramsar Sites Information Service
Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access