Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Stercorariidae > Stercorarius > Stercorarius parasiticus
 

Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The parasitic jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus), also known as the Arctic skua or parasitic skua, is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae.
View Wikipedia Record: Stercorarius parasiticus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
9
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
27
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 7.34166
EDGE Score: 2.12126

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  445 grams
Birth Weight [3]  29 grams
Female Weight [2]  1.05 lbs (478 g)
Male Weight [2]  413 grams
Weight Dimorphism [2]  15.7 %
Female Maturity [3]  3 years 3 months
Male Maturity [3]  3 years 3 months
Clutch Size [3]  2
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Incubation [3]  26 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  31 years
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Speed [4]  30.87 MPH (13.8 m/s)
Water Biome [1]  Pelagic, Coastal
Wing Span [4]  3.5 feet (1.06 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Atlantic coastal desert Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Baffin coastal tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Central African mangroves Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Mangroves    
Chatham Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Clipperton Island shrub and grasslands France Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean mangroves Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire Afrotropic Mangroves
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Humid Pampas Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka-Kurile taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kaokoveld desert Namibia, Angola Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Magellanic subpolar forests Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Namib desert Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian coastal tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Patagonian steppe Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Socotra Island xeric shrublands Yemen Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southern Africa mangroves South Africa, Mozambique Afrotropic Mangroves
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra South Africa, France, Australia Antarctic Tundra    
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Torngat Mountain tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Tristan Da Cunha-Gough Islands shrub and grasslands United Kingdom Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands    
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, LIMNOTHALASSA KATAFOURKO KAI KORAKONISIA 56861 Greece  
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Aulavik National Park II 3021211 Northwest Territories, Canada
Banc d'Arguin National Park II 2949017 Mauritania
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
CAP BEAR- CAP CERBERE 95012 France  
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Camargue 546256 France  
Cap Gris-Nez 138933 France    
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - ALYKI KITROUS 73260 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI - AXIOUPOLI 83216 Greece  
DELTA EVROU 31031 Greece  
DELTA NESTOU KAI LIMNOTHALASSES KERAMOTIS KAI NISOS THASOPOULA 36139 Greece  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Emine 164580 Bulgaria  
Estuaire de la Loire - Baie de Bourgneuf 198183 France  
Estuaire et marais de la Basse Seine 46555 France  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Gorges de la Sioule 64420 France  
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Karkonosze National Park II 45907 Poland
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kokkolan saaristo (SPA) 36322 Finland  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
LIMNES VISTONIS, ISMARIS - LIMNOTHALASSES PORTO LAGOS, ALYKI PTELEA, XIROLIMNI, KARATZA 45016 Greece  
LITTORAL AUGERON 52930 France    
LITTORAL SEINO-MARIN 367957 France    
Lacs de la forêt d'Orient 58255 France  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lewis Peatlands 69055 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Luodon saaristo 35731 Finland    
Malindi-Watamu Biosphere Reserve 48433 Kenya  
Marchesato e Fiume Neto 173480 Italy  
Maria Island National Park II 28488 Tasmania, Australia
Mor Braz 99524 France    
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Morrocoy National Park 63672 Venezuela  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
North-east Greenland National Park II 237590314 Greenland
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ouessant-Molène 190983 France  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Parque Nacional Henri Pittier National Park 218030 Venezuela  
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prespa National Park II 62043 Greece  
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Quttinirpaaq (Ellesmere Island) National Park Reserve II 9436606 Nunavut, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Reserve Nationale de Camargue Biosphere Reserve 32232 France  
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Sanday 27112 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Sankt Anna och Gryts skärgårdar 31837 Sweden    
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Secteur marin de l'île d'Yeu jusqu'au continent 606421 France  
Seksmiilarin saaristo 42581 Finland  
Ses Salines d'Eivissa i Formentera 40611 Spain  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Table Mountain (Cape Peninsula) National Park II 70141 Western Cape, South Africa
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Tammisaaren ja Hangon saariston ja Pohjanpitäjänlahden merensuojelualue 130052 Finland  
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
West Coast National Park II 59916 Western Cape, South Africa
Wilson's Promontory National Park II 119279 Victoria, Australia
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Úthérad Iceland A4i, B1i, B1ii, B2
Blackpark and Gutcher, Yell United Kingdom C7  
Brunasandur Iceland B1ii
Crussa Field and the Heogs United Kingdom C7  
Hill of Colvadale and Sobul United Kingdom C7  
Lower Yuribey Russia (Central Asian) A3, A4i, A4iii
Moorland Areas, Central Shetland United Kingdom C7
Outer Stockholm archipelago Sweden A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Upper and Middle Yuribey Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Valley of the Yorkutayakha river Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4iii

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes americanus (inshore sand lance)[5]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[5]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[5]
Aythya marila (Greater Scaup)[5]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[5]
Branta bernicla (Brent Goose)[5]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[5]
Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur)[5]
Charadrius semipalmatus (Semipalmated Plover)[5]
Chen canagica (Emperor Goose)[5]
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)[5]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[5]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[5]
Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)[5]
Dicrostonyx torquatus (Arctic lemming)[6]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[5]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[5]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[5]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[5]
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)[5]
Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)[5]
Lemmus sibiricus (brown lemming)[6]
Macruronus magellanicus (Patagonian whiphake)[5]
Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake)[5]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[7]
Micromesistius australis (Southern poutassou)[5]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[5]
Pleurogrammus azonus (Okhotsk atka mackerel)[5]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[5]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[5]
Pseudophycis bachus (Southern rockcod)[5]
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)[5]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[5]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[5]
Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)[5]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[5]
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[5]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[5]
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alca torda (Razorbill)1
Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)1
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)1
Artediellus atlanticus (Atlantic hookear)1
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)1
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)1
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)1
Balaenoptera borealis (Sei Whale)1
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)1
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)1
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)1
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)1
Bubo scandiacus (Snowy Owl)2
Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)2
Careproctus reinhardti (Longfin seasnail)1
Cepphus grylle (Black Guillemot)1
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)1
Delphinapterus leucas (Beluga)1
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)1
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)1
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)1
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)1
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)1
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)1
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)1
Gadus morhua (rock cod)1
Gadus ogac (White sea nonmigratory cod)1
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)1
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)1
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)1
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)1
Histriophoca fasciata (Ribbon Seal)1
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (White-beaked Dolphin)1
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)1
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)1
Larus canus (Mew Gull)1
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)1
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)1
Liparis gibbus (Dusky snailfish)1
Lycodes reticulatus (Arctic eelpout)1
Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)1
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)1
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)1
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)1
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)1
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)1
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)1
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)1
Phoca largha (Spotted Seal)1
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)1
Pollachius virens (Sillock)1
Pusa hispida (Ringed Seal)1
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)1
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)1
Sebastes mentella (Redfish)1
Stercorarius longicaudus (Long-tailed Jaeger)2
Stercorarius pomarinus (Pomarine Skua)2
Triglops murrayi (Moustache sculpin)1
Uria aalge (Common Murre)1
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)1
Vulpes lagopus (Arctic Fox)2
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)1

Predators

Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Codonocephalus urniger <Unverified Name>[8]
Cryptocotyle lingua[8]
Diplostomum volvens[8]
Ichthyocotylurus erraticus[8]
Ichthyocotylurus platycephalus[8]
Linstowiella viviparae <Unverified Name>[8]
Notocotylus attenuatus[8]
Paracoenogonimus ovatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Plagiorchis laricola[8]
Tylodelphys excavata <Unverified Name>[8]

Range Map

Cape Peninsula National Park; North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2Belopol'skii L.O. 1957. Ecology of sea colony birds of the Barents Sea. Izdat. Akad. Nauk SSSR. Moscow-Leningrad. 3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 4Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6Predator–prey relationships: arctic foxes and lemmings, Anders Angerbjorn, Magnus Tannerfeldt and Sam Erlinge, Journal of Animal Ecology, Volume 68, Issue 1, Pages 34-49 7The role of capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the foodweb of the Barents Sea, A. V. Dolgov, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 1034–1045. 2002 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access